Home Random Page


CATEGORIES:

BiologyChemistryConstructionCultureEcologyEconomyElectronicsFinanceGeographyHistoryInformaticsLawMathematicsMechanicsMedicineOtherPedagogyPhilosophyPhysicsPolicyPsychologySociologySportTourism






Necessity: mustn't, needn't, etc

A Mustn't or needn't?

We use must to say that something is necessary (see Unit 47).

You must be careful with those glasses. I must remember my key.

Now compare mustn't and needn't.

mustn't needn't

We use mustn't to say that something is We use needn't when something is not necessary,
a bad idea.

You mustn't drop those glasses. They'll break. You needn't wash those glasses. They're dean.

I mustn't forget my key, or I won't get in. We needn't make sandwiches. There's a cafe.

You mustn't wear your best clothes. You'll get You needn't wear your best clothes. You can wear

them dirty. what you like.

B Don't have to and don't need to

We can use don't have to and don't need to when something is not necessary. The meaning is the same as needn't.

You don't have to / don't need to wash those glasses. They're clean.

Mark doesn't have to /doesn't need to finish the report today. He can do it at the weekend. For American usage see page 379.

For the past we use didn't.

The food was free. We didn't have to pay/We didn't need to pay for it.

C Didn't need to or needn't have?



 


 


Daniel hadn't booked a seat, but luckily the train wasn't full. He didn't need to stand.

didn't need to

We use didn't need to when something was not necessary. Standing was not necessary because there were seats.

Mark didn't need to hurry. He had lots of time.

He drove slowly along the motorway. We didn't need to go to the supermarket because we had plenty of food.

Sometimes we can use didn't need to when the action Mark didn't need to hurry, but he drove at top speed.


Trevor and Laura booked a table for dinner. But the restaurant was empty. They needn't have booked a table.

needn't have

We use needn't have + a past participle for something we did which we now know was not necessary, e.g. booking a table.

Mark needn't have hurried. After driving at too

speed, he arrived half an hour early. We needn't have gone to the supermarket. We already had a pizza for tonight.

happened, even though it was not necessary. He likes driving fast.


48 Exercises

i Must, mustn't or needn't? (A)

Put in must, mustn't or needn't.

► Laura: You needn't take an umbrella. It isn't going to rain.
Trevor: Well, I don't know. It might do.

Laura: Don't lose it then. You mustn't leave it on the bus.

1 Vicky: Come on. We....................... hurry. We........................ be late.

Rachel: It's only ten past. We ................. hurry. There's lots of time.

2 Claire: My sister and I are going a different way.

Guide: Oh, you....................... go off on your own. It isn't safe.

We...................... keep together in a group.

3 David: I'll put these cups in the dishwasher.

Melanie: No, you ................. put them in there. It might damage them.

In fact, we .................. wash them at all. We didn't use them.

4 Secretary: I ........ forget to type this letter.

Mark: Yes, it.................... go in the post today because it's quite urgent.



But the report isn't so important. You…………….. type the report today.

2 Don't have to (B)

An old woman is talking to a reporter from her local newspaper. She is comparing life today with life in the past. Complete her sentences using don't have to, doesn't have to or didn't have to.

► We had to make our own fun in the old days. There wasn't any television then. These days people don't
have to make their own fun.

1 There's so much traffic now. You have to wait ages to cross the road. In those days you

2 I had to work long hours when I was young. But children today have it easy.
They…………………………………………………………………………

3 My father had to work in a factory when he was twelve. Just imagine! Today a twelve-year-old child

4 There's so much crime today, isn't there? People have to lock their doors now. It was better in the old
days when people..............................................................................................................

5 We had to wash our clothes by hand. There weren't any washing-machines, you know. Nowadays
people .............................................................................................................................................

3 Didn't need to or needn't have? (C)

Write the sentences using didn't need to or needn't have.

► The previous owners had already decorated the flat, so we didn't need to decorate it ourselves (we / decorate / it / ourselves).

1 Luckily we were able to sell our old flat before we bought the new one,

So……………………………………………………………………. (we / borrow/any money).

2 It was very hot yesterday, so I watered all the flowers.

And now it's pouring with rain (I / bother).

3 We've done the journey much more quickly than I expected.

................................................................................................................................. (we / leave / so early).

4 K friend had already given me a free ticket to the exhibition,

So …………………………………………………………………………. (I / pay / to go in).

5 Service was included in the bill, so…………………………………………………….. (you / tip / the waiter).
It was a waste of money.


49 Should, ought to, had better and be supposed to

B Should and ought to

We use should and ought to to say what is the best thing or the right thing to do. There is no difference in meaning.

You're not very well. Perhaps you should see a doctor.

Your uncle was very kind to me. I ought to write him a letter of thanks.

People shouldn't break/oughtn't to break their promises. We can also use should and ought to in questions to ask for advice.

Where should I put this picture, do you think?

It's a difficult problem. How ought we to deal with it?

After should or ought to we can use a continuous form (be + an ing-form). It s half past six already. I should be cooking the tea. Why are you sitting here doing nothing? You ought to be working.

C Had better

We use had better to say what is the best thing to do in a situation.

It's cold. The children had better wear their coats.

The neighbours are complaining. We'd better turn the music down.

My wife is waiting for me. I'd better not be late.

We could also use should or ought to in these examples, although had better is stronger. The speaker sees the action as necessary and expects that it will happen.

D Be supposed to

We use be supposed to when we are talking about the normal or correct way of doing things. The guests are supposed to buy flowers for the hostess. Look at these cars. This area is supposed to be kept clear of traffic. The bus driver needs to concentrate. You're not supposed to talk to him. How am I supposed to cook this? ~ It tells you on the packet.

We can use was/were supposed to for the past.

It's eleven o'clock. You were supposed to be here at ten thirty, you know.

52D Shalt used to ask for advice


49 Exercises

1 Should and ought to (B)

Put in should, shouldn't, ought or oughtn't. (Look for the word to.)

Vicky: I can't come out tonight, Rachel. I (►) ought to do some more work.

I'm behind with everything. I've got so much to do.
Rachel: You (1) ............................. worry so much, Vicky. Don't panic.

You (2)…………………. to relax sometimes. You (3)………………… take a break.

Vicky: I know 1(4) ........................ panic, but I do. I can't help it.

Rachel: Anyway, you're doing OK, aren't you? Your results have been good.

You (5)………………… be pleased. You (6)…………………. to invent problems for yourself.

2 Had better (C)

What would you say in these situations? Add a sentence with 'd better (not) and the words in brackets.

► Vicky doesn't feel well. She's got a headache. What might you say to her? (an aspirin)
You'd better take an aspirin.

1 You and Daniel are meeting Rachel. You've both arrived, but she isn't there yet. She is usually late.

(wait)...............................................................................................

2 Ilona is leaving her bike outside the swimming-pool. You know it won't be safe if she leaves it unlocked.
(lock)

3 Some friends are going to visit you today. Your room is in a mess. What do you think?
(tidy)

4 Nick is giving you a lift in his old sports car. There's a speed limit, and there's a police car behind you.
(too fast) ..............................................................................................

5 There's an exam tomorrow. Neither you nor Rachel have done any work for it.

(some revision) ...............................................................................................................................

3 Be supposed to (D)

Add a sentence using be (not) supposed to and these verbs:

leave it outside, report to the police, stand in a queue, take two before meals, watch it

► You shouldn't bring your bike in here. You're supposed to leave it outside.

1 I've got some pills...............................................................................................

2 Foreign visitors can't travel freely here...........................................................

3 Be careful waiting for a bus in England. .......................................................

4 This film isn't for under-sixteens. .................................................................

Should, ought to, had better and be supposed to (A-D)

Complete the conversation. Use should, ought to, had better or be supposed to and the verbs in brackets.

Usually there is more than one correct answer.

Vicky: What time (►) are we supposed to be (we / be) at the coffee morning?

Rachel: The invitation says ten o'clock.

Vicky: Well, it's ten now. (1) ................................................. we / hurry).

(2)……………………………………… (we / not / be) late.

Rachel: Oh, it won't matter if we're a bit late.

Vicky: I think it would be rude, wouldn't it? I don't think people

(3)................................................. (arrive) late when they've been invited to something.
Rachel: You worry too much. (4)..... ………… ... (you / not / take) everything so

seriously, Vicky. It's a coffee morning, not a job interview.

(5)……………………………. (we / not / get) there exactly on time.



Date: 2014-12-22; view: 1170


<== previous page | next page ==>
Necessity: must and have to | Asking people to do things
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2019 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.003 sec.)