IV. Read the text and check up your answers in ex. III.
Management is the effective and efficient integration and coordination of resources to achieve desired objectives. Managers are those people who are responsible for ensuring that this happens. A manager integrates and combines human, capital, and technological resources in the best way possible to ensure that the companyís objectives are achieved.
It is common knowledge that managers have to perform several functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.
The first function Ė planning Ė is connected with decisions about what to produce, how to finance your business, where to market the goods or services, and what resources to use.
Organizing Ė the second function Ė is concerned with establishing relationships among tasks, activities, and people in the company. It is also related to structuring your business.
Staffing is the third essential function. Every manager should think about how to hire the best employees and how to get rid of those who canít work efficiently.
As for directing, this function is about guiding and motivating employees to accomplish the companyís objectives. Here itís critical to remember about being a leader, because if you are not one, it will be very difficult for you to direct your staff correctly.
And lastly comes controlling which means monitoring and evaluating the companyís performance. This function is important because it gives you an opportunity to make adjustments if something goes wrong. At the same time controlling is closely connected with planning as long as it shows if the manager has achieved the objectives or not.
To my mind, one important thing that deserves mentioning is the management pyramid. In short, itís a structure of authority relationships among the managers. The pyramid may consist of many layers but the most common ones are top management, middle management, and supervisory management (or lower-level management).
As far as top managers go, they are mainly responsible for setting the direction and strategy of their business. They are the chief executive officer (CEO), the chief financial officer, the marketing director, the human resources manager, the production manager, and others.
Then go the middle managers who are responsible for implementing the strategies and plans developed by top management. They might be regional managers, sales managers, plant and department managers, and so on. Their tasks are hiring employees, designing jobs, purchasing materials, choosing equipment, etc.
As for supervisory management (or lower-level managers), they mainly supervise and coordinate work of non-management employees (office clerks and workers). One interesting fact is that many university graduates usually start their careers at this particular level.
There are three basic skills that managers should have to perform their tasks. They are technical job skills, human relations skills, and analytical skills. Let me tell you about each of them in turn.
First, technical skills; they are connected with the managerís ability to understand and use the specific tools, knowledge, and techniques in their work. Second, human relations skills, which are about socializing with your subordinates, motivating and directing them in order to improve performance. And third, analytical skills, that relate to understanding the whole organization, analysing and evaluating information, and making appropriate plans and decisions.
V.Answer these questions using the active vocabulary of the text.
1. What is management?
2. What are managers?
3. What are the functions of management?
4. Controlling is connected with decisions about what to produce, how to finance your business, where to market the goods or services, and what resources to use, isnít it?
5. Who should think about how to hire the best employees and how to get rid of those who canít work efficiently?
6. What function means monitoring and evaluating the companyís performance?
7. What layers of management do you know?
8. What skills should managers have to perform their tasks?
VI. Match the halves of the phrases from the text.
g)the goods or services
VII. Find Russian equivalents to the phrases in ex. VI.
VIII. Make an outline of the text consisting of 5-8 sentences.