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- I used to be afraid to go by car with John, but I am no longer.

- I suppose he drives more carefully now.

- Oh, he doesnt, but since he has joined the Red Cross he knows where all hospitals are.



- Why does a woman say she has been shopping when she hasnt bought a thing?

- Why does a man say he has been fishing when he hasnt caught anything?



- Have you noticed Henrys wife? She always laughs at his jokes.

- They must be clever.

- Not very, but she is.




Patient: - But doctor, are you sure Ill be better? Ive heard of cases where the doctor has made a wrong diagnosis and treated someone for pneumonia who afterwards died of typhoid fever ( ).

Doctor: - Nonsense! When I treat a patient for pneumonia, he dies of pneumonia.



- Betty, Ive told you again and again not to speak when grown-up people are talking but wait until they stop.

- Ive tried, Mummy, but they never stop.



Piano Tuner: - Ive come to tune your piano.

Man: - But we didnt send for you.

Tuner: - No, but your neigbours did!



A Masterpiece

A priest () has ordered a painter a large painting for his church. After some weeks the painting was ready. It was magnificent. At first the priest was much pleased and praised () it very much.

But, he said suddenly, What have you done there? The angel has shoes!

Certainly, replied the painter. Why not?

Have you ever seen the angel with shoes?

And have you ever seen an angel without shoes?


Part Iii



Exercise 2. Read the words of the Greek and Latin origin and try to translate them using your knowledge of the Russian, Latin and English languages.

Ancient [´eınʃənt], cultivate [´kʌltıveıt], palm [pα:m], ferment [´fə:ment], list [lıst], legend [´ledʒənd], symptom [´sımptəm], popular [´pɔpjulə], lethal [´li:θəl], immunity [ı´mju:nıtı], abscess [´æbsıs], stimulate [´stımjuleıt], traditional [trə´dıʃənl], therapy [´θerəpı], circulation [,sə:kju´leıʃən], respiratory [rıs´paıərətərı], bronchitis [brɔŋ´kaıtıs], penicillin [,penı´sılın], principal [´prınsəpəl], reproductive [,ri:prə´dʌktıv], function [´fʌŋkʃən], absorb [əb´sɔ:b], syrup [´sırəp], manufacture [´mænju´fækʧə], photosynthesis [,fəutəu´sınθısıs], herb [hə:b], herbal ['hɜ:b(ə)l]], phytomedicine [,faıto´meds(ı)n], phytopharmacy [,faıto´fa:məsı], natural [´næʧrəl], climate [´klaımıt], metabolite [me´tæbəlaıt], diphtheria [dɪf'θɪərɪə], pneumonia [nju(:)´məunjə], typhus [´taıfəs], tuberculosis [ tju(:),bə:kju´ləusıs], asthma [´æsmə], nerve [nɜ:v], Egyptian [ı´dʒıpʃən], Athens [´æθınz], China [´ʧaınə], Chinese [´ʧaı´ni:z], malaria [mə´lεərıə], Assyrian [ə´sırıən], carbohydrate [,kα:bɔ´haıdreıt].



Exercise 3. Read the names of the following plants and translate them using a dictionary if necessary.

Ginkgo [´gɪŋkgəʊ, ´gɪŋkəʊ], ginger [´dʒındʒə], camphor [´kæmfə], cinchona [sıŋ´kəunə], coca [´kəukə], oak [əuk], ginseng [´dʒınseŋ], lily of the valley [´lılıəvðə´vælı], lobelia [ləu´bi:ljə], onion [´ʌnjən], pansy [´pænzı], senna [´senə], strophanthus [,strəu´fentəs], foxglove [´fɔksglʌv], valerian [və´lıərıən], digitalis [,dıdʒı´teılıs], hemlock [´hemlok], garlic [´gα:lık], chamomile ['kæməmaıl], snowdrop [´snəudrɔp], dog-rose [´dɔgrəuz], opium poppy [´əupjəm´pɔpı], ephedra [´efedrə], aloe [´æləu], Echinacea [e,kaınəsıə], cassia [´kæsıə], mint [mınt], lavender [´lævındə], jasmin(e) [´dʒæsmın], primrose [´prımrəuz], hawthorn ['hɔ:ðɔ:n], fennel ['fenl], calamus ['kæləməs].

Exercise 4. Give English equivalents to the following Latin terms.

Herba, Radix, Rhizoma, cortex, inflorescentia, floss, fructus, folium, semen, turio, bulbus, corolla, gemmae ().

Exercise 5. Learn the following nouns and adjectives.

Herb [hə:b] herbaceous [hə:beıʃəs]
Cancer [kænsə] oncological [,ɔnkə´lɔdʒıkəl]
Nerve [nə:v] nervous [´nə:vəs]
Intestine [ın´testın] intestinal [ın´testınəl]
Lung [lʌŋ] pulmonary [´pʌlmənərı]
Heart [ha:t] cardiac [´kα:dıæk]
Spice [spαıs] spicy [´spαısı]
Respiration [,respə´reıʃ(ə)n] respiratory [rıs´paırət(ə)rı]
Stomach [´stʌmək] gastric [´gæstrık]



Exercise 6. Form the words with the help of prefixes and translate newly formed words.

▪ Prefix semi is translated as .

Annual, automatic, solid, fluid, liquid, manufactured, hard.

▪ Prefix under is translated as , ; . , , .

Ground, do, done, developed, cooling, dose, graduate, line, pressure, sterilization, weight.

▪ Prefix dis is translated as , , . It can also have negative meaning.

Infect, infection, integrate, integration, interested, order.

▪ Prefix sub is translated as , ; . , , .

Astringent, cellular, caloric, chronic, clinical, cooling, apical

▪ Suffixes er, or, ist, ant, ian form nouns indicating a person or a profession.

Research, investigate, herbal, assist, travel, pharmacy, invent, garden, explore, science, microbiology.

▪ Suffix ish has the meaning of tint of quality. For example: bluish

Green, red, white, grey, yellow, warm, bitter, sweet.

▪ The word ward(s) meaning is used to form a compound. For example inward.

In, out, down, up, east, west, south, north, after.

Exercise 7. Read and translate the cognate words.

Digest digestion digestive; vary variation variety; mature maturate maturity; ripe unripe ripen ripeness; accuracy accurate accurately; investigate investigation investigative investigator; direct directly direction directory; herb herbal herbalist; weigh weight weightless weightlessness; taste tasteful tasteless; differ difference different; oil oily oiled, determine determinate determination determinative, to die dead deadly, nutrition nutrient nutritive, to store storage storehouse, to anchor anchorage

Exercise 8. Arrange the words into a) synonyms and b) antonyms.

a) Ripe, define, lead to, accurate, act upon, wide, result in, efficacy, collect, mature, affect, determine, peculiar, precise, harvest, specific, broad, efficiency

b) Harm, sweet, agreeable, useful moisture, true, disagreeable, useless, bitter, dryness, untrue, good.

Exercise 9. State the difference.

Cold cool coolness; heat heating; warm warmth warming; ill illness; sleep sleepiness; ext´ract ´extract; properly improperly; de´crease ´decrease; in´crease ´increase; age aging; effect affect; spices species; quantity quality; major majority; humid humidity; space spacious, blood bleeding, digestion ingestion, prize price, result in result from, re´cord ´record, solution solute.

Exercise 10. Match the explanation with its term.

1. The part of a plant that grows downward, usually into the soil, holds it in place, absorbs water and mineral foods from the soil, and often stores food material.

2. The main part of a tree, shrub, or other plant, usually above the ground.

3. A root like stem lying on or underneath the ground, which usually sends out roots below and leafy shoots above.

4. A part of a plant from which a flower, vegetable or other plant grows.

5. One of the thin, usually flat, green parts of a tree or other plant, that grows on the stem or grows up from the roots.

6. A juicy or fleshy product of a tree, bush, shrub, vine, or fleshy-stemmed plant that is good to eat.

7. The way in which the flowers of a plant are arranged on the stem or axis and in relation to each other.

a) a rhizome b) a fruit c) a leaf d) a root e) an inflorescence f) a stem g) a seed

Exercise 11. Fill in instead of gaps the words from the list to complete the sentences.

Seeds, nutrients, mature, spicy, affect, harvested, stems, trunks, inflorescence

1. Flowers pollinated by beetles tend to have stronger, yeasty, , or fruity odours.

2. Bird-pollinated flowers consist of ball-like containing large number of small flowers.

3. Each fruit of coffee contains two green coffee-beans that are , dried and sold.

4. Coffee is grown from .

5. The of some plants may exceed 1 meter in diameter.

6. When the cones () of most pines become dry.

7. Coconuts that grow on a palm tree are a good source of proteins, oils, and carbohydrates, while the leaves and are excellent building materials.

8. Such flowering plants as lilies, lawn grasses, cacti and magnolias virtually all aspects of our daily life.

9. The human body is made up of millions cells that require and energy.

Exercise 12. Ask the questions to the underlined parts of the sentence.

1. Each year more than 2 million tons of tea are harvested from about 25 countries.

2. Ephedra is not leafless; its leaves are small and lose its photosynthetic capability as they mature.

3. On the negative side plants clog () our rivers, damage our crops, cause allergies, and poison us.

4. First cultivated plants played an important part in the beginnings of civilization.

5. The function of leaves is not to absorb water.

6. The cortex () of a young stem is usually green, for its cells possess chloroplasts.

7. There have been thousands of studies on the effects of herbs.



Exercise 13. Translate from English into Russian.

To absorb plant nutrients and water, therapeutic efficacy, nutritive substances, fully ripened, even drying, to be in bloom, as low (high) as possible, lethal dose, to relieve the symptoms of illness, resulting from heat factors, to result in poisoning, agreeable taste, unpleasant odour, list of medicinal plants.


Exercise 16. Read the description of some flowering plants and guess what plants are described.

A. It is a fragrant () garden flower. It grows in North America, Europe and North Asia. The beautiful bell-shaped flowers are pure white. They hang down in a long cluster (, ) along a slender stem. The flower stalk rises from a rhizome. Each stalk usually has two or three wide, oblong leaves. The fruit is a red berry about six millimeters in diameter. The plant requires rich, well-drained soil and grows well in shade (). It is a perennial () plant, flowering naturally in late spring. It is famous for its fragrance. A French toilet water called eauor is made from the flowers.

B. They are common garden flowers in temperate () regions around the world. They grow from 30 to 60 centimeters high. The leaves lie one above the other on the stem. The flower heads have yellow or orange rays of petals (). Some of the species are favorite annual garden flowers in many parts of the world. Gardeners usually grow them from seeds. In Shakespeares time the plant blossom was used in cooking to flavor soups.

C. It is a group of small plants that are sometimes used as medicinal herb. A perennial, it grows about 30 centimeters high and has a slender, trailing () stem and many branches. The flowers look much like daises (). The flowers and leaves smell sweet, but taste bitter. The dried flowers are used to make a tea that has a relaxing effect. The flowers are sometimes applied as a warm poultice (warm moist mass) to treat toothache, or made into a tonic.


D. It is one of the most beautiful of all flowers. It is a symbol of fragrance and loveliness. The flowers come in many colours, including various shades of pink, red, yellow and white. Some of the species smell like tea or fruit, others have a fragrant scent (), and still others have little odour. Wild species are native only to the Northern Hemisphere but have been introduced into other parts of the world. Old garden flowers mostly flower only around midsummer, though some are remontant (flower more than one in a growing season). Plants of this family give us many useful products. Attar, an oil from flowers petals, is used to make toilet water and perfumes. The fruit of some plants, called hips ( ), are sometimes used in jam and other foods. The hips are rich in vitamin C.


The flowers described: rose, chamomile, lilly-ofthe-valley, calendula.



Part iV


Reading Comprehension


Text 1


Date: 2014-12-22; view: 220

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