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UNIT 121 On time/in time, At the end/in the end 4 page

say said said

see saw seen

seek sought sought

sell sold sold

send sent sent

set set set

sew sewed sewn/sewed

shake shook shaken

shine shone shone

shoot shot shot

show showed shown/showed

shrink shrank shrunk

shut shut shut

sing sang sung

sink sank sunk

sit sat sat

sleep slept slept

slide slid slid

speak spoke spoken

spend spent spent

spit spat spat

split split split

spread spread spread

spring sprang sprung

stand stood stood

steal stole stolen

stick stuck stuck

sting stung stung

stink stank stunk

strike struck struck

swear sore sworn

sweep swept swept

swim swam swum

swing swung swung

take took taken

teach taught taught

tear tore torn

tell told told

think thought thought

throw threw thrown

understand understood understood

wake woke woken

wear wore worn

weep wept wept

win won won

write wrote written




Present and past tenses


#1 I do

present simple (-> Units 2-4)

* Ann often plays tennis.

* I work in a bank but I don't enjoy it very much.

* Do you like parties?

* It doesn't rain much in summer.

#2 I am doing

present continuous (-> Units 1, 3-4)

* 'Where's Ann?' 'She's playing tennis.'

* Please don't disturb me now. I'm working.

*Hello. Are you enjoying the party?

* It isn't raining at the moment.

#3 I have done

perfect I present perfect simple (-> Units 7-8, 10-14)

Ann has played tennis many times.

* I've lost my key. Have you seen it anywhere?

* How long have they known each other?

* 'Is it still raining?' 'No, it has stopped.'

* The house is dirty. We haven't cleaned it for weeks.

#4 I have been doing

present perfect continuous (-> Units 9-11)

* Ann is very tired. She has been playing tennis.

* Your're out of breath. Have you been running?

* How long have they been learning English?

* It's still raining. It has been raining all day.

* I haven't been feeling well recently. Perhaps I should go to the doctor.

#5 I did

past simple (-> Units 5-6, 13-14)

* Ann played tennis yesterday afternoon.

* I lost my key a few days ago.

* There was a film on TV last night but we didn't watch it.

* What did you do when you finished work yesterday?

#6 I was doing

past continuous (-> Unit 6)

* I saw Ann in the park yesterday. She was playing tennis.

* I dropped my key when I was trying to open the door.

* The television was on but we weren't watching it.

* What were you doing at this time yesterday?

#7 I had done

past perfect (-> Unit 15)

* It wasn't her first game of tennis. She had played many times before.

* I couldn't get into the house because I had lost my key.

* The house was dirty because we hadn't cleaned it for weeks.

#8 I had been doing

past perfect continuous (-> Unit 16)

* Ann was tired yesterday evening because she had been playing tennis in the afternoon.

* George decided to go to the doctor because he hadn't been feeling well.

For the passive, see Units 41-43.




The future

3.1 List of future forms

* I'm leaving tomorrow. present continuous (-> Unit 19A)

* My train leaves at 9.30. present simple (-> Unit 19B)


* I'm going to leave tomorrow. (be) going to (-> Units 20, 23)

* I'll leave tomorrow. will (-> Units 21-23)

* I'll be leaving tomorrow. future continuous (-> Unit 24)

* I'll have left by this time tomorrow. future perfect (-> Unit 24)

* I hope to see you before I leave tomorrow. present simple (-> Unit 25)

3.2 Future actions

We use the present continuous (I'm doing) for arrangements:

* I'm leaving tomorrow. I've got my plane ticket. (already planned and arranged)

* 'When are they getting married?' 'Next month.'

We use the present simple (I leave/it leaves etc.) for timetables, programmes etc,:

* My train leaves at 9.30. (according to the timetable)

* What time does the film begin?

We use (be) going to ... to say what somebody has already decided to do:

* I've decided not to stay here any longer. I'm going to leave tomorrow. (or I'm leaving tomorrow.)

* Are you going to watch the film on television tonight?

We use will ('ll) when we decide or agree to do something at the time of speaking:

* A: I don't want you to stay here any longer.

B: OK. I'll leave tomorrow. (B decides this at the time of speaking)

* That bag looks heavy. I'll help you with it.

* I promise I won't tell anybody what happened. (won't =will not)

3.3 Future happenings and situations

Most often we use will to talk about future happenings or situations ('something will happen'):

* I don't think John is happy in his job. I think he'll leave soon.

* This time next year I'll be in Japan. Where will you be?

We use (be) going to when the situation now shows what is going to happen in the future:

* Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain. (you can see the clouds now)

3.4 Future continuous and future perfect

Will be (do)ing = will be in the middle of (doing something):

* This time next week I'll be on holiday. I'll be lying on a beach and swimming in the sea.

We also use will be ~ing for future actions (see Unit 24C):

* What time will you be leaving tomorrow?

We use will have (done) to say that something will already be complete before a time in the future:

* I won't be here this time tomorrow. I'll have already left.

3.5 We use the present (not 'will') after when/if/while/before etc. (see Unit 25):

* I hope to see you before I leave tomorrow. (not 'before I will leave')

* You must come and see us when you are in England again. (not 'when you will be')

* If we don't huffy, we'll be late.




Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.)

This appendix is a summary of modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.). For more information, see Units 21-40.

4.1 Compare can/could etc. for actions:


* I can go out tonight. (= there is nothing to stop me)

* I can't go out tonight.


* I could go out tonight. (but I'm not very keen)

* I couldn't go out last night. (= I wasn't able)

can or may

* Can I go out tonight? (=do you allow me to go out?)

May I go out tonight?


* I think I'll go out tonight.

* I promise I won't go out.


* I would go out tonight but I've got too much to do.

* I promised I wouldn't go out.


* Shall I go out tonight? (= do you think it is a good idea?)

should or ought to

* I should(ought to) go out tonight. (= it would be a good thing.)


* I must go out tonight. it is necessary)

* I mustn't go out tonight. it is necessary that I do not go out)


* I needn't go out tonight. (= it is not necessary that I go out)

Compare could have .../would have ... etc.:


* I could have gone out last night but I decided to stay at home.


* I would have gone out last night but I had too much to do.

should or ought to

* I should(ought to) have gone out last night. I'm sorry I didn't.


* I needn't have gone out last night. (= I went out but it was not necessary)

4.2 We use will/would/may etc. to say whether something is possible, impossible, probable, certain etc. Compare:



* 'What time will she be here?' 'She'll be here soon.'


* She would be here now but she has been delayed.

should or ought to

* She should(ought to) be here soon. (= I expect she will be here soon)

may or might or could

* She may be here now. I'm not sure. (= it's possible that she is here)

* She might be here now. I'm not sure. (= it's possible that she is here)

* She could be here now. I'm not sure. (= it's possible that she is here)


* She must be here. I saw her come in. (= I'm sure--there is no other possibility)


* She can't possibly be here. I know for certain that she's away on holiday.

Compare would have .../should have ... etc.:


* She will have arrived by now.


* She would have arrived earlier but she was delayed.

should or ought

* I wonder where she is. She should have arrived by now.

* I wonder where she is. She ought to have arrived by now.

may or might or could

* She may have arrived. I'm not sure. (= it's possible that she has arrived)

* She might have arrived. I'm not sure. (= it's possible that she has arrived)

* She could have arrived. I'm not sure. (= it's possible that she has arrived)


* She must have arrived by now. (I'm sure--there is no other possibility)


* She can't possibly have arrived yet. It's much too early. (=it's impossible)




Short forms (I'm/you've/didn't etc.)

1. In spoken English we usually say I'm/you've/didn't etc. (short forms) rather than I am/you have/did not etc. We also use short forms in informal written English (for example, in letters to friends).

When we write short forms, we use an apostrophe (') for the missing letter(s):

I'm = I am you've = you have didn't = did not

5.2 List of short forms of auxiliary verbs

'm = am -> I'm

's = is or has -> he's, she's, it's

're= are -> you're, we're, they're

've = have -> I've, you've, we've, they've

'll = will -> I'll, he'll, she'll, you'll, we'll, they'll

'd = would or had -> I'd, he'd, she'd, you'd, we'd, they'd

's can be is or has:

* She's ill. (= She is ill.)

* She's gone away. (= She has gone away.)

but let's = let us:

* Let's go now. (= Let us go)

'd can be would or had:

* I'd see a doctor if I were you. (= I would see)

* I'd never seen her before. (= I had never seen)

We use some of these short forms (especially 's) after question words (who/what etc.) and after that/there/here:

who's, what's, where's, how's, that's, there's, here's, who'll, there'll, who'd

* Who's that woman over there? (= who is)

* What's happened? (= what has)

* Do you think there'll be many people at the party? (= there will)

You can also use short forms (especially 's) after a noun:

* John's going out tonight. (= John is)

* My friend's just got married. (= My friend has)

You cannot use 'm/'s/'re/'ve/'ll/'d at the end of a sentence (because the verb is stressed in this position):

* 'Are you tired?' 'Yes, I am.' (not 'Yes, I'm.')

* Do you know where she is? (not 'Do you know where she's?')

5.3 Negative short forms

isn't(= is not) aren't(= are not) wasn't(= was not) weren't(= were not) doesn't(= doesn't) didn't(= did not) don't(= do not) haven't(= have not) hasn't(= has not) hadn't(= had not) can't(= cannot) couldn't(= could not) won't(= will not) wouldn't(= would not) shan't(= shall not) shouldn't(= should not) mightn't(= might not) mustn't(= must not) needn't(= need not) daren't(= dare not)

Negative short forms for is and are can be:

he isn't/she isn't/it isn't or he's not/she's not/it's not

you aren't/we aren't/they aren't or you're not/we're not/they're not





6.1 Nouns, verbs and adjectives can have the following endings:

noun + ~s/es (plural): books ideas matches

verb + ~s/~es (after he/she/it): works enjoys washes

verb + ~ing: working enjoying washing

verb + ~ed: worked enjoyed washed

adjective + ~er (comparative): cheaper quicker brighter

adjective + ~est (superlative): cheapest quickest brightest

adjective + ~ly (adverb): cheaply quickly brightly

When we use these endings, there are sometimes changes in spelling. These changes are listed below.

6.2 Nouns and verbs + ~s/~es

The ending is ~es when the word ends in ~s/~ss/~sh/~ch/~x:

match/matches, wash/washes, bus/buses, miss/misses, box/boxes, search/searches

Note also:

potato/potatoes, do/does, tomato/tomatoes, go/goes

6.3 Words ending in ~y (baby, carry, easy etc.)

If a word ends in a consonant + y (~by/~ry/~sy/~vy etc.):

y changes to ie before the ending ~s:

baby/babies lorry/lorries hurry/hurries study/studies country/countries apply/applies secretary/secretaries try/tries

y changes to i before the ending ~ed:

hurry/hurried study/studied apply/applied try/tried

y changes to i before the endings ~er and -est:

easy/easier/easiest heavy/heavier/heaviest lucky/luckier/luckiest

y changes to i before the ending ~ly:

easy/easily heavy/heavily temporary/temporarily

y does not change before ~ing:

hurrying, studying, applying, trying

y does not change if the word ends in a vowel + y (~ay/~ey/~oy/~uy):

play/plays/played enjoy/enjoys/enjoyed buy/buys, monkey/monkeys

An exception is: day/daily

Note also: pay/paid, lay/laid, say/said

6.4 Verbs ending in ~ie (die, lie, tie)

If a verb ends in ~ie, ie changes to y before the ending ~ing: die/dying lie/lying tie/tying



6.5 Words ending in -e (hope, dance, wide etc.)

#1 Verbs

If a verb ends in ~e, we leave out e before the ending ~ing:

hope/hoping smile/smiling dance/dancing confuse/confusing

Exceptions arc: be/being

and verbs ending in ~ee: see/seeing agree/agreeing

If a verb ends in ~e, we add ~d for the past (of regular verbs):

hope/hoped smile/smiled dance/danced confuse/confused

#2 Adjectives and adverbs

If an adjective ends in ~e, we add ~r and ~st for the comparative and superlative:

wide/wider/widest late/later/latest large/larger/largest

If an adjective ends in ~e, we keep e before the adverb ending ~1y:

polite/politely extreme/extremely absolute/absolutely

If an adjective ends in ~le (simple, terrible etc.), the adverb ending is ~ply, ~bly etc.:

simple/simply terrible/terribly reasonable/reasonably

6.6 Doubling consonants (stop/stopping/stopped, wet/wetter/wettest etc.)

Sometimes a word ends in vowel + consonant. For example:

stop, plan, wet, thin, slip, prefer, regret

Before the endings ~ing/~ed/~er/-est, we double the consonant at the end. So p -> pp, n -> nn etc. For example:

stop p -> pp stopping stopped

plan n -> nn planning planned

rub b -> bb rubbing rubbed

big g -> gg bigger biggest

wet t -> tt wetter wettest

thin n -> nn thinner thinnest

If the word has more than one syllable (prefer, begin etc.), we double the consonant at the end only if the final syllable is stressed:

preFER/preferring preferred




If the final syllable is not stressed, we do not double the final consonant:





In British English, verbs ending in -1 have -]I- before ~ing and ~ed whether the final syllable is stressed or not:



For American spelling, see Appendix 7.

Note that:

we do not double the final consonant if the word ends in two consonants (~rt, ~1p, ~ng etc.): start/starting/started, help/helping/helped, long/longer/longest

we do not double the final consonant if there are two vowel letters before it (~oil, ~eed etc.): boil/boiling/boiled, need/needing/needed, explain/explaining/explained, cheap/cheaper/cheapest, loud/louder/loudest, quiet/quieter/quietest

we do not double y or w at the end of words. (At the end of words y and w are not consonants.)

stay/staying/stayed, grow/growing, new/newer/newest




American English

There are a few grammatical differences between British English and American English:

UNIT 7A-B and 13A


The present perfect is used for an action in the past with a result now:

* I've lost my key. Have you seen it?

* Sally isn't here. She's gone out.

The present perfect is used with just, already and yet:

* A: What time is he leaving?

B: He has already left.

* Have you finished your work yet?


The present perfect OR past simple can be used:

* I've lost my key. Have you seen it? or I lost my key. Did you see it?

* Sally isn't here. She's gone out. She went out.

The present perfect OR past simple can be used:

* I'm not hungry. I've just had lunch. I've just had lunch.

* A: What time is he leaving?

B: He has already left. He already left.

* Have you finished your work yet? or Did you finish your work yet?


BRITISH: have a bath/have a shower

AMERICAN: take a bath/take a shower



Will or shall can be used with I/we:

* I will/shall be late this evening. The questions shall I ...? and shall we ...? are used to ask for advice etc.:

* Which way shall we go?


Shall is unusual:

* I will be late this evening. Should I ...? and should we ...? are used to ask for advice etc.:

* Which way should we go?



You can use needn't (do) or don't need to (do):

* We needn't hurry. or We don't need to hurry.


Needn't is unusual. The usual form is don't need to:

* We don't need to hurry.



After demand, insist etc. you can use should:

* I demanded that he should apologize.

* We insisted that something should be done about the problem.


The subjunctive is normally used. Should is unusual after demand, insist etc.:

* I demanded that he apologize.

* We insisted that something be done about the problem.

Many verbs ending in ~ise in British English (apologise/organise/specialise etc.) are spelt with ~ize (apologize/organize/specialize etc.) in American English.





British speakers say 'to/in hospital' (without 'the'):

* Three people were injured and taken to hospital.


American speakers say 'to/in the hospital':

* Three people were injured and taken to the hospital.



Nouns like government/team/family etc. can have a singular or plural verb:

* The team is/are playing well.


These nouns normally take a singular verb in American English:

* The team is playing well.


BRITISH: at the weekend/at weekends:

* Will you be here at the weekend?

AMERICAN: on the weekend/on weekends:

* Will you be here on the weekend?


BRITISH: in a street:

* Do you live in this street?

AMERICAN: on a street:

* Do you live on this street?


BRITISH: different from or different to:

* It was different from (or to) what I'd expected.

AMERICAN: different from or different than:

* It was different from (or than) what I'd expected.


BRITISH: write to somebody:

* Please write to me soon.

AMERICAN: write (to) somebody (with or without 'to,):

* Please write (to) me soon.



The verbs in this section (burn, spoil etc.) can be regular or irregular (burned or burnt, spoiled or spoilt etc.)

AMERICAN: The verbs in this section are normally regular (burned, spoiled etc.)


BRITISH: The past participle of get is got:

* your English has got much better. (= has become much better)

Have got is also an alternative to have:

* I've got two brothers. (= I have two brothers.)

AMERICAN: The past participle of get is gotten:

* Your English has gotten much better.

Have got = have (as in British English):

* I've got two brothers.


BRITISH: travel -> travelling/travelled, cancel -> cancelling/cancelled

AMERICAN: travel -> traveling/traveled, cancel -> canceling/canceled




This section of exercises is divided into the following sections:

Present and past (Units 1-6): Exercise 1

Present and past (Units 1-14): Exercise 2-4

Present and past (Units 1-17): Exercise 5-8

Past continuous and used to (Units 6, 18): Exercise 9

The future (Units 19-25): Exercise 10-13

Modal verbs (Units 26-40): Exercise 14-15

Conditionals (Units 25, 37-39): Exercise 16-18

Wish (Units 38-40): Exercise 19

Passive (Units 41-44): Exercise 20-22

~ing and the infinitive (Units 52-65): Exercise 23-25

Articles (Units 68-77): Exercise 26

Conjunctions (Units 25, 37, 111-115): Exercise 27

Prepositions (time) (Units 12, 118-121): Exercise 28

Prepositions (place etc.) (Units 122-127): Exercise 29

Noun/adjective + preposition (Units 128-130): Exercise 30

Verb + preposition (Units 131-135): Exercise 31



Present and past

Units 1-6, Appendix 2

1. Put the verb into the correct form, present simple (I do), present continuous (I am doing), past simple (I did) or past continuous (I was doing).

1. We can go out now. It _isn't raining_ (not/rain) any more.

2. Ann _was waiting_ (wait) for me when I _arrived_ (arrive).

3. I --- (get) hungry. Let's go and have something to eat.

4. What --- (you/do) in your spare time? Have you got any hobbles?

5. What speed --- (the car/do) at the time of the accident?

6. Mary usually --- (phone) me on Fridays but she (not/phone) last Friday.

7. A: When I last saw you, you --- (think) of moving to a new flat.

B: That's right, but in the end I --- (decide) to stay where I was.

8. What's that noise? What --- (happen)?

9. It's usually dry here at this time of the year. It --- (not/rain) much.

10. Yesterday evening the phone --- (ring) three times while we --- (have) dinner.

11. Linda was busy when we --- (go) to see her yesterday. She (study) for an exam. We --- (not/want) to disturb her, so we --- (not/stay) very long.

12. When I first --- (tell) Tom the news, he --- (not/believe) me. He --- (think) that I --- (joke).



Present and past

Units 1-14, Appendix 2

2. Choose the right alternative.

1. Everything is going well. We _didn't have/haven't had_ any problems so far. (haven't had is right)

2. Margaret _didn't go/hasn't gone_ to work yesterday. She wasn't feeling well.

3. Look! That man over there _wears/is wearing_ the same sweater as you.

4. Your son is much taller than when I last saw him. He _grew I has grown_ a lot.

5. I still don't know what to do. I _didn't decide/haven't decided_ yet.

6. I wonder why Jim _is/is being_ so nice to me today. He isn't usually like that.

7. Jane had a book open in front of her but she _didn't read/wasn't reading_ it.

8. I wasn't very busy. I _didn't have/wasn't having_ much to do.

9. Mary wasn't happy in her new job at first but she _begins/is beginning_ to enjoy it now.

10. After leaving school, Tim _found/has found_ it very difficult to get a job.

11. When Sue heard the news, she _wasn't/hasn't been_ very pleased.

12. This is a nice restaurant, isn't it? Is this the first time _you are/you've been_ here?

13. I need a new job. _I'm doing/I've been doing_ the same job for too long.

14. 'Ann has gone out.' 'Oh, has she? What time _did she go/has she gone?_'

15. 'You look tired.' 'Yes, _I've played/I've been playing_ basketball.'

16. Where _are you coming/do you come_ from? Are you American?

17. I'd like to see Tina again. It's a long time _since I saw her/that I didn't see her._

18. Bob and Alice have been married _since 20 years/for 20 years._

3. Complete the questions using a suitable verb.

1 A: I'm looking for Paul. _Have you seen_ him?

B: Yes, he was here a moment ago.

2 A: Why _did you go_ to bed so early last night?

B: Because I was feeling very tired.

3. A: Where ---?

B: Just to the post box. I want to post these letters. I'll be back in a few minutes.

4. A: --- television every evening?

B: No, only if there's a good programme on.

5. A: Your house is very beautiful. How long --- here?

B: Nearly ten years.

6. A: How was your holiday? --- a nice time?

B: Yes, thanks. It was great.

7. A: --- Julie recently?

B: Yes, I met her a few days ago.

8. A: Can you describe the woman you saw? What ---?

B: A red sweater and black leans.

9. A: I'm sorry to keep you waiting --- long?

B: No, only about ten minutes.

10. A: How long --- you to get to work in the morning?

B: Usually about 45 minutes. It depends on the traffic.

11. A: --- with that newspaper yet?

B: No, I'm still reading it. I won't be long.

12. A: --- to the United States?

B: No, never, but I went to Canada a few years ago.


4. Use your own ideas to complete B's sentences.

1. A: What's the new restaurant like? Is it good?

B: I've no idea _I've never been_ there.

2. A: How well do you know Bill?

B: Very well. We --- since we were children.

3. A: Did you enjoy your holiday?

B: Yes, it was really good. It's the best holiday ---.

4. A: Is Jack still here?

B: No, I'm afraid he isn't --- bout ten minutes ago.

5. A: I like your suit. I haven't seen it before.

B: It's new. It's the first time ---.

6. A: How did you cut your knee?

B: I slipped and fell when --- tennis.

7. A: Do you ever go swimming?

B: Not these days. I haven't --- a long time,

8. A: How often do you go to the cinema?

B: Very rarely. It's nearly a year --- to the cinema.

9. A: I've bought some new shoes. Do you like them?

B: Yes, they're very nice. Where --- them?

Present and past

Units 1-17, 109, Appendix 2

5. Put the verb in the correct form, past simple (I did), past continuous (I was doing), past perfect (I had done) or past perfect continuous (I had been doing).

1. Yesterday afternoon Sharon _went_ (go) to the station to meet Paul. When she --- (get) there, Paul --- (already/wait) for her. His train --- (arrive) early.

2. When I got home, Bill --- (lie) on the sofa. The television was on but he --- (not/watch) it. He --- (fall) asleep and --- (snore) loudly. I --- (turn) the television off --- (wake) up.

3. Last night I --- (just/go) to bed and --- (read) a book when suddenly I --- (hear) a noise. I --- (get) up to see what it was but I --- (not/see) anything, so I --- (go) back to bed.

4. Mary had to go to New York last week, but she almost --- (miss) the plane. She --- (stand) in the queue at the check-in desk when she suddenly --- (realise) that she --- (leave) her passport at home. Fortunately, she doesn't live very far from the airport, so she --- (have) time to take a taxi home to get it. She --- (get) back to the airport Just in time for her flight.

5. I --- (meet) George and Linda yesterday as I --- (walk) through the park. They --- (be) to the Sports Centre where they .I --- (play) tennis. They --- (go) to a cafe for a drink and --- (invite) me to join them but I --- (arrange) to meet a friend and --- (not/have) time.


6. Make sentences from the words in brackets. Put the verb in the correct form, present perfect (I have done), present perfect continuous (I have been doing), Past perfect J had done) or past perfect continuous (I had been doing).

1. Ann is sitting on the ground. She's out of breath. (she/run) _She has been running._

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