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A Compilaton on Women by Research

 

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Title: A Compilaton on Women

Author: Research Department of the Universal House of Justice

Release Date: September 2006 [Ebook #19269]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO 8859-1

***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A COMPILATON ON WOMEN***

 

A Compilaton on Women

by Research Department of the Universal House of Justice

 

Edition 1, (September 2006)

 

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CONTENTS

Baha'i Terms of Use I. THE BAHÁ'Í CONCEPT OF EQUALITY Extracts From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh 1: O Children of Men! Know ye not why We created you all from the same dust?... 2: Exalted, immensely exalted is He Who hath removed differences and... 3: This Wronged One hath heard thy voice and that which thy inner and outer... 4: By My Life! The names of handmaidens who are devoted to God are written... 5: Verily the Pen of the Most High hath borne witness unto thy recognition of... 6: We beseech God to aid all the leaves to attain the knowledge of the Tree and... 7: Throughout the centuries and ages many a man hath waited expectant for... Extracts From the Writings and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: 8: From the beginning of existence until the Promised Day men retained superiority... 9: O handmaid of God! In this wondrous dispensation in which the Ancient... 10: Render thanks to the Lord that among that race thou art the first... 11: The establishment of a women's assemblage for the promotion of knowledge is... 12: Know thou, O handmaid, that in the sight of Bahá, women are accounted the... 13: And among the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh is the equality of women and... 14: Inasmuch as this is the century of light, it is evident that the Sun of... 15: Today questions of the utmost importance are facing humanity, questions... 16: The world of humanity consists of two parts: male and female. Each is... 17: The status of woman in former times was exceedingly deplorable, for it was... 18: Woman's lack of progress and proficiency has been due to her need of equal... 19: He establishes the equality of man and woman. This is peculiar to the... 20: Women have equal rights with men upon earth; in religion and society they... 21: In the world of humanity ... the female sex is treated as though inferior, and... 22: Divine Justice demands that the rights of both sexes should be equally... 23: In the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh, women are advancing side by side with... 24: The woman of the East has progressed. Formerly in India, Persia and... 25: The world in the past has been ruled by force, and man has dominated over... Extracts From Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi: 26: If presented properly the position of women in the Bahá'í teachings will... 27: As regards your question concerning the membership of the Universal House... 28: As regards the membership of the International House of Justice,... Extracts From Letters Written by the Universal House of Justice: 29: It is apparent from the Guardian's writings that where Bahá'u'lláh... 30: Concerning your questions about the equality of men and women, this, as... 31: The primary question to be resolved is how the present world, with its... From Letters Written on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice 32: To the general premise that women and men have equality in the Faith,... 33: ...'Abdu'l-Bahá asserts: "In this divine age the bounties of God have... 34: You are quite right in stating that men and women have basic and distinct... 35: It may be helpful to stress ... that the Bahá'í principle of the... II. THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN Extracts From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh: 36: It is the bounden duty of parents to rear their children to be staunch in... Extracts From the Writings and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: 37: Praised be God, the women believers have organized meetings where they will... 38: Work ye for the guidance of the women in that land, teach the young girls and... 39: ...it is incumbent upon the father and mother to train their children both in... 40: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's supreme joy is in observing that a number of leaves from among... 41: ...Thou hast written about the girls' school. What was previously written... 42: ...it is incumbent upon the girls of this glorious era to be fully versed in... 43: Furthermore, the education of woman is more necessary and important than... 44: In proclaiming the oneness of mankind He taught that men and women are... 45: Why should a woman be left mentally undeveloped? Science is praiseworthy--... 46: Bahá'u'lláh has announced that inasmuch as ignorance and lack of... 47: The education of each child is compulsory.... In addition to this widespread... 48: Devote ye particular attention to the school for girls, for the greatness... 49: Our hearts rejoiced at thy letter concerning a school for girls.... Extract From a Letter Written by the Universal House of Justice 50: The cause of universal education, which has already enlisted in its... Extracts From Letters Written on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice: 51: A very important element in the attainment of such equality is Bahá'u'lláh's... 52: The House of Justice regards the need to educate and guide women in their... III. APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY TO FAMILY LIFE Extracts From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh: 53: Steadfastness in the Cause is mentioned in the Tablets and set forth by... 54: All should know, and in this regard attain the splendours of the sun of... Extracts From the Writings and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: 55: The Lord, peerless is He, hath made woman and man to abide with each other... 56: ...following the precepts of God and the holy Law, suckle your children from... 57: ...it is enjoined upon the father and mother, as a duty, to strive with all... 58: O ye loving mothers, know ye that in God's sight, the best of all ways to... 59: Note ye how easily, where unity existeth in a given family, the affairs of... 60: You have asked whether a husband would be able to prevent his wife from... 61: Question: What is the attitude of your belief toward the family?... Extracts From letters written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to individual believers unless otherwise cited 62: When such difference of opinion and belief occurs between husband and wife it... 63: Shoghi Effendi trusts that as a result of his cable and this letter your... 64: The Guardian, in his remarks ... about parents' and children's, wives' and... 65: It is one of the essential teachings of the Faith that unity should be... 66: The Guardian fully appreciates your desire to go forth as a pioneer at... 67: Wherever there is a Bahá'í family, those concerned should by all means... Extracts From letters Written on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice to individual believers unless otherwise cited 68: That the first teacher of the child is the mother should not be startling,... 69: In considering the problems that you and your wife are experiencing, the... 70: Noting that you and your husband have consulted about your family problems... 71: The members of a family all have duties and responsibilities towards one... 72: You have asked, however, for specific rules of conduct to govern the... 73: You ask about the admonition that everyone must work, and want to know if... 74: With regard to your question whether mothers should work outside the home,... 75: The great importance attached to the mother's role derives from the fact... IV. WOMEN IN THE WORLD AT LARGE Extract From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh 76: It is enjoined upon every one of you to engage in some form of occupation,... Extracts From the Writings and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: 77: The handmaidens of God and the bondsmaids in His divine Court should... 78: Until the reality of equality between man and woman is fully established and... 79: ...the principle of religion has been revealed by Bahá'u'lláh that woman... 80: Again, it is well established in history that where woman has not... 81: Question: Is it not a fact that universal peace cannot be accomplished... 82: When all mankind shall receive the same opportunity of education and the... 84: Woman must especially devote her energies and abilities toward the industrial... 85: Therefore, strive to show in the human world that women are most capable... 86: ...imbued with the same virtues as man, rising through all the degrees of human... 87: According to the spirit of this age, women must advance and fulfill their... 88: ...The woman is indeed of the greater importance to the race. She has the... 89: Concerning Bahá'í representation at the All-Asian Women's Conference: this... 90: What 'Abdu'l-Bahá meant about the women arising for peace is that this is a... Extract From a Letter Written by the Universal House of Justice 91: The emancipation of women, the achievement of full equality between the... Extracts From Letters Written on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice: 92: ...there is a much wider sphere of relationships between men and women than in... 93: The duty of women in being the first educators of mankind is clearly set... V. FOSTERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN Extracts From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh: 94: In this Day the Blessed Tree of Remembrance speaketh forth in the Kingdom... 95: We beseech the True One to adorn His handmaidens with the ornament of... Extracts From the Writings and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: 96: The effulgence of the rays of the Sun of Truth is abundant and the favours... 97: In this great Cycle and wondrous Dispensation some women have been raised... 98: Confirmations from the kingdom of God will assuredly be received, enabling... 99: In this wondrous Dispensation the favours of the Glorious Lord are vouchsafed... 100: Blessed, blessed are ye for ye have arranged spiritual meetings and... 101: In this day the duty of everyone, whether man or woman, is to teach the Cause.... 102: Now is the time to speak forth and to deliver speeches, the time to teach... 103: O handmaid of God!... To the mothers must be given the divine Teachings... 104: ...we must not make distinctions between individual members of the human... 105: In brief, the assumption of superiority by man will continue to be depressing... 106: The purpose, in brief, is this: that if woman be fully educated and... 107: The realities of things have been revealed in this radiant century, and... 108: Equality of the sexes will be established in proportion to the increased... 109: Woman must endeavour then to attain greater perfection, to be man's equal... Extracts From Letters Written by Shoghi Effendi: 110: Regarding the position of the Bahá'í women in India and Burma, and their... 111: Full rights have been accorded to Bahá'í women residing in the cradle of the... 113: That the members of this community, of either sex and of every age, of... Extracts From Letters and a Telex Written by the Universal House of Justice: 114: 'Abdu'l-Bahá has pointed out that "Among the miracles which distinguish... 115: PARTICULARLY CALL UPON BAHÁ'Í WOMEN, WHOSE CAPACITIES IN MANY LANDS STILL... 116: The youth have long been in the forefront of the teaching work, and now our... 117: At the heart of all activities, the spiritual, intellectual and community... 118: The equality of men and women is not, at the present time, universally applied.... 119: Calling upon local and national Bahá'í communities to sponsor a wide... Extracts From Letters Written on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice: 120: The House of Justice regards the need to educate and guide women in their... 121: The principle of the equality between women and men, like the other... VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY



 

I. THE BAHÁ'Í CONCEPT OF EQUALITY

 

Extracts From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh

 

1: O Children of Men! Know ye not why We created you all from the same dust?...

O Children of Men! Know ye not why We created you all from the same dust? That no one should exalt himself over the other. Ponder at all times in your hearts how ye were created. Since We have created you all from one same substance it is incumbent on you to be even as one soul, to walk with the same feet, eat with the same mouth and dwell in the same land, that from your inmost being, by your deeds and actions, the signs of oneness and the essence of detachment may be made manifest. Such is My counsel to you, O concourse of light! Heed ye this counsel that ye may obtain the fruit of holiness from the tree of wondrous glory.

("The Hidden Words of Bahá'u'lláh", Arabic no. 68, rev. ed. (Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1985), p. 20) [1]

 

2: Exalted, immensely exalted is He Who hath removed differences and...

Exalted, immensely exalted is He Who hath removed differences and established harmony. Glorified, infinitely glorified is He Who hath caused discord to cease, and decreed solidarity and unity. Praised be God, the Pen of the Most High hath lifted distinctions from between His servants and handmaidens, and, through His consummate favours and all-encompassing mercy, hath conferred upon all a station and rank of the same plane. He hath broken the back of vain imaginings with the sword of utterance and hath obliterated the perils of idle fancies through the pervasive power of His might.

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian) [2]

 

3: This Wronged One hath heard thy voice and that which thy inner and outer...

This Wronged One hath heard thy voice and that which thy inner and outer tongue hath uttered in praise of thy Lord. By the righteousness of God! That which the people possess, and the treasures of the earth, and that which the rulers and kings own, are not equal in this day to the singing of His praise. The Lord of the Kingdom beareth witness unto this at this glorious moment. And having heard thy groaning and lamentation, We are responding with a Tablet which calleth out betwixt earth and heaven and maketh mention of thee with words that immortalize what hath appeared from thee in His love, in His service, in His remembrance and in His praise. And He hath made that which hath issued forth from thy mouth a trust with Him for thee. He is verily the Most Bounteous, the Most Generous. If thou truly givest ear to that which hath been revealed for thee from My Supreme Pen at this moment, thou shalt soar with the wings of eagerness in the heaven of love for the Lord of the Day of the Covenant, and wilt say during all the days of thy life: Thanks be unto Thee, O Thou the Desire of the world, and praise be unto Thee, O Thou the Beloved of the people of understanding. May all existence be a sacrifice for Thy favour, and all that hath been and will ever be, a ransom for Thy Word, O Thou the Wronged One amongst the people of enmity, O Thou in Whose grasp are the reins of all who are in heaven and on earth....

In this Day the Hand of divine grace hath removed all distinctions. The servants of God and His handmaidens are regarded on the same plane. Blessed is the servant who hath attained unto that which God hath decreed, and likewise the leaf moving in accordance with the breezes of His will. This favour is great and this station lofty. His bounties and bestowals are ever present and manifest. Who is able to offer befitting gratitude for His successive bestowals and continuous favours?

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian and Arabic) [3]

 

4: By My Life! The names of handmaidens who are devoted to God are written...

By My Life! The names of handmaidens who are devoted to God are written and set down by the Pen of the Most High in the Crimson Book. They excel over men in the sight of God. How numerous are the heroes and knights in the field who are bereft of the True One and have no share in His recognition, but thou hast attained and received thy fill.

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian) [4]

 

5: Verily the Pen of the Most High hath borne witness unto thy recognition of...

Verily the Pen of the Most High hath borne witness unto thy recognition of Him, thy love for Him and thy turning towards the Ancient Countenance at a time when the world hath rejected Him, save those whom God, the Most High, hath willed....

Well is it with thee for having adorned thyself with the ornament of the love of God and for having been enabled to make mention of Him and utter His praise. Divine grace, in its entirety, is in the mighty grasp of God, exalted be He. He conferreth it upon whomsoever He willeth. How many a man considered himself a celebrated divine and a repository of heavenly mysteries, and yet when the slightest test visited him, he arose with such opposition and denial as to cause the Concourse on high to moan and lament. Through the bestowals of the Lord, however, and His infinite favour, thou hast attained unto the hidden secret and the well-guarded treasure. Preserve then, in the name of God, this lofty station and conceal it from the eyes of betrayers. The glory shining from the horizon of My Kingdom be upon thee and upon every handmaiden who hath attained the splendours of My sublime Throne.

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian and Arabic) [5]

 

6: We beseech God to aid all the leaves to attain the knowledge of the Tree and...

We beseech God to aid all the leaves to attain the knowledge of the Tree and deprive them not of the ocean of His generosity. In this day no regard is paid to loftiness or lowliness, to poverty or wealth, to nobility and lineage, to weakness or might. Whosoever recognizeth the incomparable Beloved is the possessor of true wealth and occupieth a divine station. Today, in the court of the True One, the queen of the world and her like are not worth a mustard seed, because although she may speak in the name of God, invoke the Lord of creation every day in the temple of her body, and spend large sums of earthly wealth for the development of her nation, she is deprived of recognition of the Sun of His Manifestation and is barred from the True One in Whose remembrance she is engaged....

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian and Arabic) [6]

 

7: Throughout the centuries and ages many a man hath waited expectant for...

Throughout the centuries and ages many a man hath waited expectant for God's Revelation, and yet when the Light shone forth from the horizon of the world, all but a few turned their faces away from it. Whosoever from amongst the handmaidens hath recognized the Lord of all Names is recorded in the Book as one of those men by the Pen of the Most High. Offer thou praise to the Beloved of the world for having aided thee to recognize the Dayspring of His Signs and the Revealer of the evidences of His Glory. This is a great bounty, a bounteous favour. Preserve it in the name of the True One....

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian and Arabic) [7]

 

Extracts From the Writings and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá:

 

8: From the beginning of existence until the Promised Day men retained superiority...

From the beginning of existence until the Promised Day men retained superiority over women in every respect. It is revealed in the Qur'án: "Men have superiority over women." But in this wondrous Dispensation, the supreme outpouring of the Glorious Lord became the cause of manifest achievements by women. Some handmaidens arose who excelled men in the arena of knowledge. They arose with such love and spirituality that they became the cause of the outpouring of the bounty of the Sovereign Lord upon mankind, and with their sanctity, purity and attributes of the spirit led a great many to the shore of unity. They became a guiding torch to the wanderers in the wastes of bewilderment, and enkindled the despondent in the nether world with the flame of the love of the Lord. This is a bounteous characteristic of this wondrous Age which hath granted strength to the weaker sex and hath bestowed masculine might upon womanhood....

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian) [8]

 

9: O handmaid of God! In this wondrous dispensation in which the Ancient...

O handmaid of God! In this wondrous dispensation in which the Ancient Beauty and the Manifest Light--may my spirit be sacrificed for His loved ones--hath risen from the horizon of age-old hopes, women have assumed the attributes of men in showing forth steadfastness in the Cause of God, and revealing the heroism and might of fearless men. They invaded the arena of mystic knowledge and hoisted aloft the banner on the heights of certitude. Thou, too, must make a mighty effort and show forth supreme courage. Exert thyself and taste of the sweetness of a heavenly draught, for the sweet taste of the love of God will linger on to the end that hath no end.

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian) [9]

 

10: Render thanks to the Lord that among that race thou art the first...

Render thanks to the Lord that among that race thou art the first believer,(1) that thou hast engaged in spreading sweet-scented breezes, and hast arisen to guide others. It is my hope that through the bounties and favours of the Abhá Beauty thy countenance may be illumined, thy disposition pleasing, and thy fragrance diffused, that thine eyes may be seeing, thine ears attentive, thy tongue eloquent, thy heart filled with supreme glad-tidings, and thy soul refreshed by divine fragrances, so that thou mayest arise among that race and occupy thyself with the edification of the people, and become filled with light. Although the pupil of the eye is black, it is the source of light. Thou shalt likewise be. The disposition should be bright, not the appearance. Therefore, with supreme confidence and certitude, say: "O God! Make me a radiant light, a shining lamp, and a brilliant star, so that I may illumine the hearts with an effulgent ray from Thy Kingdom of Abhá...."

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian) [10]

 

11: The establishment of a women's assemblage for the promotion of knowledge is...

The establishment of a women's assemblage for the promotion of knowledge is entirely acceptable, but discussions must be confined to educational matters. It should be done in such a way that differences will, day by day, be entirely wiped out, not that, God forbid, it will end in argumentation between men and women. As in the question of the veil, nothing should be done contrary to wisdom. The individual women should, today, follow a course of action which will be the cause of eternal glory to all womankind, so that all women will be illumined. And that lieth in gathering to learn how to teach, in holding meetings to recite the verses, to offer supplications to the kingdom of the Lord of evident signs, and to institute education for the girls. Ponder the manner in which Jináb-i-Táhirih used to teach. She was free from every concern, and for this reason she was resplendent.

Now the world of women should be a spiritual world, not a political one, so that it will be radiant. The women of other nations are all immersed in political matters. Of what benefit is this, and what fruit doth it yield? To the extent that ye can, ye should busy yourselves with spiritual matters which will be conducive to the exaltation of the Word of God and of the diffusion of His fragrances. Your demeanour should lead to harmony amongst all and to coalescence and the good-pleasure of all....

I am endeavouring, with Bahá'u'lláh's confirmations and assistance, so to improve the world of the handmaidens that all will be astonished. This progress is intended to be in spirituality, in virtues, in human perfections and in divine knowledge. In America, the cradle of women's liberation, women are still debarred from political institutions because they squabble. They are yet to have a member in the House of Representatives. Also Bahá'u'lláh hath proclaimed: "O ye men of the House of Justice." Ye need to be calm and composed, so that the work will proceed with wisdom, otherwise there will be such chaos that ye will leave everything and run away. "This newly born babe is traversing in one night the path that needeth a hundred years to tread." In brief, ye should now engage in matters of pure spirituality and not contend with men. 'Abdu'l-Baha will tactfully take appropriate steps. Be assured. In the end thou wilt thyself exclaim, "This was indeed supreme wisdom!" I appeal to you to obliterate this contention between men and women....

No one can on his own achieve anything. 'Abdu'l-Bahá must be well pleased and assist.

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian) [11]

 

12: Know thou, O handmaid, that in the sight of Bahá, women are accounted the...

Know thou, O handmaid, that in the sight of Bahá, women are accounted the same as men, and God hath created all humankind in His own image, and after His own likeness. That is, men and women alike are the revealers of His names and attributes, and from the spiritual viewpoint there is no difference between them. Whosoever draweth nearer to God, that one is the most favoured, whether man or woman. How many a handmaid, ardent and devoted, hath, within the sheltering shade of Bahá, proved superior to the men, and surpassed the famous of the earth.

The House of Justice, however, according to the explicit text of the Law of God, is confined to men;(2) this for a wisdom of the Lord God's, which will ere long be made manifest as clearly as the sun at high noon.

("Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" [rev. ed.], (Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1982), sec. 38, pp. 79-80) [12]

 

13: And among the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh is the equality of women and...

And among the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh is the equality of women and men. The world of humanity has two wings--one is women and the other men. Not until both wings are equally developed can the bird fly. Should one wing remain weak, flight is impossible. Not until the world of women becomes equal to the world of men in the acquisition of virtues and perfections, can success and prosperity be attained as they ought to be.

("Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá", sec. 227, p. 302) [13]

 

14: Inasmuch as this is the century of light, it is evident that the Sun of...

Inasmuch as this is the century of light, it is evident that the Sun of Reality, the Word, has revealed itself to all humankind. One of the potentialities hidden in the realm of humanity was the capability or capacity of womanhood. Through the effulgent rays of divine illumination the capacity of woman has become so awakened and manifest in this age that equality of man and woman is an established fact....

...

In this day man must investigate reality impartially and without prejudice in order to reach the true knowledge and conclusions. What, then, constitutes the inequality between man and woman? Both are human. In powers and function each is the complement of the other. At most it is this: that woman has been denied the opportunities which man has so long enjoyed, especially the privilege of education....

...

The truth is that all mankind are the creatures and servants of one God, and in His estimate all are human. Man is a generic term applying to all humanity. The biblical statement "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness" does not mean that woman was not created. The image and likeness of God apply to her as well. In Persian and Arabic there are two distinct words translated into English as man: one meaning man and woman collectively, the other distinguishing man as male from woman the female. The first word and its pronoun are generic, collective; the other is restricted to the male. This is the same in Hebrew.

To accept and observe a distinction which God has not intended in creation is ignorance and superstition....

It is my hope that the banner of equality may be raised throughout the five continents where as yet it is not fully recognized and established. In this enlightened world of the West woman has advanced an immeasurable degree beyond the women of the Orient. And let it be known once more that until woman and man recognize and realize equality, social and political progress here or anywhere will not be possible. For the world of humanity consists of two parts or members: one is woman; the other is man. Until these two members are equal in strength, the oneness of humanity cannot be established, and the happiness and felicity of mankind will not be a reality. God willing, this is to be so.

("The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912", 2nd. ed. (Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1982), pp. 74-77) [14]

 

15: Today questions of the utmost importance are facing humanity, questions...

Today questions of the utmost importance are facing humanity, questions peculiar to this radiant century....

One of these questions concerns the rights of woman and her equality with man. In past ages it was held that woman and man were not equal--that is to say, woman was considered inferior to man, even from the standpoint of her anatomy and creation. She was considered especially inferior in intelligence, and the idea prevailed universally that it was not allowable for her to step into the arena of important affairs. In some countries man went so far as to believe and teach that woman belonged to a sphere lower than human. But in this century, which is the century of light and the revelation of mysteries, God is proving to the satisfaction of humanity that all this is ignorance and error; nay, rather, it is well established that mankind and womankind as parts of composite humanity are coequal and that no difference in estimate is allowable, for all are human. The conditions in past centuries were due to woman's lack of opportunity. She was denied the right and privilege of education and left in her undeveloped state. Naturally, she could not and did not advance. In reality, God has created all mankind, and in the estimation of God there is no distinction as to male and female. The one whose heart is pure is acceptable in His sight, be that one man or woman. God does not inquire, "Art thou woman or art thou man?" He judges human actions. If these are acceptable in the threshold of the Glorious One, man and woman will be equally recognized and rewarded.

("The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912", p. 133) [15]

 

16: The world of humanity consists of two parts: male and female. Each is...

The world of humanity consists of two parts: male and female. Each is the complement of the other. Therefore, if one is defective, the other will necessarily be incomplete, and perfection cannot be attained. There is a right hand and a left hand in the human body, functionally equal in service and administration. If either proves defective, the defect will naturally extend to the other by involving the completeness of the whole; for accomplishment is not normal unless both are perfect. If we say one hand is deficient, we prove the inability and incapacity of the other; for single-handed there is no full accomplishment. Just as physical accomplishment is complete with two hands, so man and woman, the two parts of the social body, must be perfect. It is not natural that either should remain undeveloped; and until both are perfected, the happiness of the human world will not be realized.

("The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912", p. 134) [16]

 

17: The status of woman in former times was exceedingly deplorable, for it was...

The status of woman in former times was exceedingly deplorable, for it was the belief of the Orient that it was best for woman to be ignorant. It was considered preferable that she should not know reading or writing in order that she might not be informed of events in the world. Woman was considered to be created for rearing children and attending to the duties of the household. If she pursued educational courses, it was deemed contrary to chastity; hence women were made prisoners of the household. The houses did not even have windows opening upon the outside world. Bahá'u'lláh destroyed these ideas and proclaimed the equality of man and woman. He made woman respected by commanding that all women be educated, that there be no difference in the education of the two sexes and that man and woman share the same rights. In the estimation of God there is no distinction of sex. One whose thought is pure, whose education is superior, whose scientific attainments are greater, whose deeds of philanthropy excel, be that one man or woman, white or colored, is entitled to full rights and recognition; there is no differentiation whatsoever....

("The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912", p. 166) [17]

 

18: Woman's lack of progress and proficiency has been due to her need of equal...

Woman's lack of progress and proficiency has been due to her need of equal education and opportunity. Had she been allowed this equality, there is no doubt she would be the counterpart of man in ability and capacity. The happiness of mankind will be realized when women and men coordinate and advance equally, for each is the complement and helpmeet of the other.

("The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912", p. 182) [18]

 

19: He establishes the equality of man and woman. This is peculiar to the...

He establishes the equality of man and woman. This is peculiar to the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh, for all other religions have placed man above woman.

("The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912", p. 455) [19]

 

20: Women have equal rights with men upon earth; in religion and society they...

Women have equal rights with men upon earth; in religion and society they are a very important element. As long as women are prevented from attaining their highest possibilities, so long will men be unable to achieve the greatness which might be theirs.

("Paris Talks: Addresses given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912", 10th ed. (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1979), p. 133) [20]

 

21: In the world of humanity ... the female sex is treated as though inferior, and...

In the world of humanity ... the female sex is treated as though inferior, and is not allowed equal rights and privileges. This condition is due not to nature, but to education. In the Divine Creation there is no such distinction. Neither sex is superior to the other in the sight of God. Why then should one sex assert the inferiority of the other, withholding just rights and privileges as though God had given His authority for such a course of action? If women received the same educational advantages as those of men, the result would demonstrate the equality of capacity of both for scholarship.

In some respects woman is superior to man. She is more tender-hearted, more receptive, her intuition is more intense.

("Paris Talks: Addresses given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912", p. 161) [21]

 

22: Divine Justice demands that the rights of both sexes should be equally...

Divine Justice demands that the rights of both sexes should be equally respected since neither is superior to the other in the eyes of Heaven. Dignity before God depends, not on sex, but on purity and luminosity of heart. Human virtues belong equally to all!

("Paris Talks: Addresses given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912", p. 162) [22]

 

23: In the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh, women are advancing side by side with...

In the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh, women are advancing side by side with men. There is no area or instance where they will lag behind: they have equal rights with men, and will enter, in the future, into all branches of the administration of society. Such will be their elevation that, in every area of endeavour, they will occupy the highest levels in the human world. Rest thou assured. Look not upon their present state. In future, the world of womankind will shine with lustrous brilliance, for such is the will and purpose of Bahá'u'lláh. At the time of elections the right to vote is the inalienable right of women, and the entrance of women into all human departments is an irrefutable and incontrovertible question. No soul can retard or prevent it.

But there are certain matters, the participation in which is not worthy of women. For example, at the time when the community is taking up vigorous defensive measures against the attack of foes, the women are exempt from military engagements. It may so happen that at a given time warlike and savage tribes may furiously attack the body politic with the intention of carrying on a wholesale slaughter of its members; under such a circumstance defence is necessary, but it is the duty of men to organize and execute such defensive measures and not the women--because their hearts are tender and they cannot endure the sight of the horror of carnage, even if it is for the sake of defence. From such and similar undertakings the women are exempt.

As regards the constitution of the House of Justice, Bahá'u'lláh addresses the men. He says: "O ye men of the House of Justice!"

But when its members are to be elected, the right which belongs to women, so far as their voting and their voice is concerned, is indisputable. When the women attain to the ultimate degree of progress, then, according to the exigency of the time and place and their great capacity, they shall obtain extraordinary privileges. Be ye confident on these accounts. His Holiness Bahá'u'lláh has greatly strengthened the cause of women, and the rights and privileges of women is one of the greatest principles of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Rest ye assured! Ere long the days shall come when the men addressing the women, shall say: 'Blessed are ye! Blessed are ye! Verily ye are worthy of every gift. Verily ye deserve to adorn your heads with the crown of everlasting glory, because in sciences and arts, in virtues and perfections ye shall become equal to man, and as regards tenderness of heart and the abundance of mercy and sympathy ye are superior'.

(From a Tablet to an individual believer - translated from the Persian, published in "Paris Talks: Addresses given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912", p. 182-84) [23]

 

24: The woman of the East has progressed. Formerly in India, Persia and...

The woman of the East has progressed. Formerly in India, Persia and throughout the Orient, she was not considered a human being. Certain Arab tribes counted their women in with the live stock. In their language the noun for woman also meant donkey; that is, the same name applied to both and a man's wealth was accounted by the number of these beasts of burden he possessed. The worst insult one could hurl at a man was to cry out, "Thou woman!"

From the moment Bahá'u'lláh appeared, this changed. He did away with the idea of distinction between the sexes, proclaiming them equal in every capacity.

In former times it was considered wiser that woman should not know how to read or write; she should occupy herself only with drudgery. She was very ignorant. Bahá'u'lláh declares the education of woman to be of more importance than that of man. If the mother be ignorant, even if the father have great knowledge, the child's education will be at fault, for education begins with the milk. A child at the breast is like a tender branch that the gardener can train as he wills.

The East has begun to educate its women. Some there are in Persia who have become liberated through this cause, whose cleverness and eloquence the 'ulamá cannot refute. Many of them are poets. They are absolutely fearless.

...

I hope for a like degree of progress among the women of Europe--that each may shine like unto a lamp; that they may cry out the proclamation of the kingdom; that they may truly assist the men; nay, that they may be even superior to the men, versed in sciences and yet detached, so that the whole world may bear witness to the fact that men and women have absolutely the same rights. It would be a cause of great joy for me to see such women. This is useful work; by it woman will enter into the kingdom. Otherwise, there will be no results.

("'Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy" (Boston: Tudor Press, 1918), pp. 81-83) [24]

 

25: The world in the past has been ruled by force, and man has dominated over...

The world in the past has been ruled by force, and man has dominated over woman by reason of his more forceful and aggressive qualities both of body and mind. But the balance is already shifting; force is losing its dominance, and mental alertness, intuition, and the spiritual qualities of love and service, in which woman is strong, are gaining ascendancy. Hence the new age will be an age less masculine and more permeated with the feminine ideals, or, to speak more exactly, will be an age in which the masculine and feminine elements of civilization will be more evenly balanced.

(J. E. Esslemont, "Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era", 5th rev. ed. (Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1987), p. 149) [25]

 

Extracts From Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi:

 

26: If presented properly the position of women in the Bahá'í teachings will...

If presented properly the position of women in the Bahá'í teachings will surely attract much attention, for it is not only legal but also spiritual and educational. Our ideals are so high and at the same time so practicable that all other views will fall short if compared to them.

(7 January 1931 to the National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma) [26]

 

27: As regards your question concerning the membership of the Universal House...

As regards your question concerning the membership of the Universal House of Justice: there is a Tablet from 'Abdul-Bahá in which He definitely states that the membership of the Universal House is confined to men, and that the wisdom of it will be fully revealed and appreciated in the future. In the local as well as the national Houses of Justice, however, women have the full right of membership. It is, therefore, only to the International House that they cannot be elected. The Bahá'ís should accept this statement of the Master in a spirit of deep faith, confident that there is a divine guidance and wisdom behind it which will be gradually unfolded to the eyes of the world.

(28 July 1936 to an individual believer) [27]

 

28: As regards the membership of the International House of Justice,...

As regards the membership of the International House of Justice, 'Abdu'l-Bahá states in a Tablet that it is confined to men, and that the wisdom of it will be revealed as manifest as the sun in the future. In any case the believers should know that, as 'Abdu'l-Bahá Himself has explicitly stated that sexes are equal except in some cases, the exclusion of women from the International House of Justice should not be surprising. From the fact that there is no equality of functions between the sexes one should not, however, infer that either sex is inherently superior or inferior to the other, or that they are unequal in their rights.

(14 December 1940 to the National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma) [28]

 

Extracts From Letters Written by the Universal House of Justice:

 

29: It is apparent from the Guardian's writings that where Bahá'u'lláh...

It is apparent from the Guardian's writings that where Bahá'u'lláh has expressed a law as between a man and a woman it applies, mutatis mutandis, between a woman and a man unless the context should make this impossible. For example, the text of the "Kitáb-i-Aqdas" forbids a man to marry his father's wife (i.e. his step-mother), and the Guardian has indicated that likewise a woman is forbidden to marry her step-father....

(28 April 1974 to an individual believer) [29]

 

30: Concerning your questions about the equality of men and women, this, as...

Concerning your questions about the equality of men and women, this, as 'Abdu'l-Bahá has often explained, is a fundamental principle of Bahá'u'lláh; therefore the Laws of the "Aqdas" should be studied in the light of it. Equality between men and women does not, indeed physiologically it cannot, mean identity of functions. In some things women excel men, for others men are better fitted than women, while in very many things the difference of sex is of no effect at all. The differences of function are most apparent in family life. The capacity for motherhood has many far-reaching implications which are recognized in Bahá'í Law. For example, when it is not possible to educate all one's children, daughters receive preference over sons, as mothers are the first educators of the next generation. Again, for physiological reasons, women are granted certain exemptions from fasting that are not applicable to men.

(24 July 1975 to an individual believer) [30]

 

31: The primary question to be resolved is how the present world, with its...

The primary question to be resolved is how the present world, with its entrenched pattern of conflict, can change to a world in which harmony and co-operation will prevail.

World order can be founded only on an unshakable consciousness of the oneness of mankind, a spiritual truth which all the human sciences confirm. Anthropology, physiology, psychology, recognize only one human species, albeit infinitely varied in the secondary aspects of life. Recognition of this truth requires abandonment of prejudice--prejudice of every kind--race, class, colour, creed, nation, sex, degree of material civilization, everything which enables people to consider themselves superior to others.

Acceptance of the oneness of mankind is the first fundamental prerequisite for reorganization and administration of the world as one country, the home of humankind. Universal acceptance of this spiritual principle is essential to any successful attempt to establish world peace....

(October 1985 to the Peoples of the World) [31]

 

From Letters Written on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice

 

32: To the general premise that women and men have equality in the Faith,...

To the general premise that women and men have equality in the Faith, this, as often explained by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, is a fundamental principle deriving from Bahá'u'lláh and therefore His mention of the "Men of Justice" in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas should be considered in light of that principle....

(29 June 1976 to an individual believer) [32]

 

33: ...'Abdu'l-Bahá asserts: "In this divine age the bounties of God have...

...'Abdu'l-Bahá asserts: "In this divine age the bounties of God have encompassed the world of women. Equality of men and women, except in some negligible instances, has been fully and categorically announced. Distinctions have been utterly removed." That men and women differ from one another in certain characteristics and functions is an inescapable fact of nature; the important thing is that He regards such inequalities as remain between the sexes as being "negligible".

(8 January 1981 to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States) [33]

 

34: You are quite right in stating that men and women have basic and distinct...

You are quite right in stating that men and women have basic and distinct qualities. The solution provided in the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh is not, as you correctly observe, for men to become women, and for women to become men. 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave us the key to the problem when He taught that the qualities and functions of men and women "complement" each other. He further elucidated this point when He said that the "new age" will be "an age in which the masculine and feminine elements of civilization will be more properly balanced."

(22 April 1981 to an individual believer) [34]

 

35: It may be helpful to stress ... that the Bahá'í principle of the...

It may be helpful to stress ... that the Bahá'í principle of the equality of men and women is clearly stated in the teachings, and the fact that there is diversity of function between them in certain areas does not negate this principle.

(23 August 1984 to two believers) [35]

 

II. THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN

 

Extracts From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh:

 

36: It is the bounden duty of parents to rear their children to be staunch in...

It is the bounden duty of parents to rear their children to be staunch in faith ... For every praiseworthy deed is born out of the light of religion, and lacking this supreme bestowal the child will not turn away from any evil, nor will he draw nigh unto any good.

(From a Tablet - translated from Persian, published in "Bahá'í Education, a compilation", 1976 World Centre edition, p. 6) [36]

 

Extracts From the Writings and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá:

 

37: Praised be God, the women believers have organized meetings where they will...

Praised be God, the women believers have organized meetings where they will learn how to teach the Faith, will spread the sweet savours of the Teachings and make plans for training the children.

...those present should concern themselves with every means of training the girl children; with teaching the various branches of knowledge, good behaviour, a proper way of life, the cultivation of a good character, chastity and constancy, perseverance, strength, determination, firmness of purpose; with household management, the education of children, and whatever especially applieth to the needs of girls--to the end that these girls, reared in the stronghold of all perfections, and with the protection of a goodly character, will, when they themselves become mothers, bring up their children from earliest infancy to have a good character and conduct themselves well.

Let them also study whatever will nurture the health of the body and its physical soundness, and how to guard their children from disease.

("Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá", sec. 94, pp. 123-24) [37]

 

38: Work ye for the guidance of the women in that land, teach the young girls and...

Work ye for the guidance of the women in that land, teach the young girls and the children, so that the mothers may educate their little ones from their earliest days, thoroughly train them, rear them to have a goodly character and good morals, guide them to all the virtues of humankind, prevent the development of any behaviour that would be worthy of blame, and foster them in the embrace of Bahá'í education. Thus shall these tender infants be nurtured at the breast of the knowledge of God and His love. Thus shall they grow and flourish, and be taught righteousness and the dignity of humankind, resolution and the will to strive and to endure. Thus shall they learn perseverance in all things, the will to advance, high mindedness and high resolve, chastity and purity of life. Thus shall they be enabled to carry to a successful conclusion whatsoever they undertake.

Let the mothers consider that whatever concerneth the education of children is of the first importance. Let them put forth every effort in this regard, for when the bough is green and tender it will grow in whatever way ye train it. Therefore it is incumbent upon the mothers to rear their little ones even as a gardener tendeth his young plants. Let them strive by day and by night to establish within their children faith and certitude, the fear of God, the love of the Beloved of the worlds, and all good qualities and traits. Whensoever a mother seeth that her child hath done well, let her praise and applaud him and cheer his heart; and if the slightest undesirable trait should manifest itself, let her counsel the child and punish him, and use means based on reason, even a slight verbal chastisement should this be necessary. It is not, however, permissible to strike a child, or vilify him, for the child's character will be totally perverted if he be subjected to blows or verbal abuse.

("Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá", sec. 95, pp. 124-25) [38]

 

39: ...it is incumbent upon the father and mother to train their children both in...

...it is incumbent upon the father and mother to train their children both in good conduct and the study of books; study, that is, to the degree required, so that no child, whether girl or boy, will remain illiterate....

("Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá", sec 101, p. 127) [39]

 

40: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's supreme joy is in observing that a number of leaves from among...

'Abdu'l-Bahá's supreme joy is in observing that a number of leaves from among the handmaidens of the Blessed Beauty have been educated, that they are the essence of detachment, and are well-informed of the mysteries of the world of being; that they raise such a call in their glorification and praise of the Greatest Name as to cause the inmates of the Fanes of the Kingdom to become attracted and overjoyed, and that they recite prayers in prose and poetry, and melodiously chant the divine verses. I cherish the hope that thou wilt be one of them, wilt cast forth pearls, wilt be constantly engaged in singing His praise and wilt intone celestial strains in glorification of His attributes....

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian) [40]

 

41: ...Thou hast written about the girls' school. What was previously written...

...Thou hast written about the girls' school. What was previously written still holdeth true. There can be no improvement unless the girls are brought up in schools and centres of learning, unless they are taught the sciences and other branches of knowledge, and unless they acquire the manifold arts, as necessary, and are divinely trained. For the day will come when these girls will become mothers. Mothers are the first educators of children, who establish virtues in the child's inner nature. They encourage the child to acquire perfections and goodly manners, warn him against unbecoming qualities, and encourage him to show forth resolve, firmness, and endurance under hardship, and to advance on the high road to progress. Due regard for the education of girls is, therefore, necessary. This is a very important subject, and it should be administered and organized under the aegis of the Spiritual Assembly....

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian) [41]

 

42: ...it is incumbent upon the girls of this glorious era to be fully versed in...

...it is incumbent upon the girls of this glorious era to be fully versed in the various branches of knowledge, in sciences and the arts and all the wonders of this pre-eminent time, that they may then educate their children and train them from their earliest days in the ways of perfection.

(From a Tablet - translated from the Persian) [42]

 

43: Furthermore, the education of woman is more necessary and important than...

Furthermore, the education of woman is more necessary and important than that of man, for woman is the trainer of the child from its infancy. If she be defective and imperfect herself, the child will necessarily be deficient; therefore, imperfection of woman implies a condition of imperfection in all mankind, for it is the mother who rears, nurtures and guides the growth of the child. This is not the function of the father. If the educator be incompetent, the educated will be correspondingly lacking. This is evident and incontrovertible. Could the student be brilliant and accomplished if the teacher is illiterate and ignorant? The mothers are the first educators of mankind; if they be imperfect, alas for the condition and future of the race.

...

It has been objected by some that woman is not equally capable with man and that she is deficient by creation. This is pure imagination. The difference in capability between man and woman is due entirely to opportunity and education. Heretofore woman has been denied the right and privilege of equal development. If equal opportunity be granted her, there is no doubt she would be the peer of man. History will evidence this. In past ages noted women have arisen in the affairs of nations and surpassed men in their accomplishments....

...

The purpose, in brief, is this: that if woman be fully educated and granted her rights, she will attain the capacity for wonderful accomplishments and prove herself the equal of man. She is the coadjutor of man, his complement and helpmeet. Both are human; both are endowed with potentialities of intelligence and embody the virtues of humanity. In all human powers and functions they are partners and coequals. At present in spheres of human activity woman does not manifest her natal prerogatives, owing to lack of education and opportunity. Without doubt education will establish her equality with men....

("The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912", pp. 133-37) [43]

 

44: In proclaiming the oneness of mankind He taught that men and women are...

In proclaiming the oneness of mankind He taught that men and women are equal in the sight of God and that there is no distinction to be made between them. The only difference between them now is due to lack of education and training. If woman is given equal opportunity of education, distinction and estimate of inferiority will disappear....

He promulgated the adoption of the same course of education for man and woman. Daughters and sons must follow the same curriculum of study, thereby promoting unity of the sexes. When all mankind shall receive the same opportunity of education and the equality of men and women be realized, the foundations of war will be utterly destroyed....

("The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912", pp. 174-75) [44]

 

45: Why should a woman be left mentally undeveloped? Science is praiseworthy--...

Why should a woman be left mentally undeveloped? Science is praiseworthy--whether investigated by the intellect of man or woman. So, little by little, woman advanced, giving increasing evidence of equal capabilities with man--whether in scientific research, political ability or any other sphere of human activity. The conclusion is evident that woman has been outdistanced through lack of education and intellectual facilities. If given the same educational opportunities or course of study, she would develop the same capacity and abilities.

("The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912", p. 281) [45]

 

46: Bahá'u'lláh has announced that inasmuch as ignorance and lack of...

Bahá'u'lláh has announced that inasmuch as ignorance and lack of education are barriers of separation among mankind, all must receive training and instruction. Through this provision the lack of mutual understanding will be remedied and the unity of mankind furthered and advanced. Universal education is a universal law. It is, therefore, incumbent upon every father to teach and instruct his children according to his possibilities. If he is unable to educate them, the body politic, the representative of the people, must provide the means for their education.

The sex distinction which exists in the human world is due to the lack of education for woman, who has been denied equal opportunity for development and advancement. Equality of the sexes will be established in proportion to the increased opportunities afforded woman in this age, for man and woman are equally the recipients of powers and endowments from God, the Creator. God has not ordained dis


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