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The formation of the state of White Horde and Mughulistan (political history, social organization).

White Horde . On the territory of East Deshty Kypchak in XIII-XV century there was created State White Horde. The rate of the Horde in the mid XIII was on the Irtysh river, near Lake Alakol. In XIV the power of the rulers of the genus Horde-Edzhen spread to almost all the territory of modern Kazakhstan. The political center of the White Horde moved to the south Kazakhstan and Sygnak became the capital city. Since the end of XIV land also known as White Horde Uzbek Ulus. Turkic-speaking tribes such as kypchaki, Naiman, uysuni, argyny etc lived there. At the head of state was khan of the Horde Edzhena kind. 1 Khan became Sasy-Buka. Khan, owner of the subject unit Dzhuchids and large nomadic aristocracy. The final break with a nominal dependence on the Golden Horde was able by mid XIV by khan Erzenu and Mubarak-Hodge (1320-1344). Significantly enhanced with the White Horde Khan Urus, who ruled in the 60-70g XIV. It fell the brunt of the fight and protect the White Horde from aggression of Timur. Before Timur break down the Golden Ordu, he brought his sword to the nearest neighbor - White Horde and Mogulistan. As a result of 3 big hikes by Timur troops in 1389,1391,1395 Mr. Golden Horde was destroyed. Mogulistan. As a result of the collapse of the Chagatai ulus in the middle of XIV century in the south-eastern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, a new nomadic state. Political history Mogulistana the second half of XIV century. remains unknown, especially its inner life. Puladchi Amir, head of nobility Dulat tribe was made with the intention to create an independent khanate using placeman - khan of Chingiz’s dynasty. Chingizid, which opted aulaty, was 18-year-Togluk Timur. Bid Togluk-Timur was in Almalik. The fight for the unification of all areas under the auspices of the central government was the main contents of the inner life of the state. Nomadic tribes know the individual persistently resisted attempts by the Khan to limit its independence. Hiking of Timur to Mogulistan. The first hike in Timura Mogulistan he held in 1371-72. But it was precisely "reconnaissance" trip, which was to demonstrate the power and the capture of prisoners and harvesting. More serious hiking began with in 1375 and were directed against the Amir Qamar al-Din. Hike in 1375 ended in complete victory of Timur, but Qamar al-Din was able to retain power. In 1376 a new army of Timur had to Mogulistan but Qypchaq voenonachalniki mutinied and taken over on the side of Orys Khan. The next trip was taken in 1377 when he was captured Sygnak where Khan was a Toktamys. Troops Mogulistana twice failed, but Qamar al-Din again escaped. In the 80's. Qamar al-Din entered into an alliance with Toktamysom, Enge torus and Hyzyr Hodge v. Timur Khan. In 1389 the Amir Timur took another trip to Zhetisu. Mogolskie rulers have been unable to resist, and Timur's troops were all over the country, ravaged by nomadic and city. The next trip in 1390 ended in defeat again Mogulistana. In 1404 Timur decided to finally conquer Zhetisu and led a huge army went on a camping trip. Only death «potryasatelya Universe» in Otrar in early 1405 withdrew the threat. Mogulistan in the XV century. In the first half of XV century. political situation in Mogulistane characterized not only by internecine fighting sons and grandsons Hyzyr Khodja, but the war with Temurids, oyratskimi tribes. Timurids tried detached from the East Turkestan Mogulistana. In the middle of the XVI century. it ceased to exist as an independent state.


Date: 2014-12-22; view: 688

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