READING. REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH. BACTERIA: THEIR CONSTRUCTION.
Belarus is my homeland. It's the place where I was born and live now. Belarus is situated nearly in the centre of Europe, it borders on Poland in the west, on the Baltic States - Lithuania and Latvia - in the north-west, on Russia in the north and east and on the Ukraine in the south. Belarus occupies the territory of 207.6 thousand squarekilometres, it ranks 13th in Europe. The population of our country is about 10 million with more than 100 nationality groups. The share of the rural population is 31%. About 3 million Belarusians and their descendants live outside Belarus, mostly in Russia, Ukraine, the USA, Poland, and Latvia.
Belarus has a very long and rich history. It is believed that the formationof the Belarusian nation dates back to the 13th century when the Belarusian language and culture began to take shape. But according to some written documents the Belarusian statehood started to be formed as early as the 10 th century when prince Rogvold started his reign on Polotsk lands. From the 13th to the 16th centuries the territory of contemporary Belarus was the centre of polyethnic state - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most powerful slates in Eastern Europe. Then the Belarusian territory was a part of the Rzecz Pospolita. During that period the Belarusian culture and language were greatly influenced by the Polish. In the 18th century Belarus was under the Russian rule. Soon after the October revolution Belarus became a member of the USSR. In general, the history of our country was very difficult and dramatic; it proclaimed its sovereignty only at the end of the 20th century-in 1991.
According to the Constitution, Belarus is a presidential republic. The head of the state and the highest executive power is the President elected for a 5-year .term. The executive power is also performed by the Council of Ministers headed by the Premier. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. The Parliament – the National Assembly – is a representative and legislative body of the republic. It consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. The House of Representatives is formed on the universal, free, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The Council of the Republic is the chamber of territorial representation. The judicial power in the republic belongs to courts. Control over constitutionality of regulatory acts in the state is exercised by the Constitutional Court.
With its numerous rivers and lakes, meadows and forests which cover one third of the country, Belarus is a unique formation with hundreds of remarkable species ofplants and animals. Belavezhskaya Puscha is the biggest and the most beautiful national park of the country. Rare bisons - aurochses - live here. Beresinski reserve, Pripyatski national park and many other territories are unique places where infinite nature is saved untouched.
The climate of the republic is moderately continental. The breathing of the Baltic Sea is constantly felt here and even during the coldest winter months the temperature may rise well above zero.
The mineral resources of the country meet the needs of the national economy in peat, potassium salts, building materials, underground fresh and mineral waters. But Belarus is poor in petroleum, gas, coal and metal, so they are the main items of Belarusian imports.
In spite of some serious economic problems that our country has faced over the recent years, Belarus can be named one of the most economically advanced regions among the countries, united in the CIS. Thanks to its good geographical position, advanced network of transport and communications, skilled workforce the Belarusian industry is achieving a high level. Belarus has succeeded in industrial development ofsuch branches as motor industry, manufacture of tractors and agricultural engineering, machine tool industry and electro-technical industry, production of mineral fertilizers, wood-working and oil-refining. Such enterprises as MAZ, BelAZ, "Belaruskaly", "Azot", tractors "Belarus", TV-sets "Horizont" and "Vitiaz", watches and clocks "Luch", refrigerators "Atlant" are well-known both in our republic and abroad.
Belarus used to be called the land of bogs. Today a few million acres of land have been reclaimed for arable farming. The chief crops are potatoes, flax, rye and various fodder grasses. Belarusian flax products are among the main items of export and are well-known abroad.
Belarus possesses great scientific potential. The first step in the development of Belarusian science was made in 1921 when the BSU was opened, eight years later – the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus which consists of more than 40 institutions. Nowadays the achievements of Belarusian scientists in different fields have gained international recognition.
Answer the questions:
1. Is Belarus your homeland?
2. Is it a place where you were born and live now?
3. What countries does Belarus border on?
4. What is the population of Belarus?
5. The formation of the Belarusian nation dates back to the 13th century, doesn’t it?
6. When was the Belarusian statehood formed?
7. Who is the president of the Republic of Belarus?
8. How many Chambers does the Belarusian Parliament have?
9. Minsk is the capital of Belarus, isn’t it?
10. What is the structure of population in Belarus?
11. What is the biggest and the most beautiful national park of the country?
12. What mineral resources of the country do you know?
13. What are the main industries successful developing in the Republic of Belarus?
14. Are you proud to be a citizen of the Republic of Belarus?
Ex. 1. Put the verb in the proper form and translate the sentences.
1. Belarus (to be) my homeland.
2. It’s the place where I (to be) born.
3. Belarus (to be) situated nearly in the centre of Europe.
4. Belarus (to occupy) the territory of 207.6 thousand square kilometres.
5. About 3 million Belarusians and their descendants (to live) outside Belarus.
6. Belarus (to have) a very long and rich history.
7. The Belarusian statehood (to start) to be formed as early as the 10th century, when Prince Rogvold (to start) to reign on Polotsk lands.
8. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (to be) one of the largest and most powerful states in Eastern Europe.
9. In general the history of our country (to be) very difficult and dramatic.
10. The head of the state and the highest executive power (to be) the President, elected for a 5 – year term.
11. The Prime Minister (to be) appointed by the President.
12. The Parliament – the National Assembly, (to be) a representative and legislative body of the republic.
13. The Parliament (to consist) of two Chambers: the Council of the Republic and the Chamber of Representatives.
14. The judicial power (to belong) to courts.
15. Minsk (to be) the capital of Belarus.
16. With its numerous rivers and lakes, meadows and forests which cover one-third of the country, Belarus (to be) a unique formation with hundreds of remarkable species of plants and animals.
17. The climate of the republic (to be) moderately continental.
18. The mineral resources of the country (to meet) the needs of the national economy.
19. In spite of some serious economic problems that our country (to face) over the recent years, Belarus can (to be) named one of the most economically advanced regions among the countries, united in the CIS.
20. Belarus (to succed) in industrial development of such branches as motor industry, manufacture of tractors and agricultural engineering, machine tool industry and electro-technical industry, production of mineral fertilizers, wood-working and oil-refining.
21. Belarus (to possess) great scientific potential.
Minsk-the Capital of the Republic of Belarus
Minsk is my native town. It is the capital of the Republic of Belarus and I am proud to be its citizen. Minsk is an ancient town with a rich history.
More than 2000 years ago on the banks of the Nemiga and Svisloch rivers came into existence the city of Minsk or Mensk as it was called before.The name of the city is believed to be associated with the river Menka that flowed into the lake Ptich not far from the city. But the legends say that the city derives its name from the word "mena" as in the ancient times there was a barter market on the right bank of the river Svisloch. Mensk was first mentioned in chronicles in 1067. In the 12th century Mensk became the center of the independent Polotsk principality. In the late 13th century the principality became part of the Great Duchy of Lithuania.
The 14th -15th centuries were very important in the life of Mensk and its inhabitants. It was the period when the Belarusian nation was formed with its national language and culture. In the middle îf the 16th century the Lithuanian Princes united with the Polish Kingdom and formed a united state Rzecz Pospolita. It was at that period when Mensk was renamed into Minsk. Till the 18th century the Belarusian people were vassals to Polish feudal lords who exploited them cruelly.
In the 18th century (1793) Belarus was annexed by Russia and was turned into a province with Minsk as its center. In 1812 the Napoleon troops burnt the city almost to ashes. In the 20th century the Belarusian capital underwent not once foreign occupation : in 1918 it was occupied by Germany; in 1919-1920 by Poland.
During the Great Patriotic War our capital was almost completely destroyed by the fascist invaders. We can say that in the post-war years it was rebuilt anew to become even more beautiful.
At present Minsk is the capital of the Republic of Belarus which is an independent state with its own state symbols, Parliament and President. It is a big developing city with the population of about 2 million. It occupies the territory of 200 square kilometers.
Every visitor of our city admires its beautiful buildings, wide streets and avenues, green parks and monuments. Minsk is also a big traffic center with a wide network of roads, railways, airlines and two Metro lines.
Minsk is the major industrial and cultural center and one of the most beautiful cities. The city has acquired its peculiar look and colouring thanks to the well-planned avenues and squares, to the green of the parks and gardens stretching along the Svisloch river, to its historical monuments.
There are hundreds of plants and factories in the city which produce various goods. Tractors and lorries, motorcycles and bicycles, TV-sets and watches, refrigerators and computers, textile and footwear are manufactured here. Our Belarus tractors and MAZ trucks enjoy a high reputation both in our country and abroad.
Minsk is also known as a city of science and students. There are many state and non-state institutions of education which train specialists in different fields of economy and social life.
The cultural life of the Belarusian capital is varied and very interesting. In Minsk there are many museums and exhibitions, theatres and concert halls, cinemas and libraries, clubs and concert halls. Among the theatres it is worth mentioning the National Academic Bolshoi Theatre of Opera and Ballet, the Yanka Kupala State Academic Theatre, and the Gorky State Russian Drama Theatre which are extremely popular with the public.
Minsk is a Hero-City. It was honoured with this title in 1974 for the courage and heroism displayed by its inhabitants during World War II.
Minsk today is a city with broad possibilities for development. Embassies, banks, business centers, public and private institutions, offices have been springing out in the city. Minsk is attractive and very romantic in all seasons of the year. This special city is beloved by its inhabitants and by all Belarusians.
Answer the questions:
1. How old is Minsk?
2. What is the past of the capital of the Republic of Belarus?
3. Where is Minsk located?
4. The Belarusians suffered a lot during the Great Patriotic War, didn’t they?
5. What goods are manufactured by the industrial enterprises of Minsk?
6. What are the main sights of Minsk?
7. Do you like to go to the theaters of Minsk?
8. Which of them are the most popular with the public?
9. Are you proud of your city?
Ex. 1. Use the articles, read and translate the sentences.
1. Minsk is ... capital of the Republic of Belarus.
2. Minsk is ... ancient town with a rich history.
3. The name of ... city is believed to be associated with ... river Menka that flowed into ... lake Ptich not far from ... city.
4. But the legends say that ... city derives its name from ... word “mena” as in ... ancient times there was ... barter market on ... right bank of ... river Svisloch.
5. Minsk was first mentioned in ... chronicles in 1067.
6. In ... 12thcentury Minsk became the center of the independent Polotsk Principality.
7. In ... late 13th century ... Principality became part of ... Great Duchy of Lithuania.
8. ... 14th – 15th centuries were very important in ... life of Mensk.
9. In ... middle of ... 16th century the Lithuanian Princes united with ... Polish Kingdom.
10. In 1812 ... Napoleon troops burnt the city almost to ... ashes.
11. In ... 20th century ... Belarusian capital underwent not once ... foreign occupation: in 1918 – it was occupied by ... Germany; in 1919-1920 – by ... Poland.
12. During ... Great Patriotic War our capital was almost completely destroyed by ... fascist invaders.
13. At present Minsk is ... Capital of ... Republic of Belarus which is ... independent state with its own state symbols.
14. Minsk is also ... big traffic center with ... wide network of roads, railways, airlines and two Metro lines.
15. There are hundreds of ... plants and factories in ... city which produce various goods.
16. Minsk is also known as ... city of science and ... students.
17. Minsk is ... Hero-City.
18. Minsk was honoured with this title in ... 1974 for ... courage and heroism displayed by its inhabitants during ... World War II.
19. Minsk is attractive and very romantic in all seasons of ... year.
Reproduction and Growth
Reproduction of bacteria is usually by fission: an individual cell enlarges and splits into two, each of the resulting pair being an exact replica of the parent cell (in the absence of mutation). Filamentous species reproduce by the elongation and branching of their filaments. A few bacteria multiply by a budding process. Methods of reproduction are almost invariably asexual, though a form of ‘sexual’ mating has been rarely observed.
In the laboratory most bacteria can be induced to ‘grow’ (reproduce) in liquid or on solid culture media. Nutrient requirements, atmospheric conditions correct pH value (acidity or alkalinity) of the medium, osmotic pressures and temperatures are rendered optimum for the multiplication of species in vitro. Some bacteria will grow in a simple defined medium consisting of a few salts in aqueous solution (trace elements are provided by the impurities found in all chemicals, even those described as ‘pure’). Others, including many pathogenic species, require protein degradation products, such as digested meat, in the constitution of media suitable for their growth. Some fastidious pathogens need media enriched with blood or other highly nutritious substances.
Say whether the following statements are true or false:
1. Methods of reproduction of bacteria are mainly asexual.
2. Bacteria never multiply by budding.
3. Bacteria usually reproduce by dividing into numerous parts.
4. Bacteria can’t be grown in the laboratory.
5. Numerous requirements have to be met in order to make bacteria reproduce in vitro.
6. The medium enriched with nutritious substances is required for some pathogenic bacteria.
T E X T B
Bacteria: their Construction
Bacteria are very small single-celled organisms (microorganisms) that exist in enormous numbers almost everywhere. They live in soil, water, air, and in living and dead animals and plants. A gram of soil can contain up to a thousand million bacteria, and there may be hundreds of thousands in a single drop of milk.
Bacteria differ from each other mainly in where and on what they live, and in the shape of their single cells. There are the spherical coccus types such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, which often occur in chains or masses, and the rod-shaped bacillus type such as Mycobacterium, which causes tuberculosis. Other disease-causing bacteria are Eberthella typhi (typhoid), and Vibrio cholerae (cholera). The type of bacterium which forms a coil or spiral is Spirillum.
Although bacteria cells are more complicated than viruses they are still very simple. Their structure has been worked out with optical microscopes which magnify by one hundred thousand times. All bacteria have a tough outer cell wall so their food must be soluble before it can be absorbed into the cell. In some bacteria there is a protecting layer of jelly enclosing the cell wall, and also one or more minute fibres (flagella) used for swimming. Inside the cell there is a coil of DNA and other chemical substances, but there is no definite nucleus or any of the other structures found in plant and animal cells.
Bacteria usually reproduce by simply splitting in two. When temperature conditions are favourable, about 37°C for most bacteria, they can divide about încå every 30 minutes. In theory, one bacterium could form about 140 000 000 000 000 bacteria at the end of 24 hours. In fact, this does not happen because the supply of food soon runs out, poisonous wastes accumulate, and after a time no more bacteria can survive. Although most bacteria reproduce by dividing in two, some bacteria can reproduce sexually, during which the contents of one bacterium flow into another.
Bacteria are very tough. Different kinds can live in almost every environment, from hot springs to arctic frost. Many can form a type of spore under certain conditions. A spore is capsule inside which a bacterium can survive for years of drying out, intense heat or disinfectant. Few of disease bacteria can make spores.
Ex. 2. Translate into Russian.
1. Water has to be thoroughly analysed during the epidemics.
2. Account has to be taken of the elastic properties of the body.
3. The lamprey must have existed at an early period.
4. Attention was to be paid to the climatic conditions.
5. This species cannot have emigrated from the North by two different routes.
6. Care is to be taken not to use methods of growing tissues on the surface of agar.
7. We know that previous to mutation there must have been a normal gene in place of the mutant gene.
8. The majority of the plant names have been taken straight from the chemical literature and taxonomists are bound to find some difficulty in interpretation.
9. Most species comprised in group 3 may have a very complicated origin.
10. It is to be regretted that the deserved attention was not given to their results.
11. It is to be emphasized that some acids are found in very few species.
12. It is to be noted that the aim was to be demonstrated the production of cells.
Ex. 3. Choose and use the appropriate modal verb from given in brackets.
1. These cells (need, can must, to have to be easily found in the roots as well as in the stem of that plant.
2. This plant (must, can, should) grow under such conditions rather well.
3. The roots of this plant (must, can, may, need) be used for human food.
4. Every student (may, can, should) know the difference between the leaves of oak and birch.
5. Such plants (need, must, should) have been cultivated by man long ago.
6. When water (must, may, to be (to), need) to be used for drinking it is necessary that microbes which it (to be (to), to have (to), may) contain (should, must, may) be killed.
7. You will (may, to have (to), to be (to), must) to study the characteristics of both plants as there (may, to be (to), must, can) be a considerable difference between them.
8. One (can, ought to, may, to have (to), should, must) to remember that this reaction is often followed by an explosion.
Ex. 4. Translate the sentences paying attention to Modals.
1. A great series of chemical changes has to occur before food becomes protoplasm.
2. These plant parts may have been found on and below the soil surface.
3. This list could be extended a long way.
4. Living protoplasm must always be thought of as a system in dynamic equilibrium.
5. Different techniques have to be used with microorganisms.
6. Hybrids may show characteristics of both parents.
7. The development of this disease must have been considerable favoured by high moisture conditions.
PRACTICE SUBSTITUTE WORDS
Ex. 5. Translate into Russian and pay attention to the substitute word “One”.
1. One should take the precautions mentioned. 2. One believes that the procedure described above will simplify the experiment. 3. One may well ask why the two sheets of paper fly apart. 4. One is to make a lot of experiments to make sure that his observation is adequate. 5. When making experiments of this kind one is faced with still another difficulty. 6. One cannot fail to observe that the advance in technique grows more rapid. 7. Instead of numbers one might use symbols for numbers - algebra instead of arithmetic. 8. One may well ask why the numbers b and a are not identical, since they arise from much the same kind of process. 9. If one wishes to know whether or not a certain compound is present, one simply looks for a peak from that compound which would be expected in an otherwise clear region of the spectrum. 10. To know how a plant grows one should study the structure of the plant. 11. One can prevent the evaporation of moisture by means of the method which will check further loss of water. 12. One can find any book on botany in that library. 13. This is a very long distance if one takes into consideration their small size. 14. One must distinguish between processes due to the effect of biological clocks and the biochemical mechanisms of the clocks themselves. 15. By regulating the alternation of light and darkness, one can obtain three generations of sheep in two years. 16. When one says that a vessel is empty, it is not really true for the vessel is full of air. 17. One can improve the structure of the soil by proper treatment. 18. One should not forget that temperature plays an especially important role at the time of developing the root system. 19. One must always be careful when operating this machine. 20. To understand what laser is one has to understand how light is generated.
1. It takes one much time to make all the necessary calculations. 2. The evidence provided by the author makes one believe that his hypothesis rests on sound foundation. 3. The figures presented involve one in the problems of modern statistics. 4. The computer allows one to make calculations in a short time. 5. Fast molecules do not diffuse through the rest as fast as their speed would lead one to expect. 6. His method permits one to get good results. 7. This led one to regard this problem as very complex.
Ex. 6. Translate into Russian and a pay attention to the substitute word “that/those”.
1. The electron temperature is much greater than that of the gas as a whole. 2. Unlike molecules can be determined by methods like those used earlier for like molecules. 3. The diameter of Neptunium is four times greater than that of the Earth. 4. The atomic weight of sulphur is twice as large as that of oxygen. 5. Suppose that the total volume of the gas is k times that of the molecule. 6. Molecules moving from hot regions to cool carry more energy than those moving in the reverse direction. 7. The tåñhniquå used has some advantages over that suggested bó Ðàlm. 8. Òhå resu1ts are in good agreement with those calculated from the mobility data of Green. 9. Âó comparing actual strength of diffusion with that to bå expected if the molecules were elastic spheres, the value of s ñàn bå found. 10. Carbon dioxide cannot support life, its properties being different from those of the oxygen which it contains. 11. There are many kinds of potential energy besides that due to the force of gravity. 12. Two other very suitable temperatures are always generally available, those of melting ice and of boiling water - the former, constant under all conditions, the latter depending on the atmospheric pressure. 13. Molecules of light gases move quicker than those of denser gases. 14. There is a great difference between the functions of the leaves and those of the roots. 15. The soil of the South contains usually less moisture than that of the North. 16. Outdoor planting differs from that under glass in that the seed is not always soaked before planting. 17. The reproductive and life cycle of ferns is similar to that of the vascular plants just described. 18. Brown and Steward found that although the production of infective particles was inhibited, infectious RNA could be demonstrated at a level approaching that of control infected cells. 19. The mixture is identical to that mentioned above. 20. The minimum temperature for germination of the seed is much higher than that required for the general crop plants.
Ex. 7. Translate into Russian and pay attention to the substitute word “this/these”.
1. Òhå elements of the Periodic Group IA are called the alkali metals. Òhåså are alike in having à single electron în the outermost shåll. 2. The chief use of diffusion and thermal diffusion results is to determine the forces between unlike molecules. These can also be determined by methods like those used earlier for like molecules. 3. The speed of fast molecules means that they slip past the molecules which they meet without these having time to deflect them in their course. 4. If a gas molecule imparts energy to a wall molecule, this passes it on to other wall molecules. 5. We keep the ice-cream machine in the spare room. This is mainly used by the children. 6. Most American families are traditional. These comprise a father, mother, and one or more children. 7. Teenagers want independence. These feel that working parents are a benefit. 8. What does the word “politics” mean? This comes from the Greek word “police”, meaning the state or community as a whole.
TOPICS. GREAT BRITAIN. LONDON. MY FUTURE PROFESSION.
READING. ALGAE. ALGAE: THE SIMPLEST GREEN PLANTS.
The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles comprising 2 large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a number of smaller islands washed by the North sea, the Irish sea, the English Channel and the Atlantic Ocean. Its territory is about 244,000 square kilometers; the population is about 57 million people.
When we speak about the U.K. we actually speak about 4 countries united into one state: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Each of these countries has its own language, its capital, its government. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, the capital of Wales is Cardiff, the capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast, the capital of England is London. London is the capital of the United Kingdom as well. English is the official language but a lot of people know more than one language: Welsh, Gaelic, Irish.
The surface of England and Ireland in rather flat, the highlands are in Scotland and most of Wales. The highest mountain in Scotland is Ben Nevis (1,343m high) and the highest mountain in Wales is Snowdon (1,085m high). The main rivers are the Severn, the Clyde, the Thames.
The climate is moderate and mild due to the influence of the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. There is a lot of rain in autumn and winter.
The U.K. is a highly developed industrial state. Britain is a major supplier of machinery, aerospace products, chemicals, electric equipment and a growing oil exporter. Nowadays an important part of foreign trade is so called “invisible” export: insurance, aviation, scientific and technical expertise, tourism, financial services. The biggest industrial centres are London, Glasgow, Liverpool, Sheffield, Birmingham, Manchester.
The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (the second) is considered to be the head of the state, with a largely ceremonial role.
The legislative power belongs to the Parliament which consists of two Houses. The House of Lords is composed of hereditary, life and spiritual peers and peeresses. The members of the House of Commons are elected by the people. The executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and his Cabinet.
There are three main political parties in the U.K.: the Labour, the Conservative (the Tories) and the Liberal-Democratic Parties. The Labour Party with David Cameron at the head is the ruling party nowadays. There is no written constitution in the U.K., only precedents and traditions.
The inhabitants of the U.K. are famous for their customs and traditions.
British people are naturally polite: they are never tired of saying “Thank you” and “I’m sorry”.
They are generally disciplined; they never talk aloud in the street; they never show their emotions even in tragic situations; they seem to remain good-tempered and cheerful under difficulties.
The most famous educational centres are Oxford and Cambridge universities. They are considered to be the intellectual centres of Europe.
Answer the questions:
1. Where is the U.K. situated?
2. What parts does the U.K. consist of?
3. What are the British Isles washed by?
4. What is the territory and the population of the country?
5. What city is the capital of the U.K.?
6. What language is official in the U.K.?
7. What do you know about the surface of the country?
8. Are there any high mountains and long rivers in the U.K.?
9. Why is the climate moderate and mild?
10. Is the U.K. a highly developed industrial country?
11. What do the British people produce?
12. What is an important part of foreign trade?
13. The U.K. is a parliamentary monarchy, isn’t it?
14. Do you know the name of the Queen of the U.K.?
15. What does the legislative power belong to?
16. The members of the House of Commons are elected by the population, aren’t they?
17. How many parliamentary political parties are there in the U.K.?
18. What are the inhabitants of the U.K. famous for?
19. What can you say about British character?
I. Make sentences
1. by the Atlantic Ocean, the British Isles, the Irish Sea, are washed, the North Sea
2. the territory, occupies, the U.K., 244,000 square kilometers, of about
3. in the U.K., constitution, no, there is, written
4. naturally, are, polite, British people
5. Oxford, are considered, Cambridge, the intellectual centres, to be, of Europe, and.
II. Complete the sentences using the text.
1. When we speak about the U.K. ...
2. English is the official language but ...
3. The highest mountain is ...
4. The longest rivers are ...
5. The U.K. is a major supplier of ...
6. The biggest industrial centres are ...
7. The legislative power belongs to ...
8. The executive power is exercised by ...
9. British never show their ...
10. British seem to remain ...
London is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom situated on the Thames river, the largest city in Britain and one of the largest cities in the world.
From the earliest times the Romans, the Saxons, the Danes and the Normans settled there in turn. London is one of the world’s largest ports. Historical and geographical circumstances have turned London into one of the world’s most important commercial and cultural centers.
London survived the Plague, which killed nearly 70.000 people, and the Great Fire which followed. Little damage occurred during World War I, but World War II brought tremendous destruction to the city: a great number of buildings of historic value were laid in ruins. Yet much was spared, including the Tower, St.Paul’s Cathedral and Westminster Abbey which remain the major tourist attractions of the city.
More than 8 million people live in London and its suburbs. It is a city of great contrasts. Its western part (the West End) is the richest part of the town with its cosy mansions, beautiful avenues, shops, restaurants and hotels. The East End is the district inhabited by the workers and the poor. Industry is chiefly found in that part of the city grey with soot and smoke.
The heart of London is the City -its commercial and business center. It is the oldest part of the town with the Tower of London that comes first among the historic buildings of the city.
The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conquerer. It was used as a fortress, a palace and a prison. Now it is a museum of armour.
A twenty minutes’ walk from the Tower will take you to another historic building-St.Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built by a famous English architect Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723). St.Paul’s Cathedral with its huge dome and rows of columns is considered to be a fine specimen of Renaissance architecture. In one of its towers hangs one of the largest bells in the world, Great Paul, weighing about 17.5 tons. Nelson and other great men of England are buried in the Cathedral.
Not far away, in Westminster, another important part of London where most of the Government buildings are situated is Westminster Abbey. Many outstanding English statesmen, painters and poets are buried here.
Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, the seat of the British Parliament. Its two graceful towers stand high above the city. The higher of the two contains the largest clock in the country and the famous bell Big Ben that strikes every quarter of the hour.
If now we walk along Whitehall, which is not at all a hall, but just a street where the chief government offices are to be found, we’ll soon come to Trafalgar Square. It was so named in memory of the victory at the battle of Trafalgar, where on October 21, 1805 the English fleet under Nelson’s command defeated the combined fleet of France and Spain. The victory was won at the cost of Nelson’s life. In the middle of Trafalgar Square stands Nelson’s monument - a tall column with a figure of Nelson on its top. The column is guarded by four bronze lions.
The fine building facing the square is the National Gallery and adjoining it (but just round the corner) is the Portrait Gallery.
Not far away is the British Museum- the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of different things (ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures etc.) The British Museum is famous for its library- one of the richest in the world.
You cannot leave the city without visiting one more place of interest - Hyde Park, which is the largest in London. When you are walking along its shady avenues, sitting on the grass, admiring its beautiful flower beds or watching swans and ducks floating on the ponds, it seems almost unbelievable that all around there is a large city with its heavy traffic and smoke.
Answer the questions:
1. Give the main points of London’s history.
2. What made London one of the biggest ports in the world?
3. Can we say that London is an ancient city and at the same time a modern one?
4. What is the population of London?
5. Why is London considered to be a city of great contrasts?Where are rich mansions, hotels and restaurants to be found in London?
6. Where is industry chiefly found in London?
7. What is the City?
8. What building is considered to be one of the oldest in London?
9. What are the chief places of interest in London?
10. What is "Great Paul"? Is this bell the largest in the world?
11. In what district of London are most of the Government buildings situated?
12. What does the building of the British Parliament face?
13. What is Big Ben?
14. Why is Trafalgar Square called “Trafalgar”?
15. In whose memory was the monument in the middle of Trafalgar Square set up?
16. What is the British Museum like?
17. Which park is the largest in London?
Ex. 1. Use the prepositions in brackets (of, on, in, from, with, by, to, across, about, at, under, with, without), read and translate the sentences.
1. London is the capital ... England and ... the United Kingdom situated ... the Thames river.
2. It is the largest city ... the world.
3. ... the earliest times the Romans, the Saxons, the Danes and the Normans settled there ... turn.
4. The existence ... London depended ... its water-born trade which still makes London one ... the word’s largest ports.
5. Historical and geographical circumstances have turned London ... one ... the word’s most important commercial and cultural centres.
6. The World War II brought tremendous distruction to the city: a great number ... buildings ... historic value were laid ... ruins.
7. One ... the best ways to acquaint yourself ... the city when you first arrive is to take a sightseeing tour ... a double – decker bus.
8. It is a city ... great contrasts.
9. The East End is the district inhabited ... the workers and the poor.
10. The Tower of London was founded ... Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt ... William the Conquerer.
11. A 20 minutes ... walk ... the Tower will take you ... another historic building – St. Paul’s Cathedral.
12. In one ... the towers hangs one ... the largest bells ... the world, Great Paul, weighing 17.5 tons.
13. Nelson and other great men ... England are buried ... the Cathedral.
14. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, the seat ... the British Parliament.
15. Its two graceful towers stand high ... the city.
16. Trafalgar Square was named ... memory ... the victory ... the battle ... Trafalgar, where ... October 21, 1805 the English feet ... Nelson’s command defeated the combined fleet ... France and Spain.
17. ... the middle ... the square stands Nelson’s monument – a tall column ... a figure ... Nelson ... its top.
18. You cannot leave the city ... visiting one more place ... interest – Hyde Park, which is the largest ... London.
My Future Profession
Finishing school is the beginning of an independent life for school-leavers. Many roads are open to us. Of course, it is not easy to make the right choice of a job. As for me I chose my specialization according to my interests. I have been interested in biology since my childhood. My mother is a biologist and I know how interesting her work is.
To be a good biologist I think you should have investigating, analyzing skills; you should be good at recognizing elements, relationships, structures; you should be able to systematize and organize material obtained.
I suppose biology on the whole and botany in particular are perspective for me. I believe I possess the majority of the skills required to be a botanist.
Botany is the science that deals with plants. It is divided into several subordinate sciences, such as:
systematic botany, which deals with classification of plants according to their relationship;
morphology, which deals with functions of plant organs;
plant geography which deals with distribution of plants;
genetics, which deals with inheritance and variation;
applied botany, which includes agriculture, horticulture, forestry, pharmacognocy, bacteriology, plant pathology, etc.
Botany is a very dynamic and developing science. A lot of questions still remain uncertain.
So I hope I have some possibilities to find my own way and to contribute to the developing of this incredibly interesting science.
Since ancient times people lived in harmony with environment. But with the development of civilization man’s interference in nature began to increase. The pollution of air and the world’s ocean, destruction of the ozone layer, disappearance of some species of animals, birds, plants is a sign of ecological crisis.
That is the reason why I chose the profession of an ecologist. In my opinion this job is socially important. Ecologists have to solve a lot of problems that still exist in our republic. For example, the by-products of the large Belarusian enterprises pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we grow grain.
Ecologists must do their best to prevent terrible catastrophes such as Chernobyl tragedy.
The profession of an ecologist gives a lot of opportunities to help people in trouble.
I personally think that this profession is the most important and perspective. To satisfy my ambition I entered the Biology Faculty of the Belarussian State University and hope to be useful for my country.
While choosing my future profession I took a lot of factors into consideration: salary, job-satisfaction, prestige, opportunities to travel, etc. As for me, the most important criterion is job-satisfaction, that’s why I have chosen the profession of a biochemist. My uncle occupies this profession. He told me a lot about biochemistry. As fas as I know biochemistry is one of the youngest branches of biology. It is a young branch of chemistry too.
Biochemistry may be defined as the chemistry of living organisms, from the most primitive to very complicated ones.
The research in biochemistry may be considered in three aspects. The first is a study of the composition of organisms. It is the essence of static biochemistry.
The second aspect deals with all the complex transformations in living organisms. This is research in dynamic biochemistry.
The aim of the third aspect is to elucidate the biological or physiological importance of chemical reactions in organisms. This is functional biochemistry.
Biochemistry is a quickly developing science. A profession of a biochemist is very specific and responsible. I am interested in structure, properties and conversion of amino acids.I hope to make my own contribution in the development of biochemistry.
Answer the questions.
1. Why is finishing school important for school-leavers?
2. How did you choose your specialization?
3. What does it mean to be a good biologist?
4. How can you define the science of botany?
5. What subordinate sciences is botany divided into?
6. Why do you think botany is an incredibly interesting science?
7. Did people always live in harmony with environment?
8. What is a sign of ecological crisis?
9. Why is the profession of an ecologist socially important?
10. What ecological problems do people in Belarus have?
11. What did you do to satisfy your ambition?
12. What factors did you take into consideration while choosing a profession?
13. Why did you choose the profession of a biochemist?
14. What does biochemistry study?
15. How is research in biochemistry carried out?
16. Why is the profession of a biochemist specific?
17. What are you interested in?
18. Do you think your hopes will become true?
Ex. 1. Put the parts of the sentences in the right order.
1. easy of course, it is not, of a job, the right choice, to make
2. you should, I think, to be a biologist, investigating, have, analyzing skills; recognizing, you should, structures, relationships, be good at, elements; systematize, organize, obtained, material, you should, be able to
3. biology, botany, on the whole, in particular, I suppose, for me, perspective, and, are
4. in our republic, still exist, have to solve, Ecologists, a lot of problems that
5. to help people, gives, the profession of an ecologist, in trouble
6. prestige, salary, I took, job-satisfaction, a lot of factors, to travel, opportunities, into consideration
7. the most primitive, very complicated, from, to, ones, biochemistry, as, of, the chemistry, may be defined, living organisms
T E X T A
There are two classes of Flowering Plants. In the great majority the seeds are enclosed within a fruit. The cone-bearing trees, on the other hand, such as the Pine and Larch, bear seeds that are not enclosed in a fruit-case.
The Non-flowering Plants are grouped in four classes: Algae, Fungi, Mosses and Liverworts, Ferns and Horsetails.
To the Algae belong all the seaweeds and simple freshwater plants. Although they range in structure none have the highly differentiated tissues of the higher plants. Generally speaking, Algae live in water and take food and air from the surrounding water. Many seaweeds are brown and some of the most beautiful are red, but in all chlorophyll is present, the green colour being merely masked. When a branch of Bladderwrack is boiled in fresh water the brown colouring matter is dissolved and the branch becomes bright green. Both asexual and sexual methods of reproduction occur in different members of the class; in the latter case the egg is fertilized by motile spermatozoids.
Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. In all flowering plants seeds are always enclosed in a fruit-case.
2. Cone-bearing trees are non-flowering plants.
3. Algae take food and air from the surrounding water.
4. Algae live only in seas and oceans.
5. Brown and red seaweeds don’t contain chlorophyll.
6. Algae reproduce either sexually or asexually.
T E X T B
Algae: the Simplest Green Plants
The main difference between green plants and other living things is their ability to make food - complex starch and sugar molecules from simple carbon dioxide and water. They do this by the process of photosynthesis which requires the presence of chlorophyll, the material that produces the colour in all green plants.
Algae are the simplest organisms in the plant kingdom that possess chlorophyll and can make their own food. Algae vary in size: they may consist of a single cell, or a row of cells joined together to form a filament. The largest algae consist of a plant body called a thallus, which is made of many cells and gives the plant a ribbon-like appearance. Algae live in both fresh and salt water and may swim, float or fasten themselves to a firm surface. Some of them live in the soil and a few are parasites on animals and plants. All algae possess chlorophyll, but their green colour may be masked by other pigments. This provides a way of classifying them according to colour, for instance green algae (Chlorophyceae), brown algae (Phaeo-phyceae) and red algae (Rhodophyceae). Algae reproduce in various ways. Sexual reproduction may occur, resulting in the formation of a new individual by the fusion of two sex cells. Sometimes asexual reproduction takes place, in which spores are produced, or a single-celled alga splits in two. Vegetative reproduction occurs when a filament or thallus breaks into two parts to form new plant bodies.
One of the most common of the single-celled green algae is Pleurocoocus, whose colonies form a green film over the shady, moist side of tree trunks. Spirogyra is a common filamentous green alga which grows in ponds and stagnant pools. A salt-water alga with a thallus body is the sea lettuce, Ulva, which is eaten in salads in some parts of the world. Diatoms are single-celled algae (Bacillariophyceae), that live in fresh in salt water. They grow in enormous numbers and make up a great part of the floating organisms called plankton, which is found in all seas and is the food supply for many aquatic animals.
Ex. 1. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the functions of Participle I and Participle II.
1. The nature of the mutations involved is unknown. 2. The mechanisms involved are worth investigation. 3. The nature of the cells concerned has not been determined. 4. The properties of the substances involved are as yet not clearly understood. 5. The phenomenon is rather complicated and the processes involved are not yet clear. 6. The complexity of the technique involved increased considerably. 7. The rate of a reaction depends on the specific nature of the substances involved. 8. None of the authors concerned had based his experiment on the method discussed. 9. Consideration of these cases may help us to isolate the various fundamental problems involved. 10. Being organic, the chromosomes must change their form. 11. Looking through the lists of species we find that the leaves are at varying heights above the ground in the different species. 12. Being perforated by animals the soil is consequently looser. 13. Examining the cell under a microscope we could watch its division. 14. Being examined under a microscope the cell reveals its secrets. 15. Being composed of many cells an organ of a higher plant is relatively thick. 16. Having examined a new specimen the taxonomist described its characteristics. 17. Having investigated the species within these individual environments we must first try to discover the chief peculiarities in their structure. 18. Having entered via the blood vessels the dividing mesodermal cells differentiate into the micro- or mesoglial cells. 19. Having analysed the properties of the liquid we discovered that it was poisonous. 20. Having lived in that town all his life, he knew it very well.
Ex. 2. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the functions of Participle II.
1. All of the above-mentioned investigators found a decrease in gastric mobility. 2. The reader may be referred to the book already mentioned. 3. Fungus filaments were demonstrated in all the soils examined. 4. The results obtained may be summed up in one simple statement. 5. All of the material bounded by the cell wall is referred to as protoplasm. 6. Cultivated under favourable conditions the vegetation is getting dense and luxuriant. 7. The species collected varied in their characters. 8. The data obtained confirmed the above statement. 9. The growing mass divided into two increased the surface without immediate increase in volume. 10. The fungus probably introduced by aircraft first occurred in Holland in 1958. 11. The cations tested passed through the protoplasm.
Ex. 3. Translate into Russian. Compare Complex Object and Complex Subject.
1. In moist weather the plasmodia may be found creeping about on the surface of or emerging from the various substrata within they developed. 2. The first two factors can be distinguished from the rest as having been internal, in the sense that they concerned the inherent constitution of the plant. 3. One of the foregoing theories can be regarded as convincing. 4. The two central fibers were presumed as being double, like the other nine and are shown enclosed in a membrane. 5. Using density gradient techniques, the author showed the specific fraction of Bacillis subtilis DNA as possessing an increased density. 6. I had the brakes of my car repaired at Morgan’s Garage. 7. I found a penny lying on the sidewalk. 8. I was tired, so I just watched them playing volleyball instead of joining them. 9. Kate smelt something burning in the kitchen. 10. When she ran into the kitchen, she saw fire coming out of the oven. 11. We consider matter being built up of atoms.
Ex. 4. Translate the sentences into Russian with Absolute Participle construction.
1. In a regular diploid species there are two chromosome sets, each chromosome type being represented twice. 2. The hare and the rabbit are different species of one genus, the dog, the wolf belonging to quite a different family. 3. The protoplasm is relatively homogeneous; apparently neither nucleus nor plastids being present. 4. The spores are shed when the water temperature rises to 200, shedding occurring each afternoon. 5. There being a very small nucleus in the centre of the cell, the structure is wholly different. 6. Other conditions being equal, the closely packed type will have a honeycomb structure. 7. Very few families of chlorophyceae lack this structure, those that do being the more highly evolved. 8. A number of microscopists, the most eminent being F. Cohn, described a great many morphological varieties of microorganisms. 9. In each group the cells become less closely packed, with clear spaces being visible between them. 10. All have a very definite alternation of generations, with the gametophyte being the dominant phase. 11. In the present chapter will be described the process of mitosis occurring as it does in the development of the body, particular attention being given to the behaviour of chromosomes. 12. Probably these twists are among the factors permitting localized survival of relicts of these two species, both widespread in Tertiary times. 13. The procedure involved successive series of stimulations at hourly intervals, each series being continued until the response disappeared.
Ex. 1. Use the Infinitives with or without the participle “to”.
1. I helped him (to find) his things. 2. He made me (to do) all the work again. 3. My neighbour let me (to borrow) his own car. 4. When I was a child I was made (to go) to the doctor whenever I felt ill. 5. I can’t (to think) what made him (to do) such a thing. 6. I felt the insect (to crawl up) my arm. 7. Let’s (to watch) the boys (to dive). 8. She heard him (to open) the door. 9. You’d better (to try) not (to think) about it. 10. I asked him if he was willing (to help) me (to do) the job. 11. Why not (to allow) her (to do) as she likes? 12. Why not (to let) her (to do) as she likes? 13. They were seen (to come) to the corner.
Ex. 2. Translate these sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the Infinitive.
1. To prevent the spreading of this destructive disease is our main task now. 2. To dissolve this substance is not an easy matter. 3. To know how a plant grows is very interesting. 4. To solve this problem is very important in order to get higher yields. 5. To observe in detail the intracellular structure of most microorganisms with the light microscope is very difficult. 6. To perform the reverse experiment, removing the thoracic gland, is more difficult. 7. To avoid excessive multiplication of families and genera is a matter of convenience. 8. The main purpose of this chapter is to consider anthocyanins. 9. To determine these two phenomena is to investigate thoroughly their underlying mechanism. 10. The ultimate aim of the investigations is to correlate the observed structural and functional changes. 11. The function of this hormone will be to stimulate the secretion of progesterone. 12. The purpose of the mammary gland is to provide nourishment for the newborn child. 13. The author has attempted to make the student feel that genetics is a growing science. 14. It is hard to get lichens grow under laboratory conditions. 15. Observations on dogs treated with testosterone propinate led us test this compound in man. 16. The chromosomes cause the offspring to resemble their parents. 17. His interest in optics led him to examine all sorts of objects with the compound microscope. 18. Diseases cause changes to occur in tissues. 19. These findings may help to account for the results. 20. Their mouth-parts have been modified to serve purposes other than taking food. 21. A protoplasmic tube emerges from each pollen grain and grows down the style to enter the ovary. 22. To complete the list of species actually found in this habitat the following must be mentioned. 23. To separate the agar from walls of the tube, it is necessary to place the tube for a second or two into warm water. 24. He was too tired to be asked any questions. 25. Most of the leaves in such trees are too shaded to carry out photosynthesis efficiently. 26. This farm crop is drought resistant enough to grow under arid conditions. 27. This new method is not accurate enough to give any definite results. 28. All parts of a plant must be developed well enough to function properly.
Ex. 3. Translate into Russian.Pay attention to the Infinitive Constructions.
1. Our scientists want this crop to mature earlier in northern districts. 2. We know the maximum temperature for germination of tomato to be higher than that required for other crops. 3. The microscope reveals milk to consist of droplets of butter fat dispersed in watery fluid. 4. We know phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur to be the primary elements. 5. Diffusion shows molecules of any substance to be in motion. 6. Although bacteria do have visible chromosomes, no one has ever seen bacterial cells fuse. 7. We expect every student to know the difference between the roots of the two plants. 8. People are known to act guiltily when they are innocent. 9. Mr. Kent is believed to have survived the accident. 10. Who is supposed to be in charge of the expedition? 11. Young Roy was said to be very attractive to girls. 12. He wasn’t expected to inherit the family business. 13. The group was reported to have got in touch with some university professors. 14. Tom was considered to be the cleverest boy in his class. 15. The committee was thought to have made a thorough investigation.
Ex. 4. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the construction "for+noun+lnfinitive”.
1. For the reaction to take place the temperature should be as low as possible. 2. For the viruses to be seen a powerful electronic microscope should be used. 3. For the information to be obtained they had to perform over 200 experiments. 4. They have created all necessary conditions for the experiment to be continued. 5. 8 minutes are required for light to travel from the Sun to the Earth. 6. Certain conditions are necessary for life to be possible on planets. 7. For the seeds to develop normally they must be placed into proper conditions. 8. What is necessary for germination to occur? 9. Three months are needed for these plants to reach their maturity. 10. For tomatoes to grow well they should be provided with much warmth and light. 11. It is only for a specialist to draw a definite conclusion. 12. Certain environmental conditions are necessary for each stage to take place.
Ex. 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Define the functions of gerund.
1. Lowering the temperature increased the storage phase. 2. Discussing a problem with colleagues is always helpful. 3.Applying irrigation water in arid areas differs very little in principle from applying fertilizer in humid areas. 4. Flowering is important, as seeds are produced in flowers. 5. Applying this method to practice was of great importance. 6. The director is for extending the time of experiment. 7. The professor was against taking part in the conference. 8. Her greatest pleasure is going in for sport. 9. My favourite sport is swimming. 10. This work is far from being easy. 11. He likes treating most complicated problems. 12. She avoided expressing her opinion in public. 13. He hated being disturbed during the experiment. 14. Lots of people prefer discussing observations, problems together. 15. We remember having obtained these data in the previous experiments. 16. We can’t help remembering that this reaction is often followed by an explosion. 17. He likes treating most complicated problems. 18. She avoided expressing her opinion in public. 19. He hated being disturbed during the experiment. 20. Lots of people prefer discussing observations, problems together. 21. We remember having obtained these data in the previous experiments. 22. We can’t help remembering that this reaction is often followed by an explosion. 23. There is some reason for believing that the truth lies somewhere between these two extremes. 24. The doctrine opened wide opportunities for increasing the yields. 25. This is the main way of affecting photosynthesis by heavy metal ions. 26. They had no chance of reducing biological productivity of the lake. 27. They had experience in attending biological congresses. 28. This effect can be eliminated by heating the substance. 29. Substances increasing the rate of chemical change without entering into the reaction are known as catalysts. 30. On using the thermometer we realized that the temperature of the soil was increasing. 31. Upon cooling the water vapour condenses. 32. Moisture was conserved