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Relative pronouns and relative adverbs

A Pronouns in identifying and adding clauses

There are two kinds of relative clause: identifying and adding (see Unit 141). Look at the pronouns in these examples.


IDENTIFYING

I'm sure I know the person who served us.

The pop singer whom Guy invited onto his chat

show never turned up. The woman whose flat was burgled spent the

night at a friend's house. Towns which/that attract tourists are usually

crowded in the summer.

In an identifying clause we can use who, whom, whose, which or that.


ADDING

Natalie, who served us, is a friend of Emma's. Arlene Black, whom Guy invited onto his chat

show, never turned up. Natasha, whose flat was burgled, spent the night

at a friend's house. Oxford, which attracts many tourists, is often

crowded in the summer. In an adding clause we can use who, whom, whose or which. We do not use that.


 


B Leaving out the pronoun

Sometimes we can leave the pronoun out of an identifying clause (see Unit 138B).

The woman (who) you met yesterday works in advertising.

Have you seen the book (that) I was reading?

Laura couldn't find the box (that) she kept her photos in.


We cannot leave the pronoun out of an adding clause.

Sarah, whom you met yesterday, works in

advertising. That book 'Brighton Rock', which 1 was reading,

is really good.

Laura had a wooden box, in which she kept her photos or which she kept her photos in.


C The relative adverbs where, when and why

Look at these examples.

This is the place where the accident happened.

Do you remember the day when we moved the piano upstairs?

The reason why Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita. We can leave out when or why, or we can use that.

Do you remember the day (that) we moved the piano upstairs?

The reason (that) Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.

There are also adding clauses with where and when.

We went to the Riverside Restaurant, where I once had lunch with Henry. Mark likes to travel at night, when the roads are quiet.

D A special use of which

In an adding clause, we can use which relating to a whole sentence, not just to a noun.

It rained all night, which was good for the garden. Here which means 'the fact that it rained all night'.

Here are some more examples.

David helped me clear up, which was very kind of him.

Sarah had to work late again, which annoyed Mark.

Tom pushed Nick into the swimming-pool, which seemed to amuse everyone.


142 Exercises

1 Who, whom, whose, which, where and why (A, C)

Complete this advertisement. Put in who, whom, whose, which, where or why.

The town of Keswick, (►) which lies at the heart of the Lake District, is the perfect place for a holiday, and
the Derwent Hotel, (1) overlooks the town, is the perfect place to stay. Robin and Wendy

Jackson, (2). bought this small hotel three years ago, have already won an excellent reputation.

Robin, (3). ... cooking is one of the reasons (4) ... the Derwent is so popular, was once



Young Chef of the Year. The comfort of the guests, (5) the owners treat almost as members of

the family, always comes first. Peter Ustinov, (6). once stayed at the hotel, described it as

'marvellous'. And the Lake District, (7).. has so much wonderful scenery and (8) the

poet Wordsworth lived, will not disappoint you.

2 Identifying clauses and adding clauses (A-C)

Put in the relative clauses. Sometimes there is more than one possible answer.

► Someone knows all about it - the secretary.

The person who knows all about it is the secretary.

1 Zedco has 10,000 employees. It's an international company.

Zedco, .................................................................................................................. , is an international company.

2 Vicky's name was missed off the list, so she wasn't very pleased.

Vicky,................................................................................................................................ , wasn't very pleased.

3 Laura painted a picture, and it's being shown in an exhibition.

The picture is being shown in an exhibition.

4 We're all looking forward to a concert. It's next Saturday.

The concert .................................................................................................................. is next Saturday.

5 One week Mike and Harriet went camping. It was the wettest of the year.

The week................................................................................................................... was the wettest of the year.

6 Aunt Joan is a bit deaf, so she didn't hear the phone.

Aunt Joan,................................................................................................................... , didn't hear the phone.

7 You'll meet Henry tomorrow. He's also a member of the board.

Henry,............................................................................................................ , is also a member of the board.

8 I'll see you near the post office. We met there the other day.

I'll see you near the post office, ..................................................... ....

3 A special use of which (D)

Match the sentence pairs and join them with which.

► My phone is out of order. It means he can't get about very easily.

1 Rachel's mother paid for the meal. It's made her very depressed.

2 My brother is disabled. That was rather careless of you.

3 You left the keys in the car. That caused a traffic jam.

4 Vicky didn't get the job. It's a real nuisance.

5 The police blocked off the road. That was very kind of her.

My phone is out of order, which is a real nuisance.

1 .....................................................................................................................................................................................

2

3 ......................................................................................................................................................................................



Date: 2014-12-22; view: 1539


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