UNIT 44. It is said that... He is said to... (be) supposed to...
A. Study this example situation:
Henry is very old. Nobody knows exactly how old he is, but:
It is said that he is 108 years old. or He is said to be 108 years old.
Both these sentences mean: 'People say that he is 108 years old.'
You can use these structures with a number of other verbs, especially:
thought believed considered reported known expected alleged understood
Compare the two structures:
* Cathy works very hard.
It is said that she works 16 hours a day. or She is said to work 16 hours a day.
* The police are looking for a missing boy.
It is believed that the boy is wearing a or white pullover and blue jeans. The boy is believed to be wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.
* The strike started three weeks ago.
It is expected that it will end soon. or The strike is expected to end soon
* A friend of mine has been arrested.
It is alleged that he kicked a policeman. or He is alleged to have kicked a policeman.
* Those two houses belong to the same family.
It is said that there is a secret tunnel between them. There is said to be a secret tunnel between them.
These structures are often used in news reports. For example, in a report about an accident:
* It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion. or Two people are reported to have been injured in the explosion.
B. (Be) supposed to
Sometimes it is supposed to ... = it is said to...
* Let's go and see that film. It's supposed to be very good. (= it is said to be very good)
* 'Why was he arrested?' 'He's supposed to have kicked a policeman.' (= he is said to have kicked a policeman)
But sometimes supposed to has a different meaning. 'Something is supposed to happen' = it is planned, arranged or expected. Often this is different from what really happens:
* I'd better hurry. It's nearly 8 o'clock and I'm supposed to be meeting Ann at 8.15. (= I have arranged to meet Ann, I said I would meet her)
* The train was supposed to arrive at 11.30 but it was an hour late. (= the train was
expected to arrive at 11.30 according to the timetable)
* You were supposed to clean the windows. Why didn't you do it?
'You're not supposed to do something' = it is not allowed or advisable for you to do it:
* You're not supposed to park your car here. It's private parking only.
* Mr. Bond is much better after his illness but he's still not supposed to do any heavy work. (= his doctors have advised him not to ...)
44.1 Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown. Use the underlined word in your sentence.
1. It is _expected_ that the strike will end soon. The strike _is expected to end soon._
2. It is _expected_ that the weather will be good tomorrow. The weather is ---
3. It is _believed_ that the thieves got in through the kitchen window. The thieves ---
4. It is _reported_ that many people are homeless after the floods. Many people ---
5. It is _thought_ that the prisoner escaped by climbing over a wall. The prisoner ---
6. It is _alleged_ that the man drove through the town at 90 miles an hour. The man is ---
7. It is _reported_ that the building has been badly damaged by fire. The building ---
8. a: It is _said_ that the company is losing a lot of money. The company ---
b: It is _believed_ that the company lost a lot of money last year. The company ---
c: It is _expected_ that the company will lose money this year. The company ---
44.2 People say a lot of things about Arthur. For example:
1 Arthur cats spiders.
2 He is very rich.
3. (He writes poetry.
4. (He has 12 children.)
5. (He robbed a bank a long time ago.
Nobody knows for sure whether these things are true or not. Write sentences about Arthur using (be) supposed to.
1. Arthur is supposed to eat spiders.
2. He ---
44.3 Now you have to use (be) supposed to with its other meaning. In each example what happens is different from what is supposed to happen. Use (be) supposed to + one of these verbs:
arrive be block come park phone start
Some of the sentences are negative (like the first example).
1. You_'re not suppose to park_ here. It's private parking only.
2. The train _was supposed to arrive_ at 11.30, but it was an hour late.
3. What are the children doing at home? They --- at school at this time.
4. We --- work at 8.15, but we rarely do anything before 8.30.
5. This door is a fire exit. You --- it.
6. Oh dear! I --- Ann but I completely forgot.
7. They arrived very early--at 2 o'clock. They --- until 3.30.
UNIT 45. Have something done
A. Study this example situation:
The roof of Jill's house was damaged in a storm, so she arranged for somebody to repair it. Yesterday a workman came and did the job.
Jill had the roof repaired yesterday.
This means: Jill arranged for somebody else to repair the roof. She didn't repair it herself.
We use have something done to say that we arrange for somebody else to do something for us.
* Jill repaired the roof. (= she repaired it herself)
* Jill had the roof repaired. (= she arranged for somebody else to repair it)
Study these sentences:
* Did Ann make the dress herself or did she have it made?
* 'Are you going to repair the car yourself?' 'No, I'm going to have it repaired.'
Be careful with word order. The past participle (repaired/cut etc.) is after the object (the roof your hair etc.):
have + object + past participle
Jill had the roof repaired yesterday.
Where did you have your hair cut?
Your hair looks nice. Have you had it cut?
Julia has just had central heating installed in her house.
We are having the house painted at the moment.
How often do you have your car serviced?
I think you should have that coat cleaned soon.
I don't like having my photograph taken.
B. You can also say 'get something done' instead of 'have something done' (mainly in informal spoken English):
* When are you going to get the roof repaired? (= have the roof repaired)
* I think you should get your hair cut.
C. Sometimes have something done has a different meaning. For example:
* Jill and Eric had all their money stolen while they were on holiday.
Of course this does not mean that they arranged for somebody to steal their money. 'They had all their money stolen' means only: 'All their money was stolen from them.'
With this meaning, we use have something done to say that something happens to somebody or their belongings. Usually what happens is not nice:
* George had his nose broken in a fight.
* Have you ever had your passport stolen?
45.1 Tick (V) the correct sentence, (a) or (b), for each picture.
a Sarah is cutting her hair.
b Sarah is having her hair cut.
a Bill is cutting his hair.
b Bill is having his hair cut.
a John is cleaning his shoes.
b John is having his shoes cleaned.
a Sue is taking a photograph.
b Sue is having her photograph taken.
45.2 Why did you do these things? Answer using 'have something done'. Use one of these verbs:
clean cut repair service
1. Why did you take your car to the garage? _To have it serviced._
2. Why did you take your jacket to the cleaner's? To ---
3. Why did you take your watch to the jeweller's? ---
4. Why did you go to the hairdresser? ---
45.3 Write sentences in the way shown.
1. Jill didn't repair the roof herself. She _had it repaired._
2. I didn't cut my hair myself. I ---
3. They didn't paint the house themselves. They ---
4. Sue didn't make the curtains herself. ---
45.4 Use the words in brackets to complete the sentences. Use the structure 'have something done'.
1. We _are having the house painted_ (the house/paint) at the moment.
2. I lost my key. I'll have to --- (another key/make).
3. When was the last time you --- (your hair/cut)?
4. You look different --- (you/your hair/cut)?
5. --- (you/a newspaper/deliver) to your house or do you go to the shop to buy one?
6. A: What are those workmen doing in your garden?
B: Oh, we --- (a swimming pool/build).
7. A: Can I see the photographs you took when you were on holiday?
B: I'm afraid I --- (not/the film/develop) yet.
8. This coat is dirty. I must --- (it/clean).
9. If you want to wear earrings, why don't you --- (your ears/pierce)?
45.5 Now you have to use 'have something done' with its second meaning (see Section C).
1. George's nose was broken in a fight.
What happened to George? _He had his nose broken in a fight._
2. Sarah's bag was stolen on a train.
What happened to Sarah? She ---
3. Fred's hat was blown off in the wind.
What happened to Fred? ---
4. Diane's passport was taken away from her by the police.
What happened to Diane? ---
UNIT 46. Reported speech (1) (He said that ...)
A. Study this example situation:
You want to tell somebody else what Tom said.
There are two ways of doing this:
You can repeat Tom's words (direct speech):
Tom said 'I'm feeling ill.'
Or you can use reported speech:
Tom said that he was feeling ill.
direct: Tom said I am feeling ill.' in writing we use these to show direct speech.
reported: Tom said that he was feeling ill.
B. When we use reported speech, the main verb of the sentence is usually past (Tom said that ... I told her that... etc.). The rest of the sentence is usually past too:
* Tom said that he was feeling ill.
* I told her that I didn't have any money.
You can leave out that:
* Tom said (that) he was feeling ill.
* I told her (that) I didn't have any money.
In general, the present form in direct speech changes to the past form in reported speech:
am/is -> was
do/does -> did
will -> would
are -> were
have/has -> had
can -> could
want/like/know/go etc. -> want/liked/knew/went etc.
Compare direct speech and reported speech:
You met Judy. Here are some of the things she said to you in direct speech:
'my parents are very well.'
'I'm going to learn to drive.'
'John has given up his job.'
'I can't come to the party on Friday.'
'I want to go away for a holiday but I don't know where to go.' 'I'm going away for a few days. I'll phone you when I get back.'
Later you tell somebody what Judy said. You use reported speech:
* Judy said that her parents were very well.
* She said that she was going to learn to drive.
* She said that John had given up his job.
* She said that she couldn't come to the party on Friday.
* She said that she wanted to go away for a holiday but (she) didn't know where to go.
* She said that she was going away for a few days and would phone me when she got back.
C. The past simple (did/saw/knew etc.) can usually stay the same in reported speech, or you can change it to the past Perfect (had done/had seen/had known etc.):
direct: Tom said: 'I woke up feeling ill, so I didn't go to work.'
reported: Tom said (that) he woke up feeling ill, so he didn't go to work. or Tom said (that) he had woken up feeling ill, so he hadn't gone to work.
46.1 Yesterday you met a friend of yours, Charlie. Here are some of the things Charlie said to you:
1. I'm living in London now.
2. My father isn't very well.
3. Sharon and Paul are getting married next month.
4. Margaret has had a baby.
5. I don't know what Fred is doing.
6. I saw Helen at a party in June and she seemed fine.
7. I haven't seen Diane recently.
8. I'm not enjoying my job very much.
9. You can come and stay at my flat if you are ever in London.
10. My car was stolen a few weeks ago.
11. I want to go on holiday but I can't afford it.
12. I'll tell Ann I saw you.
Later that day you tell another friend what Charlie said. Use reported speech.
1. _Charlie said that he was living in London now._
2. He said that ---
3. He ---
46.2 Somebody says something to you which is the opposite of what they said before. Write a suitable answer beginning I thought you said ....
1. A: That restaurant is expensive.
B: is It? _I thought you said it was cheap._
2. A: Ann is coming to the party tonight.
B: Is she? I thought you said she ---
3. A: Ann likes Paul.
B: Does she? I thought ---
4. A: I know lots of people.
B: Do you? I thought you said you ---
5. A: I'll be here next week.
B: Will you? ---
6. A: I'm going out this evening.
B: Are you? ---
7. A: I can speak a little French.
B: Can you? ---
8. A: I haven't been to the cinema for ages.
B: Haven't you? ---
UNIT 47. Reported speech (2)
A. It is not always necessary to change the verb when you use reported speech. If you report. something and it is still true, you do not need to change the verb:
* direct: Tom said 'New York is more lively than London.'
reported: Tom said that New York is more lively than London.
(New York is still more lively. The situation hasn't changed.)
* direct: Ann said 'I want to go to New York next year.'
reported: Ann said that she wants to go to New York next year.
(Ann still wants to go to New York next year.)
Note that it is also correct to change the verb into the past:
* Tom said that New York was more lively than London.
* Ann said that she wanted to go to New York next year.
But you must use a past form when there is a difference between what was said and what is really true. Study this example situation:
You met Sonia a few days ago.
She said: 'Jim is ill.' (direct speech)
Later that day you see Jim. He is looking well and carrying a tennis racket.
You say: 'I didn't expect to see you, Jim. Sonia said you were ill.
(not 'Sonia said you are ill', because clearly he is not ill.)
B. Say and tell
If you say who you are talking to, use tell:
* Sonia told me that you were ill. (not 'Sonia said me')
* What did you tell the police? (not 'say the police')
Otherwise use say:
* Sonia said that you were ill. (not 'Sonia told that ...')
* What did you say?
But you can say something to somebody':
* Ann said goodbye to me and left. (not 'Ann said me goodbye')
* What did you say to the police?
C. Tell/ask somebody to do something
We also use the infinitive (to do/to stay etc.) in reported speech, especially with tell and ask (for orders and requests):
* direct: 'Stay in bed for a few days,' the doctor said to me.
reported: The doctor told me to stay in bed for a few days.
* direct: 'Don't shout,' I said to Jim.
reported: I told Jim not to shout.
* direct: 'Please don't tell anybody what happened,' Ann said to me.
reported: Ann asked me not to tell anybody what (had) happened.
'... said to do something' is also possible:
* The doctor said to stay in bed for a few days. (but not 'The doctor said me ...')
47.1 Here are some things that Ann said to you:
I've never been to the United States.
I don't have any brothers or sisters.
Dave is lazy.
I don't like fish.
I can't drive.
Jane is a friend of mine
I'm working tomorrow evening.
Jane has a very well-paid job.
But later Ann says something different to you. What do you say?
1. Dave works very hard.
_But you said he was lazy._
2. Let's have fish for dinner.
3. I'm going to buy a car.
4. Jane is always short of money.
5. My sister lives in London.
6. I think New York is a fantastic place.
7. Let's go out tomorrow evening.
8. I've never spoken to Jane.
47.2 Complete the sentences with say or tell (in the correct form). Use only one word each time.
1. Ann said goodbye to me and left.
2. --- us about your holiday. Did you have a nice time?
3. Don't just stand there! --- something!
4. I wonder where Sue is. She --- she would be here at 8 o'clock.
5. Jack --- me that he was fed up with his job.
6. The doctor --- that I should rest for at least a week.
7. Don't --- anybody what I --- It's a secret just between us.
8. 'Did she --- you what happened?' 'No, she didn't --- anything to me.'
9. George couldn't help me. He --- me to ask Kate.
10. George couldn't help me. He --- to ask Kate.
47.3 (Section C) The following sentences are direct speech:
Don't wait for me if I'm late.
Will you marry me?
Can you open your bag, please?
Mind your own business
Please slow down!
Could you repeat what you said,.please?
Don't worry, sue.
Do you think you could give me a hand, Tom?
Now choose one of these to complete each sentence below. Use reported speech.
1. Bill was taking a long time to get ready, so I _told him to hurry up._
2. Sarah was driving too fast, so I asked ---
3. Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I told ---
4. I couldn't move the piano alone, so I ---
5. The customs officer looked at me suspiciously and ---
6. I had difficulty understanding him, so I ---
7. I didn't want to delay Ann, so I ---
8. John was very much in love with Mary, so he ---
9. He started asking me personal questions, so ---
UNIT 48. Questions (1)
A. We usually make questions by changing the word order: we put the first auxiliary verb (AV) before the subject (S):
Tom will -> will Tom?
* Will Tom be here tomorrow?
you have -> have you?
* Have you been working hard?
I can -> can I?
* What can I do? (not 'What I can do?')
the house was -> was the house?
* When was the house built? (not 'When was built the house?')
B. In present simple questions, we use do/does:
you live -> do you live?
* Do you live near here?
the film begins -> does the film begin?
* What time does the film begin? (not 'What time begins ...?')
In past simple questions, we use did:
you sold -> did you sell?
* Did you sell your car?
the accident happened -> did the accident happen?
* How did the accident happen?
But do not use do/does/did in questions if who/what/which is the subject of the sentence. Compare:
Emma telephoned _somebody._(object)
_Who_(object) did Emma telephone?
_Somebody_(subject) telephoned Emma.
_Who_(subject) telephoned Emma?
In these examples, who/what/which is the subject:
* Who wants something to eat? (not 'Who does want')
* What happened to you last night? (not 'What did happen')
* Which bus goes to the city centre? (not 'Which bus does go')
C. Note the position of prepositions in questions beginning Who/What/Which/Where ...?:
* Who do you want to speak to?
* What was the weather like yesterday?
* Which job has Jane applied for?
* Where do you come from?
D. Negative questions (isn't it ...?/didn't you ...?)
We use negative questions especially to show surprise:
* Didn't you hear the bell? I rang it four times.
or when we expect the listener to agree with us:
* 'Haven't we met somewhere before 'Yes, I think we have.'
* Isn't it a beautiful day! (= It's a beautiful day, isn't it?)
Note the meaning of yes and no in answers to negative questions:
* Don't you want to go to the party? Yes. (=Yes, I want to go)
* Don't you want to go to the party? .No. (=No, I don't want to go)
Note the word order in negative questions beginning Why ...?:
* Why don't we go out for a meal tonight? (not 'Why we don't...')
* Why wasn't Mary at work yesterday? (not 'Why Mary wasn't...')
48.1 Ask Liz questions. (Look at her answers before you write the questions.)
1. (where/from?) Where are you from?
_From London originally._
2. (where/live/now?) Where ---
3. (married?) ---
4. (how long/married?) ---
5. (children?) ---
Yes, three boys.
6. (how old/they?) ---
4, 7 and 9.
7. (what/husband/do?) ---
He's a policeman.
8. (he/enjoy his job?) ---
Yes, very much.
9. (arrest anyone yesterday?) ---
I don't know.
10. (how often/go/on holiday?) ---
Usually once a year.
11. (where/next year?) ---
We don't know yet.
48.2 Make questions with who or what.
1. Somebody hit me. _Who hit you?_
2. I hit somebody. _Who did you hit?_
3. Somebody gave me the key. Who ---
4. Something happened. What ---
5. Diane told me something. ---
6. This book belongs to somebody. ---
7. Somebody lives in that house. ---
8 I fell over something. ---
9. Something fell on the floor. ---
10. This word means something. ---
11. I borrowed the money from somebody. ---
12. I'm worried about something. ---
48.3 Put the words in brackets in the correct order. All the sentences are questions.
1. (when/was/built/this house) _When was this house built?_
3. (when/invented /the computer/was)
4. (why/Sue/working/ isn't/today)
5. (what time/coming/your friends/are)
6. (why/was/cancelled/the concert)
7. (where/your mother/was/born)
8. (why/you/to the party/didn't/come)
9. (how/the accident/did/happen)
10. (why/this machine/doesn't/work)
48.4 Write negative questions from the words in brackets. In each situation you are surprised.
1. A: We won't see Ann this evening.
B: Why not? (she/not/come/to the party?) _Isn't she coming to the party?_
2. A: I hope we don't meet Brian tonight.
B: Why? (you/not/like/him?)
3. A: Don't go and see that film.
B: Why not? (it/not/good)
4. A: I'll have to borrow some money.
B: Why? (you/not/have/any?)
UNIT 49. Questions (2) (Do you know where ..? She asked me where ...)
A. When we ask for information, we often say Do you know ...?/Could you tell me ...? etc. If you begin a question like this, the word order is different from a simple question.
Where has Tom gone? (simple question)
but Do you know where Tom has gone? (not 'Do you know where has Tom gone?')
When the question (Where has Tom gone?) is part of a longer sentence (Do you know ...?/I don't know.../Can you tell me ...? etc.), it loses the normal question word order.
* What time is it? but Do you know what time it is?
* Who is that woman? but I don't know who that woman is.
* Where can I find Linda? but Can you tell me where I can find Linda?
* How much will it cost? but Have you any idea how much it will cost?
Be careful with do/does/did questions:
* What time the film begins? but Do you know what time the film begins? (not 'Do you know what time does...')
* What do you mean? but Please explain what you mean.
* Why did Ann leave early? but I wonder why Ann left early.
Use if or whether where there is no other question word (what, why etc.):
* Did anybody see you? but Do you know if (or whether) anybody saw you?
B. The same changes in word order happen in reported questions:
direct: The police officer said to us, "Where are you going?
reported: The police officer asked us where we were-going.
direct: Clare said, 'What time do the bank close?
reported: Clare wanted to know what time the banks closed.
In reported questions, the verb usually changes to the past (were, closed). See Unit 46.
Study these examples. You had an interview for a job and these were some of the questions the interviewer asked you:
How old are you?
What do you do in your spare time?
How long have you been working in your present job?
Why did you apply for the job?
Can you speak any foreign languages?
Have you got a driving licence?
Later you tell a friend what the interviewer asked you. You use reported speech:
* She asked (me) how old I was.
* She wanted to know what I did in my spare time.
* She asked (me) how long I had been working in my present job.
* She asked (me) why I had applied for the job. (or ... why I applied)
* She wanted to know whether (or if) I could speak any foreign languages.
* She asked whether (or if) I had a driving licence. (or ... I had got ... )
49.1 Make a new sentence from the question in brackets.
1. (Where has Tom gone?) Do you know where Tom has gone?
2. (Where is the post office?) Could you tell me where ---
3. (What's the time?) I wonder ---
4. (What does this word mean?) I want to know ---
5. (What time did they leave?) Do you know ---
6. (Is Sue going out tonight?) I don't know ---
7. (Where does Carol live?) Have you any idea ---
8. (Where did I park the car?) I can't remember ---
9. (Is there a bank near here?) Can you tell me ---
10. (What do you want?) Tell me ---
11. (Why didn't Kay come to the party?) I don't know ---
12. (Do you have to pay to park here?) Do you know ---
13. (Who is that woman?) I've no idea ---
14. (Did Ann receive my letter?) Do you know ---
15. (How far is it to the airport?) Can you tell me ---
49.2 You are making a phone call. You want to speak to Sue but she isn't there. Somebody else answers the phone. You want to know three things:
(1) Where has she gone? (2) When will she be back? and (3) Did she go out alone?
Complete the conversation:
A: Do you know where ---(1)?
B: Sorry, I've got no idea.
A: Never mind. I don't suppose you know ---(2).
B: No, I'm afraid not.
A: One more thing. Do you happen to know ---(3)?
B: I'm afraid I didn't see her go out.
A: OK. Well, thank you anyway. Goodbye.
49.3 You have been away for a while and have just come back to your home town. You meet Gerry, a friend of yours. He asks you a lot of questions:
1. How are you?
2. Where have you been?
3. How long have you been back?
4. What are you doing now?
5. Where are you living?
6. Why did you come back?
7. Are you glad to be back?
8. Do you have any plans to go away again?
9. can you lend me some money?
Now you tell another friend what Gerry asked you. Use reported speech.
1. _He asked me how I was._
2. He asked me ---
3. He ---
Date: 2015-02-03; view: 1949