1) The aims and requirements to planning. Kinds of plans.
2) A foreign language lesson. The requirements to a contemporary lesson.
3) Typology of foreign lessons.
4) Planning a lesson.
Planning presupposes a step-by-step assimilation of the language material with regard of major didactic, psychological and methodological regularities of the development of proper habits and skills.
The indispensable conditions of effective planning:
1) Planning is based on the school syllabus. The syllabus contains:
a) the practical, educational and cultural goals;
b) the selected factual material in form of topics;
c) the selected language material;
d) an idea of the principles of the methodological organization of teaching at different stages.
2) The textbook
3) School conditions.
4) The level of the language acquisition in a particular form.
5) Pupils attitude to the subject.
6) Knowledge of age group peculiarities of pupils.
7) Knowledge of the aims of teaching and the requirements to practical habits and skills for each form and for different types of school.
8) Knowledge of basic stages of assimilating language habits and skills.
9) Knowledge of major methodological requirements to a contemporary lesson.
The requirements to planning:
· Each plan should have a definite aim;
· Each plan should be real, fulfillable, feasible (you can neither exceed, nor lower the syllabus requirements);
· Each plan should be concrete.
Unit planning is done in the following way:
Name of a teacher: ..
Number of lesson: ..
Accompanying tasks: .
The merits of the unit plan:
· it enables the teacher to see the clear-act perspective and sequential line of work;
· it helps to follow the succession in forming habits and skills;
· it helps to correctly distribute language activities;
· it helps to provide a balance between class work and homework;
· it helps to solve the educational and cultural tasks
· it helps to define the role and place of each lesson in the system of lessons;
· it develops the teachers imaginative approach and initiative;
· it provides effective revision;
· it is flexible.
The requirements to a F.L. lesson:
1) Following the general didactic requirements: scientific character of a lesson, being based on the data of age-group psychology;
2) A F.L. lesson must promote the combined realization of the three-fold objectives: practical. Educational and cultural.
3) The complex character of a lesson;
4) Ex-ses should be adequate to the aim of a lesson;
5) Sequential character of ex-ses in accordance with the stages of habit formation (no diamond field);
6) Communicative orientation, e.g. language teaching which will prepare pupils to the real process of communication. It is manifested in the fact, that the F.L. lesson should be conducted in a foreign language.
Basic lesson classification (by prof. Passov - It is text-centered,
Stage 1 pre-text activities (aimed at removing all the difficulties):
Step 1 formation of lexical habits (presentation and drill);
Step 2 formation of grammatical habits;
Step 3 formation of lexical-grammatical habits.
Stage 2 text work:
Step 1 work at the text with all the difficulties relieved (junior stage);
Step 2 work at the text with a definite number of difficulties (senior stage).
Stage 3 - post-reading activities (aimed at the development of speech skills):
Step 1 formation of monological skills;
Step 2 formation of dialogical skills.
Components of a lesson:
Natural beginning of a lesson (warming up) explanation
Phonetic drill revision
Conversation drill testing/control
Presentation of new material
Home task (before the bell)
Model lesson plan.
Topic: Great Britain.
Practical aim: Formation of the skills of listening comprehension.
Accompanying tasks: Formation of pronunciation habits.
Cultural aim: to introduce pupils to English traditions.
Educational aim: To contribute to the formation of pupils respect to the culture of other people, using the text.
Equipment: a textbook, a filmstrip, a series of pictures.
1. An original beginning 5 min.
2. Phonetic drill 4 min.
3. Speech drill 10 min.
4. reading the text - 6 min.
5. Listening comprehension 11 min.
6. home task 4 min.
7. Evaluation - 1 min.
Lecture # 6
1. Role of correct pronunciation in language learning. Aims, tasks and content of T.Pr.
2. Brief characteristics of the phonic system of the English language as compared with that of the mother tongue.
3. Techniques of T.Pr and intonation.
4. Typology of phonetic exercises.
The main aim of T.Pr in a secondary school is to form the phonological competence, i.e. pronunciation and intonation habits. The English pronunciation norm is called received pronunciation (RP)
Components of Phonological competence
Stress Rhyme Rhythm Intonation
T.Pr in a secondary school is centered on the idea of approximation, which means
reducing the amount of phonetic material (6 types of English intonation are not studied);
admittance of some deterioration of pronouncing particular sounds (t,d,l,n,th,r), which does not disrupt communication between speakers.
In its syntactical function intonation serves:
1. to differentiate between the communicative types of sentences;
2. in its emotional function it contributes to conveying the speakers conversation, to the interlocutor;
3. in the function of separation it can promote differentiation of essential information from insignificant one.
The criteria to the selection of minimum pronunciation for a secondary school:
v adequateness to the needs of communication:The minimum intonation comprises4 types of intonation patterns corresponding to 4 communicative types of sentences: statements, imperatives, questions, exclamations.
v Styles of speech.
v Normal/standard pronunciation: it means excluding jargonisms, elliptical forms (cause, gimme, it aint gonna happen, wanna).
Groups of English phonemes
vowels (long and short) consonants,
double vowels, or diphthongs, which have their positional
which are strange to Ukrainian-speaking pupils variants
The general regularities of the English pronunciation:
· no palatalization of consonants;
· no devoicing of voiced consonants in the final position or before the voiceless consonants: eyes-ice, back-bag
· observing short and long vowels:e.g. sheep or ship
· making two stresses in a long word.
By Pronunciation habits we mean habits of phonetically correct pronunciation in speech of all the sounds studied and recognition of all the sounds studied while listening to the speech of others.
By intonation habits we mean habits of producing intonationally and rhythmically correct speech and comprehension of the speech of others.
HOW TO PRESENT A NEW SOUND
Speech pattern This is a pen.
3 main groups of ex-ses for T.Pr.:
Stage I. Ex-ses in listening (reception ex-ses), which are aimed at developing phonemic hearing and at establishing differential features of the phonetic studied.
Stage II. (drill stage) ex-ses in reproduction. They are aimed at forming pronunciation habits properly. These are articulation ex-ses, which are aimed at practicing this or that particular sound and are based on multiple reproduction of one and the same sound;
Stage III. Speech ex-ses, which are aimed at developing habits of pronouncing the sounds in various combinations, e.g. habits of correct pronunciation of the sounds in the process of communication.
How to organize a phonetic drill:
How to work at a verse/poem/
Model reading of a verse, preferably recorded
Translation of the verse
Memorizing the poem line by line
Reciting the whole poem
The benefits of using audio materials in teaching pronunciation:
Ø they provide stable and multiple reception and reproduction of the phonic material;
Ø they provide correction of the pupils pronunciation habits following the model;
Ø comprehension of speech of different speakers;
Ø regulating the tempo of speech (normal from the very beginning);