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Types of chemical reactions

 

Chemical reactions are processes by which atoms or molecules are redistributed, resulting in different substances with unique properties. Chemical reactions are classified into different categories according to the mechanics of the reactions. The original elements or compounds involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants, and the chemicals that result are called products. Classification of types is presented in Table 2.

 

 


Table 2. Types of chemical reactions

Type Scheme Example
Synthesis (combination, construction, composition) reactions X + Y = Z, where X, Y are elements or compounds; Z - new compound 2 H2 + O2 = 2H2O; H2O + SO3 = H2SO4; K2O + CO2 = K2CO3
Decomposition (desythesis, decomposition, deconstruction) reactions XZ = X + Z 2 KClO3 3 O2↑ + 2 KCl ; 6NaHCO3 3 Na2CO3 + 3 CO2↑ + 3H2O; 2 AgI 2 Ag + I2
Single replacement (single displacement, single substitution, activity replacement) reactions A + BX = B + AX 2 Mg + TiCl4 Ti + 2 MgCl2; 2 Al + 6 CaO Ca3(AlO3)2 + 3 Ca;
Double replacement (double displacement or metathesis) reactions AB + CD = AD + CB AgNO3 + KCl = AgCl↓ + KNO3; TiCl4 + H2O = 4 HCl↑ + TiO2↓; HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H2O
Oxidation-reduction reactions (Red-Ox) Az + n → A (z - n) By - m → B (y+m) 2Na + S → Na2S; 2 KMnO4 K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2
Acid-Base reactions (neutralization) H+ + OH- → H2O (in net ionic form) H2SO4 + 2 NaOH = Na2SO4 + 2H2O

 

 


PRACTICE PROBLEMS

1. To determine relative molecular mass and molar mass of Potassium Orthophosphate 34.

2. How many atoms and moles of atoms are contained in 64 g of Oxygen 16? To calculate a mass of one atom of Oxygen in grams.

3. How many moles of H2SO4 are contained in 4,9 grams of this substance?

4. How many moles of Sulfuric acid is it possible to prepare from 6,4 kg of Sulfur?

5. How many moles of slack lime ()2 is it possible to prepare from 0,1 g of chalk 3 if chalk completely changed into slack lime?

6. To calculate mass (in g) of molecules of Chlorine Cl2, Carbonic gas CO2, ammonia gas NH3.

7. How many grams of Barium Sulfate BaSO4 may be prepared from 6,1 g of salt BaCl2×2H2O? To calculate the mass of Sulfuric acid used in this reaction.

8. Solution, contained 12,6 g of Nitric acid HNO3, was mixed with 7,2 g of Caustic soda NaOH. What substance will be rest in surplus and in which quantity?

 

 

CHAPTER # 2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE

 

 

1. Introduction in General, Organic and Biochemistry, 7th Edition, by Morris Hein, Leo R. Best, Scott Pattison and Susan Arena, Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 2001. (Chapters 3, 4, pp. 70-125);

2. http://www.shodor.org/UNChem/basic/atom/index.html

3. http://library.thinkquest.org/3616/chem/Atom.htm

4. http://www.tannerm.com/bohratom.htm

5. http://www.ucdsb.on.ca/tiss/stretton/chem1/elecon6.htm



6. http://library.thinkquest.org/3659/structures/shapes.html

7. http://www.tannerm.com/orbitals.htm

 

1. General notions

 

Atom is an electroneutral particle consisted of positive charged nucleus and negative charged electrons. Nucleus is a positive charged component of atom concentrated practically all its mass. Components of nucleus are s () and s (n). Sum of protons and neutrons is equal to relative atomic mass (Ar):

Ar = p++n0

Nucleus charge of atom is equal to number of element in Periodical Table (Z):

Example: To consider structure of atom Na:

 

Z (Na) = 11

Ar(Na)=23

Positive charge of atomic nucleus 11

Number of electrons - 11

In nucleus: p+-11

n0-12 ( Ar - p+)

 


Date: 2015-01-12; view: 164


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