UNIT 88. Both/both of neither/neither of either/either of
A. We use both/neither/either for two things. You can use these words with a noun (both books, neither book etc.)
For example, you are talking about going out to eat this evening. There are two restaurants where you can go. You say:
* Both restaurants are very good. (not 'the both restaurants')
* Neither restaurant is expensive.
* We can go to either restaurant. I don't mind. (either = one or the other, it doesn't matter which one)
B. Both of .../neither of .../either of ...
When you use both/neither/either + of, you always need the .../these/those .../my/your/his/ Tom's... (etc.). You cannot say 'both of restaurants'. You have to say 'both of the restaurants', 'both of those restaurants' etc.:
* Both of these restaurants are very good.
* Neither of the restaurants we went to was (or were) expensive.
* I haven't been to either of those restaurants. (= I haven't been to one or the other)
You don't need of after both. So you can say:
* Both my parents are from London. or Both of my parents...
You can use both of/neither of/either of + us/you/them:
* (talking to two people) Can either of you speak Spanish?
* I asked two people the way to the station but neither of them knew.
You must say 'both of' before us/you/them (of is necessary):
* Both of us were very tired. (not 'Both us were ...')
After neither of ... a singular or a plural verb is possible:
* Neither of the children wants (or want) to go to bed.
C. You can also use both/neither/either alone:
* I couldn't decide which of the two shirts to buy. I liked both. (or I liked both of them.)
* 'Is your friend British or American?' 'Neither. She's Australian.'
* 'Do you want tea or coffee?' 'Either. I don't mind.'
D. You can say:
both ... and ...: * Both Ann and Tom were late.
* I was both tired and hungry when I arrived home.
neither ... nor ...: * Neither Liz nor Robin came to the party.
* She said she would contact me but she neither wrote nor phoned.
either ... or ...: * I'm not sure where he's from. He's either Spanish or Italian.
* Either you apologize or I'll never speak to you again.
E. Compare either/neither/both (two things) and any/none/all (more than two):
* There are two good hotels in the town.
You can stay at either of them.
* We tried two hotels. Neither of them had any rooms./Both of them were full.
* There are many good hotels in the town. You can stay at any of them.
* We tried a lot of hotels. None of them had any rooms./All of them were full.
88.1 Complete the sentences with both/neither/either.
1. 'Do you want tea or coffee?' '_Either._ of them I really don't mind.'
2. 'What day is it today--the I 8th or the 19th? '---. It's the 20th.'
3. 'There are two sandwiches here. Do you mind which I take?' 'No, take ---.'
4. A: Where did you go for your holidays - Scotland or Ireland?
B: We went to --- A week in Scotland and a week in Ireland.
5. 'When shall I phone you, morning or afternoon? '---. I'll be in all day.'
6. 'Where's Kate? Is she at work or at home?' '---. She's away on holiday.'
88,2 Complete the sentences with both/neither/either. Use of where necessary.
1. _Both (of)_ my parents are from London.
2. To get to the town centre, you can go along the footpath by the river or you can go along the road. You can go --- way.
3. I tried twice to phone George but --- times he was out.
4. --- Tom's parents is English. His father is Polish and his mother is Italian.
5. I saw an accident this morning. One car drove into the back of another. Fortunately --- driver was injured but --- cars were quite badly damaged.
6. I've got two sisters and a brother. My brother is working but --- my sisters are still at school.
88.3 Complete the sentences with both/neither/either of us/them.
1. I asked two people the way to the station but _neither of them_ could help me.
2. I was invited to two parties last week but I didn't go to ---.
3. There were two windows in the room. It was very warm, so I opened ---.
4. Sarah and I play tennis together regularly but --- can play very well.
5. I tried two bookshops for the book I wanted but --- had it.
88.4 Write sentences with both ... and .../neither ... nor .../either ... or ...
1. Tom was late. So was Ann. Both Tom and Ann were later.
2. She didn't write and she didn't phone. She neither wrote nor phoned.
3. Jim is on holiday and so is Carol. Both ---
4. George doesn't smoke and he doesn't drink ---
5. Jim hasn't got a car. Carol hasn't got a car either ---
6. It was a very boring film. It was very long too. The film ---
7. Is that man's name Richard? Or is it Robert? It's one of the two.
That man's name ---
8. I haven't got time to go on holiday. And I haven't got the money.
I've got ---
9. We can leave today or we can leave tomorrow - whichever you prefer.
88.5 Complete the sentences with neither/either/none/any.
1. We tried a lot of hotels but none of them had any rooms.
2. I took two books with me on holiday but I didn't read --- of them.
3. I took five books with me on holiday but I didn't read ---them.
4. There are a few shops at the end of the street but --- of them sell newspapers.
5. You can phone me at --- time during the evening. I'm always at home.
6. I can meet you on the 6th or 7th. Would --- of those days be convenient for you?
7. John and I couldn't get into the house because --- of us had a key.
8. There were a few letters this morning but --- of them were for me.
UNIT 89. All, every and whole
A. All and everybody/everyone
We do not normally use all to mean everybody/everyone:
* Everybody enjoyed the party. (not 'All enjoyed...')
But note that we say all of us/you/them, not 'everybody of...':
* All of us enjoyed the party. (not 'everybody of us')
B. All and everything
Sometimes you can use all or everything:
* I'll do all I can to help. or I'll do everything I can to help.
You can say 'all I can'/'all you need' etc. but we do not normally use all alone:
* He thinks he knows everything. (not 'he knows all')
* Our holiday was a disaster. Everything went wrong. (not 'All went wrong')
We use all in the expression all about:
* They told us all about their holiday.
We also use all (not 'everything') to mean the only thing(s):
* All I've eaten today is a sandwich. (= the only thing I've eaten today)
C. Every/everybody/everyone/everything are singular words, so we use a singular verb:
* Every seat in the theatre was taken.
* Everybody has arrived. (not 'have arrived')
But we often use they/them/their after everybody/everyone:
* Everybody said they enjoyed themselves. (= he or she enjoyed himself or herself)
D. All and whole
Whole = complete, entire. Most often we use whole with singular nouns:
* Did you read the whole book? (= all the book, not just a part of it)
* She has lived her whole life in Scotland.
We normally use the/my/her etc. before whole. Compare whole and all:
the whole book/all the book her whole life/all her life
You can also use: a whole ....
* Jack was so hungry, he ate a whole packet of biscuits. (= a complete packet)
We do not normally use whole with uncountable nouns. We say:
* I've spent all the money you gave me. (not 'the whole money')
E. Every/all/whole with time words
We use every to say how often something happens. So we say every day/every Monday/every ten minutes/every three weeks etc.:
* When we were on holiday, we went to the beach every day. (not 'all days')
* The bus service is very good. There's a bus every ten minutes.
* Ann gets paid every four weeks.
All day/the whole day = the complete day from beginning to end:
* We spent all day/the whole day on the beach.
* He was very quiet. He didn't say a word all evening/the whole evening.
Note that we say all day (not 'all the day'), all week (not 'all the week') etc.
Compare all the time and every time:
* They never go out. They are at home all the time. (= always--not 'every time')
* Every time I see you, you look different. (= each time, on every occasion)
89.1 Complete these sentences with all, everything or everybody/everyone.
1. It was a good party. _Everybody_ enjoyed it.
2. _All_ I've eaten today is a sandwich.
3. --- has got their faults. Nobody is perfect.
4. Nothing has changed --- is the same as it was.
5. Margaret told me --- about her new job. It sounds quite interesting.
6. Can --- write their names on a piece of paper please?
7. Why are you always thinking about money? Money isn't ---.
8. I didn't have much money with me. --- I had was ten pounds.
9. When the fire alarm rang, --- left the building immediately.
10. She didn't say where she was going. --- she said was that she was going away.
11. We have completely different opinions. I disagree with --- she says.
12. We all did well in the examination --- in our class passed.
13. We all did well in the examination --- of us passed.
14. Why are you so lazy? Why do you expect me to do --- for you?
89.2 Write sentences with whole.
1. I read the book from beginning to end. I _read the whole book._
2. Everyone in the team played well. The ---.
3. Paul opened a box of chocolates. When he finished eating, there were no chocolates left in the box. He ate ---.
4. The police came to the house. They were looking for something. They searched everywhere, every room. They ---.
5. Ann worked from early in the morning until late in the evening. ---.
6. Everyone in Dave and Judy's family plays tennis. Dave and Judy play, and so do all their children. The ---.
7. Jack and Jill went on holiday to the seaside for a week. It rained from the beginning of the week to the end. It ---.
Now write sentences 5 and 7 again using all instead of whole.
8. (5) Ann ---.
9. (7) ---.
89.3 Complete these sentences using every with one of the following:
five minutes ten minutes four hours six months four years
1, The bus service is very good. There's a bus _every ten minutes_.
2. Tom is ill. He has some medicine. He has to take it ---.
3. The Olympic Games take place ---.
4. We live near a busy airport. A plane flies over our house ---.
5. It's a good idea to have a check-up with the dentist ---.
89.4 Which is the correct alternative?
1. I've spent _the whole money/all the money_ you gave me. (all the money is correct)
2. Sue works _every day/all days_ except Sunday.
3. I'm tired. I've been working hard _all the day/all day._
4. It was a terrible fire. _Whole building/The whole building_ was destroyed.
5. I've been trying to phone her all day but _every time/all the time_ I phone her the line is engaged.
6. 1 don't like the weather here. It rains _every time/all the time._
7. When I was on holiday, _all my luggage/my whole luggage_ was stolen.
UNIT 90 Each and every
A. Each and every are similar in meaning. Often it is possible to use each or every:
* Each time (or Every time) I see you, you took different.
* There's a telephone in each room (or every room) of the house.
But each and every are not exactly the same. Study the difference:
#1 We use each when we think of things separately, one by one.
* Study each sentence carefully. (= study the sentences one by one)
Each is more usual for a small number:
* There were four books on the table.
Each book was a different colour.
* (in a card game) At the beginning of the game, each player has three cards.
#2 We use every when we think of things as a group. The meaning is similar to all.
* Every sentence must have a verb. (= all sentences in general)
Every is more usual for a large number:
* Carol loves reading. She has read every book in the library. (=all the books)
* I would like to visit every country in the world. (=all the countries)
Each (but not every) can be used for two things:
* In a football match, each team has 11 players. (not 'every team')
We use every (not each) to say how often something happens:
* 'How often do you go shopping?' 'Every day.' (not 'each day')
* There's a bus every ten minutes. (not 'each ten minutes')
B. Compare the structures we use with each and every:
#1 You can use each with a noun: each book, each student
You can use each alone (without a noun):
* None of the rooms was the same. Each was different. (= each room)
Or you can use each one:
* Each one was different.
You can say each of (the.../these... etc.):
* Read each of these sentences carefully.
* Each of the books is a different colour.
Also each of us/you/them:
* Each of them is a different colour.
#2 You can use every with a noun: every book, every student,
You can say every one (but not every alone):
* 'Have you read all these books?' 'Yes, every one.'
You can say every one of ... (but not 'every of ...')
* I've read every one of those books. (not 'every of those books')
* I've read every one of them.
C. You can also use each in the middle or at the end of a sentence. For example:
* The students were each given a book. (=Each student was given a book.)
* These oranges cost 25 pence each.
D. Everyone and every one
Everyone (one word) is only for people (='everybody'). Every one (two words) is for things or people, and is similar to each one (see Section B):
* Everyone enjoyed the party. (=Everybody...)
* He is invited to lots of parties and he goes to every one. (=to every party)
90.1 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with each or every.
1. _Each_. player has three cards.
2. Carol has read --- book in the library.
3. --- side of a square is the same length.
4. --- seat in the theatre was taken.
5. --- apartment has a balcony.
6. There's a train to London --- hour.
7. She was wearing four rings-one on --- finger.
8. Our football team has been very successful. We've won --- game this season.
90.2 Put in each or every.
1. There were four books on the table. _Each_ book was a different colour.
2. The Olympic Games are held _every_ four years.
3. --- parent worries about their children.
4. In a game of tennis there are two or four players. --- player has a racket.
5. Nicola plays volleyball --- Thursday evening.
6. I understood most of what they said but not --- word.
7. The book is divided into five parts and --- of these has three sections.
8. I get paid --- four weeks.
9. We had a great weekend. I enjoyed --- minute of it.
10. I tried to phone her two or three times, but --- time there was no reply.
11. Car seat belts save lives --- driver should wear one.
12. (from an examination paper) Answer all five questions. Begin your answer to --- question on a separate sheet of paper.
90.3 Complete the sentences using each.
1. The price of one of those oranges is 25 pence. Those _orange are 25 pence each._
2. I had ten pounds and so did Sonia. Sonia and I ---.
3. One of those postcards costs 40 pence. Those ---.
4. The hotel was expensive. I paid f40 and so did you. We ---.
90.4 Put in everyone (one word) or every one (two words).
1. He's invited to a lot of parties and he goes to _every one._
2. As soon as --- had arrived, we began the meeting.
3. I asked her lots of questions and she answered --- correctly.
4. She's very popular --- likes her.
5. I dropped a tray of glasses. Unfortunately --- broke.