Qimaques in the history of Kazakhstan (location, economy, social organization, political history).
In the political arena in the Kazakh steppe in the IX century, the state appeared kipchaks, uniting many tribes from the Altai to the Syr Darya. The political core of this state, the tribe Imak, in the middle of VII century occupied the territory of East Kazakhstan. After the fall of the Western Turkic Kaganate in 656, imak have some independence. At the beginning of VIII century. Imak subject turkesham, but by the middle of this century, freed from their power. Moreover, local tribes are subject Irtyshs Imak and creating with them a confederation, which received the name of the sources in the eastern Kimak Located between Karluk and Turgeshs, kimaks not only managed to maintain independence, but also spread their influence to many kangarian birth, roamed in central Kazakhstan and combined in VIII. group Kypchaks-seers, who fled after the defeat of the Turkic Second Kaganate. After the collapse of the Uighur kaganate in 840, is integrated into his tribe joins Kimak Union. It creates a powerful state headed by the governor, carry title baigu "(distorted" Yabgu "), and in the early tenth century. accepted the title of "Hakan". At the end of IX century. in the Kimak states included seven tribal groups: Ishk, lanikaz, adzhlad, eymur, Bayandour, Tatars, Kypchak. By mid-tenth century. Kimak Kaganate territory is divided into four main areas:
1. Yagsun-Yasu - covers the area between Yesil and Ertis, Bara-binskuyu steppe to the west of the Ob River. Here at Ertis, located capital - old and new.
2. Kyrkyrhan - covers an area of East and Central Kazakhstan from Ertis to Lake Balkhash and Alakol, including Karkara Nolinsk, Chingiztaus and Tarbagatai mountains.
3. Andar al-hifchak - area of "internal Kypchaks" - located in central Kazakhstan, including the neighborhood Ulutau-ing mountains, basins of Nura, Sary-Su, Karakengira, in the south - on the lower reaches of Shu and Talas.
4. "External kypchaki" occupied the foothills of the Southern Urals and Torgai steppe and enjoyed considerable autonomy.
In Kimak society increasing role of the military. Rulers of principalities (which there were 12) were military leaders. The origin of resistivity-tribal system says about the elements of administrative division in Kimak Union. Arab historian Al-Idrisi, in his book called Kimak 16 cities, 12 of whom were in the river basin Ertis. In the state's system of tax levies. Many nomads because of their poverty were forced to move on to residency and do crafts, fishing, farming.
Kimak power was a powerful state. However, in the IX-X centuries. began to show signs of its decline. The rulers of principalities, who owned vast territories and had at its service mercenary troops or detachments steppe, strove for independence that led to the weakening of central authority, the disintegration of the state. By the end of the tenth century. Kimak Khanate ceased to exist, the authority on its territory passed Qypchaq association.
Date: 2014-12-22; view: 646