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VI. Marketing

 

I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in understanding and find these words in the text.

 

       
       
       
       
       
       

 

II. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

 

1. product 2. placement 3. price 4. promotion 5. manufacturer 6. wholesaler 7. retailer 8. customer a) the process of getting the product to the customer through the channels of distribution. b) the communication between buyer and seller c) the sum in money or goods for which anything is or may be bought or sold d) something produced by effort e) a person who sells to final consumers in smaller quantities f) a person who sells goods in larger quantities g)a person who buys goods h)a person who produces goods

 

III. Read the text and say what four P's imply.

 

Buying, selling, market research, transportation, storage, advertising - these are all parts of the complex area of business known as marketing. In simple terms, marketing means the movement of goods and services from a manufacturer to a customer in order to satisfy the customer and to achieve the company's objectives.

Marketing can be divided into four main elements that are popularly known as the four P's: product, price, placement and promotion. Each one plays a vital role in the success or failure of the marketing operation.

The product element of marketing refers to the goods or service that a company wants to sell. This often involves research and development (R&D) of a new product, research of the potential market, testing of the product to insure quality, and then introduction to the market.

A company next considers the price to charge for its product. There are three pricing options the company may take: above, with, or below the prices that its competitors are charging. For example, if the average price of a pair of women's leather shoes is $27, a company that charges $23 has priced below the market; a company that charges $27 has priced with the market; and a company that charges $33 has priced above the market. Most companies price with the market and sell their goods and services for average prices established by major producers in the industry. The producers who establish these prices are known as price leaders.

The third element of the marketing process - placement - involves getting the product to the customer through the channels of distribution. A common channel of distribution is: manufacturer wholesaler retailer customer.

Wholesalers generally sell large quantities of products to a retailer and retailers usually sell smaller quantities to customers.

Finally, communication about the product takes place between buyer and seller. This communication between buyer and seller is known as promotion. There are different ways of promotion: personal selling, in a department store; through a newspaper or magazine and Internet.



The four elements of marketing product, place, price and promotion work together to develop a successful marketing operation.

 

IV. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

 

1. What are the parts of marketing?

2. What are the objectives of marketing?

3. What are the vital elements of marketing?

4. What does each element of marketing refer to?

5. What are the channels of distribution?

6. What three pricing options may the company take?

7. What helps to develop a successful marketing operation?

 

V. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or

false (F).

 

1. Buying, selling, market research, transportation, storage, advertising means marketing.

2. The four P's are product, price, placement and people.

3. The product element of marketing refers just to the introduction of this product to the market.

4. Three pricing options exist above, with, or below the prices.

5. Placement involves getting the product to the customer through the channels of diversification.

6. The communication between wholesaler and seller is known as promotion.

 

VI. Find Russian equivalents to the following phrases in the second column.

 

   

 

VII. Choose the appropriate translation of the following sentences.

 

1. Each one plays a vital role in the success or failure of the marketing operation.

 

VIII.Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

 

IX.Retell the text according to its outline.


VIII. Advertising

 

I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in understanding and find these words in the text.

 

       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       

 

II. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

 

1. advertising 2. discount 3. distribution 4. credit 5. commercials a) the process of physically satisfying the demand for goods and services; b) a commercially sponsored advertisement on radio or television; c) the promotion of goods or services for sale through impersonal media, such as radio or television; d) the practice of permitting a buyer to receive goods or services before payment; e) a deduction from the full amount of a price.

 

III. Read the text and say who made America great.

 

One can buy anything in America, but it takes a great deal of mastery to sell anything there. Millions of people are engaged in promoting products (goods and services). There are millions of methods to do it. The most primitive one is to deliver goods to a shop and then wait until it is sold out. In this case the main task is to get people into the shop and make them interested in what you offer.

To attract customers, some shops organize regular sales at discount prices. This does not mean that the goods sold at a discount are of an inferior quality.

Several years in a row, taking my 20-minute lunch break, I have seen free of charge distribution of goods from cigarettes to popcorn, crackers or candies. These were samples of new goods which the producer companies wanted the customers to get acquainted with. This is one type of advertising.

Another type is showing a product in action. Once we got a call from a company selling vacuum cleaners with a suggestion that we have a look at their new model. We agreed to see it and in the evening of the same day a woman came to our place and cleaned half the house. We liked the vacuum cleaner.

Another way of advertising is the distribution of gifts. From time to time you are mailed strange notices: "Congratulations. You have won one of the following prizes. Then comes a list of prizes which may include a car, a million dollars, a TV set, a camera, etc. To find out what exactly the prize is and to get it, you have to call the enclosed number: most of the mn spent on the intercity all goes to the organizers of the whole thing. You may spend $10 or more. Some of my friends called the magic number only to know they had won a ne-dollar piece out of the list. This business has nothing to do with advertising or selling it is simply a trap for the gullible.

Other gift notices are mr serious. Often I get invitations to visit car salons. My time to get there and to test-drive a new car is compensated by a gift, such as a portable radio, a beauty set, a turner's kit, etc.

Selling by catalogue is very popular. Every day you are mailed several catalogues. The most popular of them come in the form of colorful big booklets containing pictures of goods, their regular price, the price in the shop belonging to the firm, and the price of selling by mail. Big companies may also offer you credit on goods they sell.

The art of selling is for the persistent. Without persistent sellers America wouldn't be what it is now.

Commercials, especially television ones, are very expensive and not all companies can afford them. Usually the sellers of similar goods pool their funds to buy one ad. Often producers pay for ads.

Advertising expenditures in the US are comparable to the budgets of some countries. However, it is not for nothing that society undertakes such spending. It helps to move goods more quickly and efficiently. This means that the funds spent on the manufacturing of goods return to circulation more quickly which, in turn, accelerates economic growth.

 

IV. Answer the following questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

 

1. What is the most primitive method of promotion products?

2. What do some shops organize?

3. What kinds of advertising do you know?

4. Who can achieve the art of selling?

5. Who can afford commercials?

6. What helps to accelerate economic growth?

V.Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or

false (F).

 

1. It takes no efforts to sell anything in America.

2. To organize regular sales at discount prices does not mean that the goods sold at a discount are of an inferior quality.

3. The distribution of gifts is simply a trap for the gullible.

4. Big companies may also offer you free of charge goods.

5. Advertising expenditures in the US are comparable to the budgets of a small town.

 

 

   

 

VII. Choose the appropriate translation of the following sentences.

 

1. In this case the main task is to get people into the shop and make them interested in what you offer.

 

VIII. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

 

IX. Retell the text according to its outline.


IX. Commerce

 

I. Go through the following vocabulary notes to avoid difficulties in understanding and find these words in the text.

       
       
       
       
       
       
conduct    

 

II. Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

 

1. commerce 2. commodity 3. transaction 4. transport 5. insurance 6. export trade 7. import trade a) goods or services sold to a foreign country or countries b) the business or system of transporting goods c) the activity embracing all forms of the purchase and sale of goods and services d) the act, system, or business of providing financial protection for property, life, health e) the act of obtaining and paying for an item or service f) goods or services that are bought from foreign countries g) an article of commerce

 

III. Read the statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F).

 

1. Commerce is concerned with the distribution of foodstuffs and manufactured goods.

2. There are three branches of commerce: exporting, importing and wholesaling.

3. Wholesalers buy in large quantities and thus reduce costs.

4. Commerce is the same as trade.

5. There are no other branches that help commerce.

 

IV. Read the text and check up your answers in ex. III.

 

Commerce is concerned with the distribution of all kinds raw materials, foodstuffs, manufactured goods. And I have to say that the business of distribution has become very complex nowadays.

There are four main branches of commerce.

The first one is called the retail trade. For example, when you want to buy something, you go to a person or a shop that sell the products you want, then you make your choice and buy the good. This is a simple example of transaction between consumers and retailers.

The second branch is when retailers buy goods from wholesalers, or the wholesalers from manufacturers. Its called the wholesale trade. For the retailers it means lower prices because they buy in large quantities and thus reduce their costs. The wholesalers, in turn, get the goods from manufacturers, and the quantity is much bigger. So they have very larger discounts.

Importing of goods from abroad and selling them to local companies is connected with the third branch of commerce. For example, a company produces cars in the USA and sells them in Europe. This company needs an agent who can represent it in their own country. This agent, in turn, should have a warehouse where they can keep the cars before they have been sold. Sometimes they sell the cars themselves.

The fourth branch of commerce is related to the export trade. Sometimes one country cannot sell all its products at home and it needs a representative who can sell them abroad, or exporter.

Well, in general the four branches of commerce are concerned with buying and selling of goods, and represent different kinds of trade. In this way, trade is the basic commercial activity, while commerce is much more than trade.

To carry out trade you should also have some services, one of which is transport. Transportation helps to move goods from one place to another, and if its efficient and developed, then youll have fewer problems with home and foreign trade. Transport is vital to trade, so it forms an important branch of commerce.

There are also financial services which are important to commerce. For example, banking and insurance. Without them you wont have money for your business and you may bear losses if your goods havent been insured.

Advertising is also important because it stimulates sales, and then its easier for everybody to conduct trade.

The four kinds of trade, together with transport, banking, insurance and advertising, form the main divisions of commerce. And to know and understand them is very important for those, who want to connect their lives with commerce.

 

V. Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.

 

1. What is commerce?

2. What are the branches of commerce? Give examples of each branch.

3. How can wholesalers reduce their costs?

4. Why do companies need agents in other countries?

5. What is an exporter?

6. Why is transport vital to trade?

7. What is the difference between commerce and trade?

8. What forms the main divisions of commerce?

VI. Match the halves of the phrases from the text.

 

1.make a) larger discounts
2.buy in b) sales
3.have very c) trade
4.sell goods d) large quantities
5.bear e) their costs
6.stimulate f) abroad
7.conduct g) consumers and retailers
8.reduce h) your choice
9.transaction between i) lives with commerce
10.connect their j) losses

 

VII. Find Russian equivalents to the phrases in ex.V.

 

   
   
   
   
   

 

VIII. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.

 

IX. Retell the text according to its outline.



Date: 2014-12-21; view: 989


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