16. _____________ are people, animals, etc. in stories.
17. The most important person in the story is the ______________.
18. ______________ shows what a person is like and it can offer clues to a person’s behavior and actions.
19. _____________ is the plan or pattern of events in a story. The turning point of a story is when an event happens that lets the reader know something is about to change. The climax of the story comes at the end, when the details come together and form a resolution.
20. _____________ is a way of looking at things.
21. _____________ is where and when a story takes place.
22. _____________ is the main subject or idea of a book.
2.1. Read the text. Then circle the best answer: a, b, or c.
The succession of syllables gives natural rhythm to speech through stress, vowel quantity, and pitch. Verse builds on this rhythm, organizing it into stretches of speech with recurring syllabic patterns. Such stretches have traditionally been written as sequences of lines, with the result that the expression a ‘line of verse / poetry’ is used in discussing all such works, whether oral or written.
As an oral conception, verse depends on the repetition of sound effects. Many cultures without a written language have or had verse, often in elaborate forms. Written verse is therefore a translation from the oral to the written code, in which a literate society reinterprets verse as a written form whose pattern is ‘heard’ imaginatively in silent reading or re-expressed orally in various ways, through reading aloud or recitation from memory.
Verse is not only used for poetry. Its patterning gives it a strong mnemonic value which is essential in a non-literate society and remains useful in a literate one. The oral origins of early written verse can often be detected by the presence of repeated formulas and stock phrases which aid the mnemonic effect of the metre. There are charms and riddles in Old English, as well as heroic poetry. Spells, charms, weather-lore, and useful information are passed on and remembered in verse:
(1) Thirty days hath September,
April, June and November;
All the rest have thirty one,
Excepting February alone
and that has twenty-eight days clear
and twenty-nine each leap year.
(2) Red sky at night, shepherd’s delight.
Red sky in the morning, shepherd’s warning.
Mnemonic verse can also have a more formal pedagogic value:
(3) In fourteen hundred and ninety-two
Columbus sailed the ocean blue.
The contemporary world is rich in verse. Popular songs continue the tradition of songs and ballads with (often meaningless) refrains that allow the audiences to participate. Children make up jingles about people and places as well as repeating traditional nursery rhymes. Advertisers use the power of verse and, through commercial media, have adapted orality and combined it with the pictorial, so that advertising jingles have, while they last, a role comparable to the nursery rhyme.
1. Verse consists of…….
a a series of syllables spoken with rhythm.
b continuous speech with vowels at regular intervals.
ñ lines of speech with a regular rhythm and repeated sounds,
2. Cultures that have no written language ...
a have no verse.
b may have complex verse.
c have only very simple verse.
3. It is possible to appreciate the rhythm of written verse . . .
a only by reading it silently.
b only by speaking the words aloud.
ñ either by reading it silently or speaking the words aloud.
4. The word ‘mnemonic’ probably means something that...
a makes poetry beautiful to listen to.
b helps you remember something.
ñ makes written text easy to read.
5. The use of repetition shows that the old verse ...
a only existed in societies where people could read.
b first began in spoken form.
ñ first began in written form.
6. Which of these pairs of words do not rhyme?
7. The purpose of the first piece of verse is to help people remember ...
a the names of the months.
b the number of months in any year.
ñ the number of days in any month in any year.
8. The second piece of verse aims to …
a point out the beauty of sunsets and sunrises.
b emphasize the risks of working with sheep.
ñ give advice on forecasting the weather.
9. What is the purpose of the third piece of verse?
a to teach the date of a historical event.
b to make the listener or reader laugh.
c to show what Old English spelling looked like.
10. According to the text, …..
a modern pop music has nothing in common with traditional songs.
b the words in traditional songs always had something useful to say.
ñ listeners can join in and sing both traditional and modern songs.
11. The text says that children ...
a invent their own verse.
b copy advertising jingles.
ñ don’t like old nursery rhymes.
12. Advertisers’ verse is ...
a linked to visual images.
b as permanent as traditional verse.
c often written by children.
2.2. What do the underlined words from the text refer to? Circle a or b.
1. Such stretches …….
a succession of syllables. b speech with recurring syllabic patterns.