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Passives and process description


Present Simple passive:

Am / is / are + the 3rd form of the verb e.g. The most of the products are manufacturedin Asia.

Past simple passive:

Was / were + the 3rd form of the verb e.g. Our company was established in 2003.

Present Perfect passive:

Have/has BEEN + the 3rd form of the verb e.g. The meeting has been called off in the morning.

Present Continuous passive:

Am / is / are BEING + the 3rd form of the verb e.g. The photocopier is being used at the moment.


In general we don’t care about the doer of the action. If we want to mention who does this, we use the preposition by. e.g. This decision was made by the boss.



We often use the passive to describe processes when we are more interested in a process itself than the person who performs it.Read and translate these two texts.


Lipstick is a high-technology product and 20 different ingredients are needed to make a single stick. These ingredients are inspected as soon as they come into the factory. When they have passed inspection, they are listed and weighed. The oils and colors are added and mixed until they are perfectly blended.

Many quality control checks are performed, and samples of the finished product are sent to the laboratory for analysis. About 30 analyses are required before the final product is dispatched. The packaging is also tested to make sure it meets approved standards.



Methods for crisp manufacture vary but generally involve washing, peeling, slicing, frying, flavouring and packing.

First the potatoes are deliveredto the factory and then washed to remove dirt and pesticides. Any unsuitable potatoes are taken out by hand and thrown away.

The potatoes are peeled and sliced automatically. Next they are fried at a temperature of 160-190 *C for 1.5 to 3 minutes. When the crisps leave the fryer, they are shaken to remove excess oil and placed on a belt. Flavouring – salt and vinegar, cheese and onion, etc. – is added at this stage. Finally the crisps are cooled and fed through a hopper into cellophane packets.



Date: 2015-02-16; view: 778

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