ˈAll through the ˏmeadows,| the ˋhorses and ˎcattle;|
All of the ↗sights of the ↗hill and the ˏplain|
ˈFly as ↑thick as ˈdriving ˎrain;|
And ˈever a→gain,| in the ˌwink of an ˏeye,|
ˈPainted ˎstations| ˈwhistle ˎby.||
Here’s a child, who clambers and scrambles,
All by himself and gathering brambles;
Here’s a tramp who stands and gazes;
And there’s a green for stringing the daisies!
Here’s a cart run away in the road,
Lumping along with man and load;
And here’s a mill and there’s a river;
Each a glimpse and gone forever.
8. Listen to the following dialogues presented in the informational phonostyle, choose 2 of them, lay stress-tone marks and learn them by heart.
Booking Airline Tickets (p.28)
-I want to fly to Geneva on or about the 1st .
-I’ll just see what there is.
-I want to go economy, and I prefer the morning.
-Lufthansa flight LH203 leaves at 09.20.
-What time do I have to be there?
-The coach leaves for the airport at 08.15.
-I’d like to book a flight to Munich for Monday the tenth.
-I’ll have a look in the timetable for you.
-I’ll need an economy class open return.
-KLM have got a DC-9 leaving at 09.25.
-What else ought I to know?
-The latest time of reporting is 08.35 at the airport.
-What flights are there from London to Vienna tomorrow?
-If you’d like to take a seat, I’ll find out for you.
-I’d like to travel first-class, please.
-BA flight BE 502 takes off from Heathrow at 09.25 and flies direct.
-What time have I got to get there?
-You’ll have to be at West London Air Terminal by 08.10 at the latest.
-Are there any planes to Zurich on a Sunday?
-If you’ll excuse me for a second. I’ll check.
-By the way, I don’t want a night flight.
-There is a Swiss Air Trident out of London at 09.20.
-When am I supposed to check in?
-If you are going to the airport you must be there before 08.35.
9. Listen to the presentations a fairy-tale and a story. Make up your own fairy-tale or story with the idea of traveling (up to 250 words) and present it in front of your group using all the peculiarities of the artistic phonostyle.
Unit 2. London.
1. Listen to part of a lecture in a philosophy class. What phonostyle is it in? What prosodic peculiarities has it? Lay stress-tone marks on the second part of the text and learn the whole text by heart.
Ok, another ancient Greek philosopher we need to discuss is Aristotle, Aristotle’s ethical theory. What Aristotle’s ethical theory is all about is this: he’s trying to show you how to be happy, what true happiness is. Now, why is he interested in human happiness? It’s not just because it’s something that all people want or aim for, it’s more than that. But to get there we need to first make a very important distinction. Let me introduce a couple of technical terms: extrinsic value and intrinsic value. To understand Aristotle’s interest in happiness you need to understand this distinction. Some things we aim for and value not for themselves but for what they bring about in addition to themselves. If I value something as a means to something else then it has what we will call extrinsic value. Other things we desire and hold to be valuable for themselves alone. If we value something not as a means to something else but for its own sake, let us say that it has intrinsic value.
Exercise. There may be people who value exercise for itself, but I don’t. I value exercise because if I exercise I tend to stay healthier than I would if I didn’t. So, I desire to engage in exercise, and I value exercise extrinsically, not for its own sake, but as a means to something beyond it: it brings me good health.
Health. Why do I value good health? Well, here it gets a little more complicated for me. Erm, health is important for me because I can’t do other things I want to do: play music, teach philosophy, if I’m ill. So health is important to me, has value to me as a means to a productive life. But health is also important to me because I just kind of like to be healthy. It feels good. It’s pleasant to be healthy, unpleasant not to be. So to some degree I value health both for itself and as a means to something else: productivity. It’s got extrinsic and intrinsic value for me.
2. Listen to a conversation between a student and a professor. What phonostyle is it in? Lay stress-tone marks on the dialogue and learn it by heart.
Excuse me, professor Thompson. I know your office hours are tomorrow, but I was wondering if you had a few minutes free now to discuss something.
Sure, John. What did you want to talk about?
Well, I have some quick questions about how to write up the research project I did this semester about climate variations.
Oh, yes. You were looking at variations in climate in the grand city area, right? How far along have we gotten?
I’ve got all my data, so I’m starting to summarize it now, preparing graphs and stuff. But I’m just… I’m looking at it and I’m afraid that it’s not enough. But I’m not sure what else to put in the report.
I hear the same thing from every student. You know, you have to remember now that you’re the expert on what you’ve done. So think about what you’d need to include if you were good to explain your research project to someone with general or casual knowledge about the subject, like… Like your parents. That’s usually my rule of thumb: would my parents understand this?
Ok, I get it.
I hope you can recognize by my saying that how much you do know about the subject.
Right, I understand. I was wondering if I should also include the notes from the research journal you suggested I keep.
Yes, definitely. You should use them to indicate what your evolution in thought was through time. So, just set up, you know, what was the purpose of what you were doing to try to understand the climate variability of this area and what you did, and what your approach was.
Ok, so, for example, I studied meteorological records. I looked at climate charts, I used different methods for analyzing the data, like certain statistical tests and then I discussed the results. Is that what you mean?
Yes, that’s right. You should include all of that. The statistical tests are especially important. And also be sure you’ll include a good reference section where all your published and unpublished data came from, ‘cause you have a lot of unpublished climate data.
3. Write part of a lecture on some subject (biology, psychology, astronomy, etc.) in up to 250 words. Learn it and present it in front of your group using all the peculiarities of the scientific phonostyle.
4. Listen to the following text about London. What phonstyle is it in? What makes it different from the academic style? Lay stress-tone marks on the second part of the text. Practice reading the text.
We’re now in Oxford Circus, half-way along Oxford Street, one of the busiest streets in the West End of London, and that street over there is Regent Street, famous all over the world for its splendid shops. Near one of the street-corners you can see entrance to the subway leading to the Underground Railway, or ‘Tube”, as we call it.
On both sides of the street there are shops, banks and restaurants. In the roadway there’s a constant stream of cars, taxis, buses and lorries. In the some parts of London there trolley- buses and trams as well. The noise is deafening, but one soon gets used to it. The pavements are crowded with people, and it’s dangerous to attempt to cross the road until the traffic is stopped either by a policeman on point duty or by the red traffic lights. In my case, before crossing the road, take care to look to your right, and when you reach the middle of the road, look to your left.
At night, the streets are lit by electricity, or in some districts, by gas. You can see the lamp- posts and standards on the pavements, and on the “islands” in the middle of the road. The main streets are flooded with light from the brilliant shop- windows and the illuminated sings and advertisements, so that after dark everything looks as bright as in broad daylight.
5. Listen to the following extracts of speeches. What are their prosodic peculiarities? What makes them different? Lay stress-tone marks on the second part of the first speech and learn all of it by heart.
World's Greatest Speeches
delivered by John F. Kennedy, on January 20, 1961
We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom, symbolizing an end as well as a beginning, signifying renewal as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three-quarters ago.
The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary belief for which our forebears fought is still at issue around the globe, the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God.
We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans, born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage, and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of these human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
This much we pledge -- and more.
To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of co-operative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do, for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.
EULOGY FOR ROBERT F. KENNEDY
delivered by Edward M. Kennedy, on June 8, 1968
Your Eminences, your excellencies, Mr. President. In behalf of Mrs. Kennedy, her children, the parents and sisters of Robert Kennedy, I want to express what we feel to those who mourn with us today in this cathedral and around the world.
We loved him as a brother and as a father and as a son. From his parents and from his older brothers and sisters, Joe and Kathleen and Jack, he received an inspiration which he passed on to all of us.
He gave us strength in time of trouble, wisdom in time of uncertainty and sharing in time of happiness. He will always be by our side.
Love is not an easy feeling to put into words. Nor is loyalty or trust or joy. But he was all of these. He loved life completely and he lived it intensely.
A few years back Robert Kennedy wrote some words about his own father which expresses the way we in his family felt about him. He said of what his father meant to him, and I quote:
"What it really all adds up to is love. Not love as it is described with such facility in popular magazines, but the kind of love that is affection and respect, order and encouragement and support.”
6. Listen to part of a speech. What are its prosodic peculiarities? Lay stress-tone marks on the second part of it and learn the extract by heart.
World's Greatest Speeches
ABDICATION OF THE MONARCHY
delivered by King Edward VIII, on December 11, 1936
At long last I am able to say a few words of my own. I have never wanted to withhold anything, but until now it has not been constitutionally possible for me to speak.
A few hours ago I discharged my last duty as King and Emperor, and now that I have been succeeded by my brother, the Duke of York, my first words must be to declare my allegiance to him. This I do with all my heart.
You all know the reasons which have impelled me to renounce the throne. But I want you to understand that in making up my mind I did not forget the country or the empire, which, as Prince of Wales and lately as King, I have for twenty-five years tried to serve.
But you must believe me when I tell you that I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as King as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love.
And I want you to know that the decision I have made has been mine and mine alone. This was a thing I had to judge entirely for myself. The other person most nearly concerned has tried up to the last to persuade me to take a different course.
I have made this, the most serious decision of my life, only upon the single thought of what would, in the end, be best for all.
This decision has been made less difficult to me by the sure knowledge that my brother, with his long training in the public affairs of this country and with his fine qualities, will be able to take my place forthwith without interruption or injury to the life and progress of the empire. And he has one matchless blessing, enjoyed by so many of you, and not bestowed on me -- a happy home with his wife and children.
During these hard days I have been comforted by her Majesty my mother and by my family. The ministers of the crown, and in particular, Mr. Baldwin, the Prime Minister, have always treated me with full consideration. There has never been any constitutional difference between me and them, and between me and Parliament. Bred in the constitutional tradition by my father, I should never have allowed any such issue to arise.
Ever since I was Prince of Wales, and later on when I occupied the throne, I have been treated with the greatest kindness by all classes of the people wherever I have lived or journeyed throughout the empire. For that I am very grateful.
I now quit altogether public affairs and I lay down my burden. It may be some time before I return to my native land, but I shall always follow the fortunes of the British race and empire with profound interest, and if at any time in the future I can be found of service to his Majesty in a private station, I shall not fail.
And now, we all have a new King. I wish him and you, his people, happiness and prosperity with all my heart. God bless you all! God save the King!
7. Make up a speech on one of the suggested topics and present it in front of your groupmates. Use kinesics and all the prosodic means typical of the publicistic phonostyle. You should sound persuasive in giving your arguments. If possible, use humour and idiomatic expressions.
Unit 3. Great Britain.
1. Listen to a dialogue. What phonostyle is it in? What are its prosodic peculiarities? What emotions and attitudes does it illustrate? What intonational means do the speakers use to express those emotions? Name the types of pauses used in this dialogue. Practice reading it in pairs.
Hi, Jenny. You all right?
Uh huh. You?
Er… yeah. Ok. Listen, Jenny. Are you doing anything tonight?
Gosh! Er… I don’t know. Why?
Well, I was wondering if you’d maybe… you know… if we could go out somewhere… if you… if you’d like to.
Well, er… What did you have in mind?
Oh, I don’t know. We could have a bite to eat, or we could take in a film. What do you fancy?
Well, that would be really nice. We could meet at the new bar on the High Street and take it from there. What do you think?
Ok, nice idea. What time?
2. Listen to part of an argumentative speech. What are its prosodic peculiarities? Lay stress-tone marks on the second part of it and learn to read it well. Make up an argumentative speech on one of the suggested topics and present it in front of your groupmates. Use kinesics and all the prosodic means typical of the publicistic phonostyle. You should sound persuasive in giving your arguments. If possible, use humour and idiomatic expressions.
World's Greatest Speeches
delivered by Richard M. Nixon, on September 23, 1952
My fellow Americans: I come before you tonight as a candidate for the Vice Presidency and as a man whose honesty and integrity have been questioned.
The usual political thing to do when charges are made against you is to either ignore them or to deny them without giving details.
I believe we've had enough of that in the United States, particularly with the present Administration in Washington, D.C. To me the office of the Vice Presidency of the United States is a great office, and I feel that the people have got to have confidence in the integrity of the men who run for that office and who might obtain it.
I have a theory, too, that the best and only answer to a smear or to an honest misunderstanding of the facts is to tell the truth. And that's why I'm here tonight. I want to tell you my side of the case.
I am sure that you have read the charge and you've heard that I, Senator Nixon, took $18,000 from a group of my supporters.
Now, was that wrong? And let me say that it was wrong -- I'm saying, incidentally, that it was wrong and not just illegal. Because it isn't a question of whether it was legal or illegal, that isn't enough. The question is, was it morally wrong?
I say that it was morally wrong if any of that $18,000 went to Senator Nixon for my personal use. I say that it was morally wrong if it was as secretly given and secretly handled. And I say that it was morally wrong if any of the contributors got special favours for the contributions that they made.
And now to answer those questions let me say this:
Not one cent of the $18,000 or any other money of that type ever went to me for my personal use. Every penny of it was used to pay for political expenses that I did not think should be charged to the taxpayers of the United States.
3. Listen to the following text. What phonstyle is it in? What makes it different from the publicistic style? Practice reading the text.
Great Britain is one of the most important commercial and trading centers in the world. Britain buys more goods than she sells; her imports exceed her exports. Not being a great agricultural country, England has to obtain her food supplies largely from abroad. She also has to import many raw materials, such as wool from Australia; timber from Sweden Finland; cotton, petroleum and tobacco from the United States. Wine and fruit are imported from France, Italy, Spain and the Dominions; dairy produce from Denmark, Holland, and so on.
One of the most extensive industries in England is the textile industry: immense quantities of cotton and woolen goods and artificial silk are produced and exported. English leather goods are also in great demand in other countries.
Great Britain is noted for its coalmines and for iron and steel goods, and its supplies many countries with certain classes of machinery. Another leading industry in this country is shipbuilding. The motor industry is also very flourishing.
4. Listen to a dialogue. What are its prosodic peculiarities? What emotions and attitudes does it illustrate? Lay stress-tone marks and learn it by heart.
Hi, Annie! I haven’t seen you for ages.
I know. Time flies, doesn’t it?
It’s true. Work as busy as ever, is it?
Yes, I’m slaving away as usual, but we’re a bit snowed under at the moment. We’re just about keeping our heads above water, but it isn’t easy. How about you?
Ok. Business was bad this time last year, and we really had to tighten our belts, but things have picked up since then. You’ve moved, haven’t you? Where are you living now?
We’ve bought an old house in a sleepy little village. You must come and visit us.
I’d love to. But we’re a bit tied up at the moment. Does it need much doing to it?
Everything. I hope we haven’t bitten off more than we can chew.
You’ll be fine. Anyway, I must dash. Lovely to see you again.
And you. Bye.
5. Make up your own dialogues in pairs, expressing the suggested kinds of attitudes and emotions: anger, irritation, disgust, bitterness; joy, excitement, delight, surprise; pity, regret, complaint, disappointment, frustration; shyness, self-consciousness, doubt, fear; sympathy, tenderness, affection; sorrow, mourning, grief etc.
5. Listen to a dialogue. What emotions and attitudes does it illustrate? What intonational means do the speakers use to express those emotions? Lay stress-tone marks and learn it by heart.
I hear Pete’s aunt left him everything.
Absolutely right, he inherited a fortune out of the blue.
He knew nothing about it then? How exciting!
You bet! When he heard about it, he was over the moon.
So what’s his problem now?
Well, he’s in deep water because he spent the whole lot in a month and then his girlfriend walked out on him.
You’re kidding? I thought he’d asked her to marry him?
He was going to ask her and then he got cold feet.
So what next?
Looks like he’ll have to pull his socks up and get a job.
And a new girlfriend. What about that girl he used to work with? Mm… Miranda, Marilyn – no, that’s not it, erm, her name’s on the tip of my tongue.
You mean Melissa. Whatever you do, don’t mention Melissa! She told him he was a waste of space, money or no money.
Oh dear, I’m glad you told me, otherwise I might have put my foot in it.
6. Make up your own dialogues in pairs, expressing the suggested kinds of attitudes and emotions: anger, irritation, disgust, bitterness; joy, excitement, delight, surprise; pity, regret, complaint, disappointment, frustration; shyness, self-consciousness, doubt, fear; sympathy, tenderness, affection sorrow, mourning, grief etc.
7. Listen to part of an inspirational speech. What are its prosodic peculiarities? Make up an inspirational speech on one of the suggested topics and present it in front of your groupmates.
World's Greatest Speeches
I HAVE A DREAM
delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on August 28, 1963
I say to you today, my friends, even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this Nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creeds -- "we hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal."
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a Nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skins, but by the conduct of their character.
I have a dream that one day in Alabama, with this vicious racist, its Governor, having his lips dripping the words of interposition and nullification -- one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and little white girls as brothers and sisters.
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted: every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plane, the crooked places will be made straight and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.
This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountains of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discord of our Nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together; to play together; to struggle together; to go to jail together; to stand up for freedom together knowing that we will be free one day …
5. Listen to a dialogue. What emotions and attitudes does it illustrate? What intonational means do the speakers use to express those emotions? Lay stress-tone marks, practice reading and learn it by heart.
Ugh! This hotel is horrible. I wish we hadn’t come here. I’ve never seen such a dirty hotel in my life! It wouldn’t be so bad if the bathroom was clean, but it’s filthy. I wouldn’t even wash my socks in it.
I know. But it was getting late, and we’d been driving all day, and I wanted to stop. If we hadn’t we might not have found a hotel and we’d still be driving. That would have been awful. At least this is better than nothing.
Well, I wish we’d set off earlier. Than we could have arrived in London today, and we’d have had a whole day to go round the galleries and museums. As it is, we won’t get there till tomorrow lunchtime, and we’ll only have a few hours.
I’d have liked to spend more lunchtime in London, too, but I had to go to work this morning. If I hadn’t, we’d be staying in a top London hotel now instead of this dump.
I’d love to have seen a show, but we can’t, so that’s all there is to it. Anyway, it’s time we thought about getting something to eat. If it weren’t so late, I’d suggest going into town, but if we did, we might not find anywhere. It’s quite late already.
I wish you wouldn’t moan about everything. I wouldn’t mind, but you are so indecisive. If it were left up to you, we’d never do anything or go anywhere.
OK, OK. I’m sorry. Let’s go.