Perhaps the most famous authoring tool in our field is Hot Potatoes. This is a small Windows or Mac program that creates a variety of exercises and can be freely downloaded for educational purposes (http://hotpot.uvic.ca/). This program will install on your own computer and allow you to create web-based exercises of the following types:
• multiple choice
• short answer
• jumbled sentence
It also allows you to include audio files in MP3 format and will even allow you to store your exercises on a central server so that they can be accessed from anywhere with an Internet connection. To get started, install the program and find it in your program folder From here you can choose one of the tools. Let's take a look at creating a simple exercise. Click on JQuiz to get started (see page 131 top). Here you can put the title of the exercise, and start by adding question 1. There are four answers to my first question, each with their own feedback, and answer B is marked as the correct one (see page 131 bottom). Now click the up arrow next to Ql on the screen and add a second question, with answers and feedback. Don't forget to mark the correct answer. Continue doing this until you have made your quiz.
Now it's time to actually create the quiz as a web page. First make sure you save your quiz so that you can return to it later to make edits if you need to (File - Save). Now we will turn this into an interactive web page. Click on 'File - Create Web page' and then choose the 'Webpage for v6 browsers' option. Give the filename and then save it. You should now be able to look at it in a web browser.
That's how the bare bones of all the quizzes generated by Hot Potatoes work. If you want to delve deeper into things like formatting the output, changing colours, and so on, then you should look in the Options menu when you are creating a quiz, or investigate the 'Help' file that comes with the program. There are also plenty of tutorial examples on the Hot Potatoes website (http://hotpot.uvic.ca/tutorials6.htm).
Once you have created a set of exercises, you can package them all together using 'The Masher'. This is a utility accessed from the start page of the Hot Potatoes program which will guide you through linking a set of individual items into a small learning package, with full navigation between the various elements. You can then distribute these on discs, or memory sticks or CD-ROMs, or put them on a website if you or your school has one.
Another area to explore in electronic materials, and a move away from straightforward test and practice exercises, is the creation of interactive stories where learners read scenarios and then make choices to decide what they will do at certain key points. These are excellent for reading comprehension practice or as small-group discussions that encourage collaborative and critical thinking skills. They encourage learners to develop a wide range of skills from listening to debating, agreeing and disagreeing and making points and supporting them. Since these are basically text-driven activities, you should be able to produce them for any level. You can see some examples of typical interactive stories (or reading mazes) here (http://www.halfbakedsoftware.com/quandary/version_2/examples/).
Indeed the area of online materials covers such a wide variety of formats and storage options that we are really only able to scratch the surface here. Exploring some of the sites and programs we have covered here will help to give you an idea of the kinds of things that can be produced with very little technical knowledge (designed, as the majority are, by teachers rather than technicians), but you will probably want to search further to get an idea of the bigger picture. Make sure that you brush up on your search skills from Chapter 3 before venturing on to see what's out there. To get you started, here are a few more examples:
Clarity Software (http://www.clarityenglish.com/)
Clarity has a long history in producing English language related products, and their authoring tools are both reasonably priced and easy to use. Have a look at their Author Plus Pro and Tense Buster programs, which can be used for a variety of different exercise types, including audio, graphics and video content, and allow for the creation of listening comprehension exercises, interactive dictations and presentations. It also has a sophisticated learner tracking option, allowing you to see your learners' progress through the materials.
Features Quandary and other useful tools including a marking program for incorporating into Word (Chapter 2), a cloze program called WebRhubarb and a text reconstruction program called WebSequitor, where learners reconstruct written texts from smaller chunks. These are all good programs, produced by the lead developer of the Hot Potatoes suite we looked at above.
This is a subscription-based service allowing for the creation of various types of activities, surveys and web pages, as well as extensive learner tracking options. The site offers a variety of ready-made templates for materials creation and the ability to set up a study space for your learners, as well as access to over two million activities already in the library.
I. FROM THE HISTORY OF WORLD MEDICINE
1. The search for health is as old as man's history.
In Babylon it was a custom to show the sick in the street, so that passers-by could say how to treat the sick from the own experience. It was not allowed to pass the sick man in silence.
A papyrus was found dated from 1600 B.C. about surgery and the treatment of wounds. Then another papyrus was found with about 900 prescriptions, some of these prescriptions doctors use today. People learnt much from Egyptian manuscripts and from embalmed bodies. Examinations of some of these bodies showed many interesting facts. For example people of those times knew such disease as rheumatoid, arthritis, tuberculosis and appendicitis.
2. The early Egyptian mythology tells us a very interesting story. Horas, the God of Health in fight with Sett, the demon of evil lost an eye. The eye was restored to him by a miraculous means. The eye had a sign "R" which meant "Recipe". And the mythology says that the word "Recipe" written at the beginning of every prescription was taken from the sign of the eye of Horas.
3. The clinical medicine developed in Roman times. The name of Galen is widely known. Galen worked first as a surgeon at a school for gladiators. He went to Rome when he was thirty two years old and there he had much practice but he continued to experiment the living animals, especially apes and pigs.
The Roman army always had a well organized service of surgeons. The school for gladiators was an ideal school for training in surgery.
4. In the 18th century smallpox was one of the main causes of death. Young and old caught this disease. Children of poor parents died before they were five years old.
Edward Jenner was an English physician. He was born in England in 1749. Jenner studied medicine in London and in 1773 he returned to his native town. In those days the whole world was afraid of smallpox. Every fifth person in London had the marks of the disease on his face. Once a milkmaid said to Jenner "I shan't catch smallpox as I have already had cow-pox". Jenner asked the country people about cow-pox and found, that many men and women thought about it like that milkmaid. For more than 20 years Jenner studied cow-pox and experiment an animals.
In 1796 a young woman came to Jenner "What's the matter with you?" Jenner asked her. "Please have a look at my hand doctor"? answered the woman. "I have got a sore on it I think I have caught it from a sick cow". The doctor examined her hand. He passed of the pockmarks, then he cut the skin on the arm of an 8-year old boy and rubbed some cow-pox matter into his arm. The name of the boy was James Phipps.
That night Jenner slept little. Every day he visited the boy and several days later Jenner inoculated the boy with smallpox matter. Time passed, but the boys health did not suffer. He never conquest. The experiment was successful. The terrible disease was beaten.
Jenner called his new method "vaccination" from the Latin world "vacca", which means a cow. Jenner received many awards from all over the world. He built a house for James Phipps and planted roses there.
To his last days the "country doctor" lived simply vaccinating free of charge anyone, who came to him. He died of Berkeley in 1823. There is a monument in London, which shows Jenner vaccinating a child.
Nowadays most babies are vaccinated. The lymph is prepared in laboratories. The vaccine is effective for about seven years.
²². TIBETAN MEDICINE
Among the “external” reasons causing diseases. Tibetan medicine singled out food in particular. According to Chjud-shi, food formed in the human organism a "nutritive juice" which develops in 7 subsequent stages (including the state of the blood) in the course of 7 days. The task of Tibetan doctor was to "compress" this period as much as possible. The treatise says that some medicines can restore a sick organism to health in one day.
A Tibetan doctor had to retain in his memory information that takes up 22 500-page volumes of modern text. His senses —vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch —had tobe extremely fine. The-ancient medics used them instead of a modern diagnostic laboratory.
An experienced diagnostician, says the treatise, can differentiate between 400 different "hues" of pulse. The pulse is felt by the doctor on the radial arteries of the patient's arms with the second, third and fourth fingers of both hands. Each finger obtained information from one to six of the main human organs — the heart, liver, both kidneys, lungs and the gastro-intestinal tract.
The doctor became an expert when his theoretical knowledge and practical abilities blended in perfect synchronization. But this took decades to achieve even for "especially gifted" people.
²²². HIPPOCRATES – IS THE FATHER OF MEDICINE (460 - 377 B.C.)
Hippocrates was born in Greece. He was the son of a doctor. Hippocrates studied medicine and then went from town to town to town where he practised the art of medicine. It is know that he drove out the plague from Athens by lighting fires in the streets of the city .Bat we have his writings which are called “Hippocrate collection”. The collection consists of more then one hundred books. Some of Hippocratic thoughts are quite modern. The collection begins with the famous Oath.
Hippocrates was known as an excellent practitioners and a teachers of medicine.
This great physician taught his pupils to examine the patient very attentively and to gave him quick help. He created medicine on the basis of experience.
Hippocrates freed medicine from superstation. He hated the idea that a disease was the punishment of Gods.
Hippocrates paid much attention to diet, gymnastics, massage, sea-bathing in treatment. He knew the use of many drugs and was also a good surgeon.
Hippocrates set fractures and even trephined the skull.
Aristotle, the famous philosopher, called him “Hippocrates the Great”.
From the Hippocratic Oath:
“I will use treatment to hell the sick people but never to inquire them...”
“I will enter to help the sick and whatsoever I shell see or hear in the course of my profession I will never divulge. I will hold such thing in secret.”