1. Listen to the story about Martin Luther King, Jr. and complete the gaps in the text below.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was an 1) _____________________ clergyman from Atlanta, Georgia. When King was a child, it was against the law for black people and white people to mix in 2) ____________ places. Black people sat in different parts of 3) ___________________ and movie theaters. Black people sat at the back of the bus. Black and white children went to different schools. This kind of 4) ________________ is called segregation.
King loved to study. He was a good student and went to college when he was only fifteen years old. After he finished college, he began to 5) ________ segregation. He did not believe in violence. He believed in peace. He helped black people to 6) ______________ in peace. They went on marches in peace.
King also wanted equality for everybody. He wanted black and white men and women to have an 7) ______________ chance in the United States. This is called 8) _____________ ____________ movement. In 1963, King was the leader of the civil rights march on Washington, D.C. 9) ______________ of people listened to his famous speech. It begins, “I have a dream.”
In 1964, Martin Luther King, Jr. was the youngest person to get the Nobel Peace 10) _____________. This award is for people who try to make peace in the world. In 11) ______, an assassin killed King. He was only 12) _______________ years old. His birthday, January 15th, is a national holiday in the United States.
2. Vocabulary. Complete the sentences with words from the box.
clergyman violence went on marches public places protest equality assassin make peace
1. A person who kills a politician or leader is an _____________________.
2. A Christian preacher is a __________________.
3. ________________ is when everybody has the same rights.
4. When people walked from one place to another to show they were not happy, they ______________________.
5. To ________________ is to complain about a situation.
6. Places in towns and cities that are for all people are ______________________.
7. _________________ is when someone uses force to hurt or harm. It is the opposite of peace.
8. When you ____________________, you want to be friends and not fight anymore.
3. Write T for true and F for false. Correct the false statements.
1. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a leader in the struggle for civil rights and equality for black people.
2. When Martin was a child, there was no discrimination against black people in the USA.
3. Martin Luther King, Jr. did not have college education.
4. Martin Luther King, Jr. opposed violence. He used only peaceful methods to fight against unjust laws.
5. King did not believe in integration because he wanted the separation of the races.
6. In 1963 he led a famous march for freedom and civil rights on Atlanta, Georgia.
7. In 1964 he received the Nobel Literature Prize but he was assassinated in 1968.
4. Read the extract from King’s most famous speech called “I have a dream” which was delivered at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. What dream is Martin Luther King, Jr. talking about?
And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today!
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of “interposition” and “nullification” - one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today!
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; “and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.”
5. Translate the extract into Russian.
6. Work in groups of four. Each of you studies the information about a different one of these four holidays. In turn, summarize your information in your own words for the group.
Memorial Day, first called Decoration Day, began after the Civil War to honor the war dead of both the North and the South. Today, patriotic Americans remember the dead soldiers of all American wars, as well as their own family members who died. People decorate graves with flags and flowers. They watch military parades. Some watch the Indianapolis 500, one of America’s greatest auto races.
Labor Day celebrates the industrial spirit of the United States. It was the idea of Labor leader peter McGuire over one hundred years ago. Today, Labor Day represents the idea that the success of the individual and the nation comes from hard work. The holiday marks the end of summer and the beginning of the school year. Families and friends enjoy the three-day weekend with trips, sports, or relaxation.
Columbus Day honors the achievement of an Italian explorer, Christopher Columbus. Columbus knew the world was round, and he wanted to sail to the other side. Finally, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain agreed to support him. On October 12, 1492, this European sailor discovered a new world. Today, patriotic citizens remember Columbus, and school children learn that education and hard work are important for progress.
Veterans Day, once called Armistice Day, began after World War I. At 11 a.m. on November 11, 1919, Americans stopped for two minutes of silence to honor the courage of those who died in that war. Today on this day of remembrance, citizens honor veterans (former soldiers) still living, as well as the dead of all American wars. Patriotic Americans watch memorial parades and attend quiet celebrations.
7. Which holiday is each statement about? Write M for Memorial Day, L for Labor Day, C for Columbus Day, and V for Veterans Day. Sentence 9 has two answers.
1. On this day in 1492, an explorer from Italy, with the support of the King and Queen of Spain, discovered a new world.
2. This holiday was first called Armistice Day.
3. This holiday was first called Decoration Day.
4. It began after the Civil War in remembrance of the dead on both sides.
5. This holiday is in honor of the industrial spirit of the U.S. because it represents the idea that all work has dignity.
6. It began on November 11, 1919, in remembrance of the dead soldiers of World War I.
7. A labor leader had the idea for this celebration over 100 years ago.
8. On this patriotic holiday, school children learn the importance of education and hard work for progress.
9. Today on this day of remembrance, Americans honor veterans and the dead of past wars with parades and ceremonies.
10. Today, people decorate graves, watch military parades, and may see the Indianapolis 500 on this holiday.
11. It is the last-three day weekend of summer, before school begins, and people use it to relax.
12. This holiday is in honor of the achievement of a European explorer.
8. You are going to listen to the story about Labor Day in the USA.
a) Vocabulary. Write the correct word on the line.
1. In the 1800s, workers wanted to make their lives better. They wanted to _________________ their lives.
2. Workers were afraid to ask for more money because they would ______________ their jobs and not have any work.
3. Today’s workers get money when they are sick. They get vacations. These are examples of ______________________.
4. In the 1800s women and children worked in ______________________.They made clothes, shoes and many other things there.
5. On Labor Day, many people have a ______________ outdoors. They cook chicken, hamburgers, or hotdogs over fire.
6. Workers finally came together in groups called _______________________.
b) Comprehension. Listen to the story and answer the following questions.
1. What were working conditions like in the USA in the early 1800s?
2. Who was Peter Mcguire?
3. When did the first labor union appear?
4. What event took place in New York, on September 6 1882?
5. When did labor Day become a national holiday?
9. Besides federal holidays there are also a lot of unofficial holidays in the USA. Choose one of the holidays from the box below and prepare a short speech about it (you should say the name of the holiday, who celebrates the holiday, when and how celebrated.
Valentine’s DaySt. Patrick’s DayEasterMother’s Day
Cinco de MayoFather’s DayHalloweenHanukkah
10) Listen to Julia and Ashley talking about Easter and Halloween in the USA. How do they celebrate the holidays?
11) Talk about a Russian holiday (federal or unofficial). Keep to the following plan:
1.What is the history of the holiday? Why and when did it begin?
2. What is the meaning of the holiday?
3. Who celebrates the holiday? Where, when, and how do they usually celebrate it?