SEMINAR 6. PHRASEOLOGICAL EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC DEVICES
Points for discussion:
1. Stylistic potentialities of phraseology.
2. Decomposition of phraseological units for stylistic purposes.
3. Stylistic value of proverbs and sayings.
4. Stylistic use of quotations and allusions.
Assignments for self-control:
1. Define the lexico-stylistic paradigm of phraseological units.
2. How is decomposition of phraseological units achieved?
3. What stylistic charge do proverbs and sayings possess? Adduce examples of their modified forms.
4. What is a quotation? Comment on its functional aspect.
5. What implications may be embodied in allusions?
Obligatory practical assignments:
Exercise 1. Point out semantic principles of: 1) phraseological fusions; 2) praseological unities; 3) phraseological combinations:
a) the emotional quality is based upon the image created by the whole,
b) they are not only motivated but contain one component used in its direct meaning while the other is used figuratively,
c) represent the highest stage of blending together.
Exercise 2. Group the following set expressions according to the semantic variants they represent in themselves: 1) phraseological fusions; 2) praseological unities; 3) phraseological combinations:
1. to meet the requirements,
2. to take something for granted,
3. to lose one's heart to someone,
4. to be the last straw,
5. at sixes and sevens,
6. to have a bite,
7. to stick to one's word,
8. neck and crop,
9. to stick to one's guns,
10. tit for tat,
11. to know the way the wind is blowing,
12. bosom friends,
13. to make a mistake,
14. in a nutshell,
15. to talk shop,
16. to fall between two stools,
17. to turn the scale(s),
18. a black sheep.
Exercise 3. Choose the sentence that shows the meaning of the idiom in italics:
1. That was a slap in the face.
a. Someone hit me in the face.
b. Someone insulted me.
c. Someone complimented me.
2. John is wet behind the ears.
a. He didn't dry his ears.
b. He doesn't have much experience.
c. He hears well.
3. They don't see eye to eye.
a. They never look at each other.
b. They always wear dark sunglasses.
c. They don't agree with each other.
4. That car is on its last legs.
a. It only has one tire.
b. It needs a paint job.
c. It is about to break down completely.
Exercise 4. Group the set expressions according to their connotation: a) positive; b) negative:
1. to wash one's dirty linen in the public,
2. to keep in the pin,
3. to take leave of one's senses,
4. to kick the bucket,
5. to look like a thousand dollars,
6. to call names,
7. to lend a helping hand,
8. to flog a dead horse,
9. to miss the boat,
10. to pull the wool over someone's eyes,
11. leaves without figs,
12. to bring home the bacon,
13. a wet night,
14. to bury the tomahawk,
15. the iron in one's soul,
16. alive and kicking.
Exercise 5. Explain the meaning of the following set expressions and choose two synonyms for each of them from those mentioned below: a) to eat the fat of the land; b) to fish in the air; c) to come off cheap:
1. to seek a hare in a hen's nest,
2. to roll in luxury,
3. to sow the sand,
4. to get off with a whole skin,
5. to live in a bed of roses,
6. to get unscathed out of the battle.
Exercise 6. Indicate each set expression as belonging to one of the following kinds according to the sphere of usage: 1) legalism; 2) commercialism; 3) theatricalism; 4) military term; 5) naval term; 6) parliamentarism; 7) hunters' term:
1. to draw the badger,
2. to make an affidavit,
3. to block the bill,
4. to come out of action,
5. to be all adrift,
6. short bill,
7. full house.
Exercise 7. Indicate each set expression as belonging to one of the following kinds according to the vocabulary layer: 1) archaism; 2) poeticism; 3) barbarism; 4) bookish expression; 5) colloquialism; 6) jargonism:
1. proud sea,
2. Achilles heel,
3. ask me another,
4. a la mode,
5. monkey's allowance,
6. at adventure.
Exercise 8. Group separately phraseological units containing: a)
Exercise 9. Point out of the following: 1) cliches; 2) proverbs; 3) sayings; 4) epigrams/aphorisms; 5) quotations; 6) allusions:
a) Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice; When people agree with me I always feel that I must be wrong;
b) No little Grandgrind had ever ² associated a cow in a field with that famous cow with the crumpled horn that j tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt...; It is difficult to answer to be or not to be;
c) the irony of fate; swan song;
d) This scholar treats style as "socially cognized and functionally conditioned internally united totality..."; The government "has a lot of life in it as a single-party ruling regime," adds the diplomat;
e) A drowning man will clutch at a straw; Two many cooks spoil the broth;
f) as pleased as Punch; tit for tat.
Exercise 10. Indicate the type of decomposition of phraseological units: 1) shortening; 2) expansion; 3) insertion; 4) substitution; 5) word order change; 6) contextual change; 7) complex change:
1. It's time to make political hay.
2. The crow is not so bad a bird after all. It never shows the white feather and never complains without caws.
3. "The police say that you and your wife had some words." – "I had some, but I didn't get a chance to use them."
4. I prefer a bird in the hand.
5. Deep runs smooth water.
6. He is murdering time.
7. Little Jon had been born with a silver spoon in his mouth, which was rather curly and large.
SEMINAR 7. STYLISTIC DEVICES BASED ON THE EXTENTION OF THE SENTENCE MODEL (STYLISTIC SYNTAX)
Points for discussion:
1. Expressive means of syntax.
2. Repetition and its types.
6. Parallel constructions.
Assignments for self-control:
1. Describe basic means of transformation of the sentence model.
2. What types of repetition do you know?
3. Comment on functions of repetition.
4. What is enumeration? How is it arranged and what is its function?
5. Dwell on syntactic tautology and its expressiveness.
6. Speak of the effect produced by the repeated use of conjunctions.
7. Compare complete parallelism, partial parallelism and chiasmus.
Exercise 1. From the following examples yon will get a better idea of the functions of various types of repetition, and also of parallelism and chiasmus:
1. I wake up and I'm alone and I walk round Warley and I'm alone; and I talk with people and I'm alone and I look at his face when I'm home and it's dead.
2. Babbitt was virtuous. He advocated, though he did not practice, the prohibition of alcohol; he praised, – though he did not obey, the laws against motor-speeding.
3. "To think better of it," returned the gallant Blandois, "would be to slight a lady, to slight a lady would be to be deficient in chivalry towards the sex, and chivalry towards the sex is a part of my character."
4. Halfway along the righthand side of the dark brown hall was a dark brown door with a dark brown settee beside it. After I had put my hat, my gloves, my muffler and my coat on the settee we three went through the dark brown door into a darkness without any brown in it.
5. I might as well face facts; good-bye Susan, good-bye a big car, good-bye a big house, good-bye power, good-bye the silly handsome dreams.
6. I really don't see anything romantic in proposing. It is very romantic to be in love. But there is nothing romantic about a definite proposal.
7. I wanted to knock over the table and hit him until my arm had no more strength in it, then give him the boot, give him the boot, give him j the boot – I drew a deep breath.
8. Of her father's being groundlessly suspected, she felt sure. Sure. Sure.
9. Now he understood. He understood many things. One can be a person first. A man first and then a black man or a white man.
10. She stopped, and seemed to catch the distant sound of knocking. Abandoning the traveller, she hurried towards the parlour; in the passage she assuredly did hear knocking, angry and impatient knocking, the knocking of someone who thinks he has knocked too long.
11. Obviously – this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously.
12. And a great desire for peace, peace of no matter what kind, swept through her.
13. When he blinks, a parrot-like look appears, the look of some heavily blinking tropical bird.
14. And everywhere were people. People going into gates and coming out of gates. People staggering and falling. People fighting and cursing.
15. Then there was something between them. There was. There was.
16. He ran away from the battle. He was an ordinary human being that didn't want to kill or be killed. So he ran away from the battle.
17. Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led, in the final stages, to the smells and stagnation of B. Inn Alley.
18. "Secret Love", "Autumn Leaves", and something whose title he missed. Supper music. Music to cook by.
19. Living is the art of loving.
Loving is the art of caring.
Caring is the art of sharing.
Sharing is the art of living.
20. I came back, shrinking from my father's money, shrinking from my father's memory: mistrustful of being forced on a mercenary wife, mistrustful of my father's intention in thrusting that marriage on me, mistrustful that I was already growing avaricious, mistrustful that I was slackening in gratitude to the dear noble honest friends who had made the only sunlight in my childish life.
21. If you know anything that is not known to others, if you have any suspicion, if you have any clue at all, and any reason for keeping it in your own breast, think of me, and conquer that reason and let it be known!
22. I notice that father's is a large hand, but never a heavy one when it touches me, and that father's is a rough voice but never an angry one when it speaks to me.
23. From the offers of marriage that fell to her Dona Clara, deliberately, chose the one that required her removal to Spain. So to Spain she went.
24. There lives at least one being who can never change – one being who would be content to devote his whole existence to your happiness – who lives but in your eyes – who breathes but in your smile – who bears the heavy burden of life itself only for you.
25. It is she, in association with whom, saving that she has been for years a main fibre of the roof of his dignity and pride, he has never had a selfish thought. It is she, whom he has loved, admired, honoured and set up for the world to respect. It is she, who, at the core of all the constrained formalities and conventionalities of his life, has been a stock of living tenderness and love.
Exercise 2. Specify stylistic functions of the types of connection given below:
1. Then from the town pour Wops and Chinamen and Polaks, men and women in trousers and rubber coats and oilcloth aprons. They come running to clean and cut and pack and cook and can the fish. The whole street rumbles and groans and screams and rattles while the silver rivers offish pour in out of the boats and the boats rise higher and higher in the water until they are empty. The canneries rumble and rattle and squeak until the last fish is cleaned and cut and cooked and canned and then the whistles scream again and the dripping smelly tired Wops and Chinamen and Polaks, men and women struggle out and droop their ways up the hill into the town and Cannery Row becomes itself again – quiet and magical.
2. "What sort of a place is Dufton exactly?"
"A lot of mills. And a chemical factory. And a Grammar school and a war memorial and a river that runs different colours each day. And a cinema and fourteen pubs. That's really all one can say about it."
3. By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and plates and spoons and things piled up on big trays, he was getting very hot, and red in the face, and annoyed.
4. Bella soaped his face and rubbed his face, and soaped his hands and rubbed his hands, and splashed him, and rinsed him, and towelled him, until he was as red as beetroot.
Exercise 3. Pick out the syntactic stylistic devices based on the extension of the sentence model:
1. a rhetoric question,
9. an apokoinu construction,
13. a nominative sentence,
14. parallel constructions.
Exercise 4. Pick out tautology in the following sentences:
1. Pain, even slight pain, tends to isolate. Pain, such as he had to suffer, cuts the last links with society.
2. The widow Douglas, she took me for her son.
3. "What's the matter?" – "Nothing... everything... it's good news... news... well, Jean's much better.
4. And – now my Arvie's gone. Whatever will I and my children do? Whatever will I do? Whatever will I do?
5. I can say no more, but blessings, blessings on all in the dear house I leave, prays.
Exercise 5. Supply the missing words to indicate cases of repetition. Define the repetition types:
1. Avoid evil and it will ___ you.
2. Live not to ___ but eat to live.
3. A ___ for everything and everything in its place.
4. The alarm swept from lip to ___ from group to ___, from street to ___
5. Nothing will come of ___ .
6. What is lost is ___.
7. The worst has come to ___.
8. God defend me from my friends; from my enemies I can ___ myself.
9. He's not fit to ___others that cannot command himself.
10. He that hatches matches ___ catches.
11. If the mountain will not come to Mohammed, ___ must go to ___.
12. ___ to you is like talking to the wall.
13. It was a ghost of a train, a Flying Dutchman of ___ a nightmare of ___
14. Nothing comes from ___.
15. "That's a fine open mind you've got there!" "Open mind, my eye! We didn't come with ___.
16. Habit cures ___.
17. It's queer that you should be so different from Violet. ___ is as hard as nails. (B. Shaw).