UNIT 109 Word order (2)--adverbs with the verb
A. Some adverbs (for example, always, also, probably) go with the verb in the middle of a sentence:
* Tom always goes to work by car.
* We were feeling very tired and we were also hungry.
* Your car has probably been stolen.
B. Study these rules for the position of adverbs in the middle of a sentence. (They are only general rules, so there are exceptions.)
i) If the verb is one word (goes/fell/cooked etc.), the adverb usually goes before the verb:
Tom always(adverb) goes(verb) to work by car.
I almost(adverb) fell(verb) as I was going down the stairs.
* I cleaned the house and also cooked the dinner. (not 'cooked also')
* Lucy hardly ever watches television and rarely reads newspapers.
Note that these adverbs (always/often/also etc.) go before have to:
* Jim never phones me. I always have to phone him. (not 'I have always to phone')
ii) But adverbs go after am/is/are/was/were:
* We were feeling very tired and we were also hungry.
* Why are you always late? You're never on time.
* The traffic isn't usually as bad as it was this morning.
iii) If the verb is two or more words (can remember/doesn't smoke/has been stolen etc.), the adverb goes after the first verb (can/doesn't/has etc.):
I can(verb 1) never(adverb) remember(verb 2) his name.
Ann doesn't(verb 1) usually(adverb) smoke.(verb 2)
Are you(verb 1) definitely(adverb) going(verb 2) to the party tomorrow?
Your car has(verb 1) probably(adverb) been(verb 2) stolen.
* My parents have always lived in London.
* Jack can't cook. He can't even boil an egg.
* The house was only built a year ago and it's already falling down.
Note that probably goes before the negative. So we say:
* I probably won't see you. or I will probably not see you. (but not 'I won't probably.')
C. We also use all and both in these positions:
* We all felt ill after the meal. (not 'we felt all ill')
* My parents are both teachers. (not 'my parents both are teachers')
* Sarah and Jane have both applied for the job.
* We are all going out this evening.
D. Sometimes we use is/will/did etc. instead of repeating part of a sentence (see Unit 50A). Note the position of always/never etc. in these sentences:
* He always says he won't be late but he always is. (= he is always late)
* I've never done it and I never will. (= I will never do it) We normally put always/never etc. before the verb in sentences like these.
109.1 Are the underline words in the right position or not? Correct the sentences that are wrong.
1. Tom goes _a1ways_ to work by car. _WRONG: Tom always goes_
2. I cleaned the house and also cooked the dinner. _RIGHT_
3. I have usually a shower when I get up. ---
4. We soon found the solution to the problem. ---
5. Steve gets hardly ever angry. ---
6. I did some shopping and I went also to the bank. ---
7. Jane has always to hurry in the morning because she gets up so late. ---
8. We all were tired so we all fell asleep. ---
9. She always says she'll phone me but she never does ---
109.2 Rewrite the sentences to include the word in brackets.
1. Ann doesn't drink tea. (often) _Ann doesn't often drink tea._
2. We were on holiday. (all) ---.
3. We were staying at the same hotel. (all) ---.
4. We enjoyed ourselves. (all) ---.
5. Catherine is very generous. (always) ---.
6. 1 don't have to work on Saturdays. (usually) I ---.
7. Do you watch television in the evenings? (always) ---.
8. Martin is learning French. He is learning Italian. (also)
Martin is learning French. He ---.
9. That hotel is very expensive. (probably) ---.
10. It costs a lot to stay there. (probably) ---.
11. I can help you, (probably) ---.
12. I can't help you. (probably) ---.
109.3 Complete the sentences. Use the words in brackets in the correct order.
1. I _can never remember_ her name. (remember/never/can)
2. I --- sugar in coffee. (take/usually)
3. 1 --- hungry when I get home from work. (am/usually)
4. 'Where's Jim?' 'He --- home early.' (gone has/probably)
5. Mark and Diane --- in Manchester. (both were/born)
6. Liz is a good pianist. She --- very well. (sing/also/can)
7. Our car --- down. (often/breaks)
8. They live in the same street as me but I --- to them. (never/have/spoken)
9. We --- a long time for the bus. (have/always/to wait)
10. My sight isn't very good. I --- with glasses. (read/can/only)
11. I --- early tomorrow. (probably/leaving/will/be)
12. I'm afraid I --- able to come to the party. (probably/be I won't)
13. It's difficult to contact Sue. She --- at home when I phone her. (is/hardly ever)
14. We --- in the same place. We haven't moved. (still/are/living)
15. If we hadn't taken the same train, we --- each other. (never/met/would/have)
16. 'Are you tired?' 'Yes, I --- at this time of day.' (am/always)
UNIT 110 Still, yet and already Any more/any longer/no longer
We use still to say that a situation or action is continuing. It hasn't changed or stopped:
* It's 10 o'clock and Tom is still in bed.
* When I went to bed, Jane was still working.
* Do you still want to go to the party or have you changed your mind?
Still usually goes in the middle of the sentence with the verb. See Unit 109.
B. Any more/any longer/no longer
We use not ... any more or not ... any longer to say that a situation has changed. Any more and any longer go at the end of a sentence:
* Ann doesn't work here any more (or any longer). She left last month. (not 'Ann doesn't still work here')
* We used to be good friends but we aren't any more (or any longer).
You can also use no longer. No longer goes in the middle of the sentence:
* Ann no longer works here. Note that we do not normally use no more in this way:
* We are no longer friends. (not 'We are no more friends')
Compare still and not ... any more:
* Sheila still works here but Ann doesn't work here any more.
Yet = 'until now'. We use yet mainly in negative sentences (I haven't finished yet) and questions (Have you finished yet?). Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen.
Yet usually goes at the end of a sentence:
* It's 10 o'clock and Tom hasn't got up yet.
* I'm hungry. Is dinner ready yet?
* We don't know where we're going for our holidays yet.
We often use yet with the present perfect (Have you finished yet?). See also Unit 7C. Compare yet and still:
* Jack lost his job a year ago and is still unemployed.
Jack lost his job a year ago and hasn't found another job yet.
* Is it still raining?
Has it stopped raining yet?
Still is also possible in negative sentences (before the negative):
* She said she would be here an hour ago and she still hasn't come.
This is similar to 'she hasn't come yet'. But still. not shows a stronger feeling of surprise or impatience. Compare:
* I wrote to him last week. He hasn't replied yet. (but I expect he will reply soon)
* I wrote to him months ago and he still hasn't replied. (he should have replied before now)
We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected. Already usually goes in the middle of a sentence (see Unit 109):
* 'When is Sue going on holiday?' 'She has already gone.' (= sooner than you expected)
* Shall I tell Liz the news or does she already know?
* I've only just had lunch and I'm already hungry.
110.1 Compare what Paul said a few years ago with what he says now. Some things are the same as before and some things have changed.
Paul a few years ago (beard)
I travel a lot. I work in a shop.
I write poems.
I want to be a teacher.
I'm interested in politics. I'm single. I go fishing a lot.
I travel a lot.
I work in a hospital.
I gave up writing poems.
I want to be a teacher.
I'm not interested in politics.
I haven't been fishing for years.
Write sentences about Paul using still and not . any more.
1. (travel) _He still travels a lot._
2. (shop) _He doesn't work in a shop any more.-
3. (poems) He ---.
4. (teacher) ---.
5. (politics) ---.
6. (single) ---.
7. (fishing) ---.
8. (beard) ---.
Now write three sentences about Paul using no longer.
9. _He no longer works in a shop._
10. He ---.
110.2 For each sentence (with still) write a sentence with a similar meaning using not ... yet + one of the following verbs:
decide find finish go stop take off wake up
1. It's still raining. _It hasn't stopped raining yet._
2. George is still here. He ---.
3. They're still having their dinner. They ---.
4. The children are still asleep ---.
5. Ann is still looking for a job ---.
6. I'm still wondering what to do ---.
7. The plane is still waiting on the runway ---.
110.3 In this exercise you have to put in still, yet, already or not ... any more in the _underline_ sentence (or part of a sentence). Study the examples carefully.
1. Jack lost his job a year ago and _he is unemployed._ _He is still unemployed_
2. Do you want me to tell Liz the news or _does she know_? _does she already know
3. I'm hungry. _Is dinner ready_? _Is dinner ready yet_
4. I was hungry earlier but _I'm not hungry._ _I'm not hungry any more_
5. Can we wait a few minutes? _I don't want to go out._ ---.
6. Jill used to work at the airport but _she doesn't work there._ ---.
7. I used to live in Amsterdam. _I have a lot of friends there_ ---.
8. 'Shall I introduce you to Jim?' 'There's no need. _We've met._' ---.
9. _Do you live in the same house_ or have you moved? ---.
10. Would you like to eat with us or _have you eaten?_ ---.
11. 'Where's John?' '_He isn't here._ He'll be here soon.' ---.
12. Tim said he would be here at 8.30. It's 9 o'clock now and _he isn't here._ ---.
13. Do you want to join the club or _are you a member?_ ---.
14. It happened a long time ago but _I can remember it very clearly._ ---.
15. I've put on weight. _These trousers don't fit me._ ---.
16. '_Have you finished with the paper?_' 'No _I'm reading it._' ---.
UNIT 111 Even
A. Study this example situation:
Tina loves watching television. She has a TV set in every room of the house--even the bathroom.
We use even to say that something is unusual or surprising. It is not usual to have a TV set in the bathroom.
Some more examples:
* These photographs aren't very good. Even I could take better photographs than these. (and I'm certainly not a good photographer)
* He always wears a coat - even in hot weather.
* Nobody would lend her the money - not even her best friend. or Not even her best friend would lend her the money.
B. Very often we use even with the verb in the middle of a sentence (see Unit 109):
* Sue has travelled all over the world. She has even been to the Antarctic. (It's especially unusual to go to the Antarctic, so she must have travelled a lot.)
* They are very rich. They even have their own private jet.
Study these examples with not even:
* I can't cook. I can't even boil an egg. (and boiling an egg is very easy)
* They weren't very friendly to us. They didn't even say hello.
* Jenny is very fit. She's just run five miles and she's not even out of breath.
C. You can use even + a comparative (cheaper/more expensive etc.):
* I got up very early but John got up even earlier.
* I knew I didn't have much money but I've got even less than I thought.
* We were surprised to get a letter from her. We were even more surprised when she came to see us a few days later.
D. Even though/even when/even if
You can use even + though/when/if to join sentences. Note that you cannot use even alone in the following examples:
* Even though she can't drive, she has bought a car. (not 'Even she can't drive.')
* He never shouts, even when he's angry.
* I'll probably see you tomorrow. But even if I don't see you tomorrow, we're sure to see each other before the weekend. (not 'even I don't see you')
Compare even if and if:
* We're going to the beach tomorrow. It doesn't matter what the weather is like. We're going to the beach even if it's raining.
* We hope to go to the beach tomorrow, but we won't go if it's raining.
111.1 Sharon, Linda and Angela are three friends who went on holiday together. Use the information given about them to complete the sentences using even or not even.
Sharon is usually on time, Sharon is usually happy, Sharon likes getting up early, Sharon is very interested in art
Linda isn't very keen on art, Linda is usually miserable, Linda usually hates hotels, Linda hasn't got a camera
Angela is almost always late, Angela is a keen photographer, Angela loves staying at hotels, Angela isn't very good at getting up
1. They stayed at a hotel. Everybody liked it, _even Linda._
2. They arranged to meet. They all arrived on time ---.
3. They went to an art gallery. Nobody enjoyed it ---.
4. Yesterday they had to get up early. They all managed to do this ---.
5. They were together yesterday. They were all in a good mood ---.
6. None of them took any photographs, ---.
111.2 Make sentences with even. Use the words in brackets.
1. She has been all over the world. (the Antarctic) _She has even been to the Antarctic._
2. She has to work every day. (on Sundays) ---.
3. They painted the whole room. (the floor) They ---.
4. You could hear the noise from a long way away. (from the next street)
5. They have the windows open all the time. (when it's freezing) ---.
In the following sentences you have to use not ... even.
6. They didn't say anything to us. (hello). _The didn't even say hello._
7. I can't remember anything about her. (her name) I ---.
8. There isn't anything to do in this town. (a cinema) ---.
9. He didn't tell anybody where he was going. (his wife) ---.
111.3 Complete these sentences using even + a comparative.
1. It was very hot yesterday but today it's _even hotter._
2. The church is 500 years old but the house next to it is ---.
3. That's a very good idea but I've got an --- one.
4. The first question was very difficult to answer. The second one was ---.
5. 1 did very badly in the examination but most of my friends did ---.
6. Neither of us was hungry. I ate very little and my friend ate ---.
111.4 Put in if, even, even if or even though.
1. _Even though_ she can't drive, she has bought a car.
2. The bus leaves in five minutes but we can still catch it --- we run.
3. The bus leaves in two minutes. We won't catch it now --- we run.
4. His Spanish isn't very good --- after three years in Spain.
5. His Spanish isn't very good --- he's lived in Spain for three years.
6. --- with the heating on, it was very cold in the house.
7. --- I was very tired, I couldn't sleep.
8. I won't forgive them for what they said --- they apologise.
9. --- I hadn't eaten anything for 24 hours, I wasn't hungry.
Date: 2015-02-03; view: 2034