UNIT 17. Have and have got
A. Have and have got (= possess, own etc.)
We often use have got rather than have alone. So you can say:
* We've got a new car. or We have a new car.
* Ann has got two sisters. or Ann has two sisters.
We use have got or have for illnesses, pains etc.:
* I've got a headache. or I have a headache.
In questions and negative sentences there are three possible forms:
Have you got any money? I haven't got any money.
Do you have any money? I don't have any money.
Have you any money? (less usual) I haven't any money. (less usual)
Has she got a car? She hasn't got a car.
Does she have a car? She doesn't have a car.
Has she a car? (less usual) She hasn't a car. (less usual)
When have means 'possess' etc., you cannot use continuous forms (is having/are having etc.):
* I have/I've got a headache. (not 'I'm having')
For the past we use had (usually without 'got'):
* Ann had long fair hair when she was a child. (not 'Ann had got')
In past questions and negative sentences we normally use did/didn't:
* Did they have a car when they were living in London?
* I didn't have a watch, so I didn't know the time.
* Ann had long fair hair, didn't she?
B. Have breakfast/have a bath/have a good time etc.
Have (but not 'have got') is also used for many actions and experiences. For example:
have breakfast/dinner/a cup of coffee/a cigarette etc.
have a bath/a shower/a swim/a rest/a party/a holiday/a nice time etc.
have an accident/an experience/a dream etc.
have a look (at something)/a chat (with somebody)
have a baby (= give birth to a baby)
* Goodbye! I hope you have a nice time.
* Mary had a baby recently.
'Have got' is not possible in these expressions. Compare:
* I usually have a sandwich for my lunch. (have = 'eat' - not 'have got')
but * I've got some sandwiches. Would you like one?
In these expressions, have is like other verbs. You can use continuous forms (is having are having etc.) where suitable:
* I had a postcard from Fred this morning. He's on holiday. He says he's having a
wonderful time. (not 'he has a wonderful time')
* The phone rang while we were having dinner. (not 'while we had')
In questions and negative sentences we normally use do/does/did:
* I don't usually have a big breakfast. (not 'I usually haven't')
* What time does Ann have lunch? (not 'has Ann lunch')
* Did you have any difficulty finding somewhere to live?
17.1 Write negative sentences with have. Some are present (can't) and some are past (couldn't).
1. I can't make a phone call. (any change)
I haven't got any change.
2. I couldn't read the notice. (my glasses)
I didn't have my glasses.
3. I can't climb up onto the roof. (a ladder)
4. We couldn't visit the museum. (enough time)
5. He couldn't find his way to our house. (a map)
6. She can't pay her bills. (any money)
7. They can't get into the house. (a key)
8. I couldn't take any photographs. (a camera)
17.2 Complete these questions with have. Some are present and some are past.
1. Excuse me, have you got a pen I could borrow?
2. Why are you holding your face like that? --- a toothache?
3. --- a bicycle when you were a child?
4. '--- the time, please?' 'Yes, it's ten past seven.'
5. When you did the exam, --- time to answer all the questions?
6. I need a stamp for this letter. --- one?
7. 'It started to rain while I was walking home.' 'Did it? --- an umbrella?'
17.3 In this exercise you have to write sentences about yourself. Choose four of the following things (or you can choose something else):
a car a bicycle a moped a guitar a computer a camera a driving licence a job a dog/a cat (or another animal)
Have you got these things now? Did you have them ten years ago? Write two sentences each time using I've got/I haven't got and I had/I didn't have.
now ten years ago (or five if you're too young)
1. I've got a car. I didn't have a car.
2. --- ---
3. --- ---
4. --- ---
17.4 Complete these sentences. Use an expression from the list and put the verb into the correct form where necessary.
have lunch have a swim have a nice time have a chat have a cigarette have a rest have a good flight have a baby have a shower have a party have a look
1. I don't eat much during the day. I never _have lunch._
2. David likes to keep fit, so he --- every day.
3. We --- last Saturday. It was great - we invited lots of people.
4. Excuse me, can I --- at your newspaper, please?
5. 'Where's Jim?' 'He --- in his room. He's very tired.'
6. I met Ann in the supermarket yesterday. We stopped and ---.
7. I haven't seen you since you came back from holiday ---?
8. Suzanne --- a few weeks ago. It's her second child.
9. I don't usually smoke but I was feeling very nervous, so I ---.
10. The phone rang but I couldn't answer it because I ---.
11. You meet Tom at the airport. He has just arrived. You say:
Hello, Tom. ---?
UNIT 18. Used to (do)
A. Study this example situation:
Dennis stopped smoking two years ago. He doesn't smoke any more.
But he used to smoke.
He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day.
'He used to smoke' = he smoked regularly for some time in the past, but he doesn't smoke now. He was a smoker, but now he isn't
B. 'Something used to happen' = something happened regularly in the past but no longer happens:
* I used to play tennis a lot but I don't play very often now.
* Diane used to travel a lot. These days she doesn't go away so often.
* 'Do you go to the cinema very often?' 'Not now, but I used to.' (= I used to go ...)
We also use used to... for something that was true but is not true any more:
* This building is now a furniture shop. It used to be a cinema.
* I used to think he was unfriendly but now I realise he's a very nice person.
* I've started drinking coffee recently. I never used to like it before.
* Janet used to have very long hair when she was a child.
C. 'I used to do something' is past. There is no present form. You cannot say 'I use to do'. To talk about the present, use the present simple (I do).
past: he used to smoke we used to live there used to be
present: he smokes we live there is
* We used to live in a small village but now we live in London.
* There used to be four cinemas in the town. Now there is only one.
D. The normal question form is did (you) use to ...?:
* Did you use to eat a lot of sweets when you were a child?
The negative form is didn't use to ... (used not to ... is also possible)
* I didn't use to like him. (or I used not to like him.)
E. Compare I used to do and I was doing (see Unit 6):
* I used to watch TV a lot. (= I watched TV regularly in the past, but I no longer do this)
* I was watching TV when the phone rang. (= I was in the middle of watching TV)
F. Do not confuse I used to do and I am used to doing (see Unit 60). The structures and meanings are different:
* I used to live alone. (= I lived alone in the past but I no longer live alone)
* I am used to living alone. (= I live alone and I don't find it strange or new because I've been living alone for some time)
18.1 Complete these sentences with use(d) to ... + a suitable verb.
1. Dennis gave up smoking two years ago. He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day.
2. Liz --- a motorbike, but last year she sold it and bought a car.
3. We came to live in Manchester a few years ago. We --- in Nottingham.
4. I rarely cat ice cream now but I --- it when I was a child.
5. Jim --- my best friend but we aren't friends any longer.
6. It only takes me about 40 minutes to get to work since the new road was opened. It --- more than an hour.
7. There --- a hotel opposite the station but it closed a long time ago
8. When you lived in London, --- to the theatre very often?
18.2 Brian changed his lifestyle. He stopped doing some things and started doing other things:
He stopped studying hard/going to bed early/running three miles e3very morning
He started smoking/going out in the evening/spending a lot of money
Write sentences about Brian with used to and didn't use to.
1. He used to smoke.
2. He didn't use to smoke.
18.3 Compare what Carol said five years ago and what she says today:
FIVE YEARS A GO
I travel a lot,
I play the piano.
I'm very lazy.
I don't like cheese.
I've got a dog.
I'm a hotel receptionist.
I've got lots of friends.
I never read newspapers.
I don't drink tea.
I go to a lot of parties.
I eat lots of cheese now.
I work very hard these days.
I don't know in people these days.
I work in a bookshop now.
I don't go away much these days.
My dog died two years ago.
I read a newspaper every day now.
I haven't been to a party for ages.
I haven't played piano for years.
Tea's great! I like it now.
Now write sentences about bow Carol has changed. Use used to/didn't use to/never used to in the first part of your sentence.
1 She used to travel a lot but she doesn't go away much these days.
2. She used --- but ---
3. --- but ---
4. --- but ---
5. --- but ---
6. --- but ---
7. --- but ---
8. --- but ---
9. --- but ---
10. --- but ---
Date: 2015-02-03; view: 2412