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# True/False Questions

1. The assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules is called measurement.

True (easy, page 238)

2. The generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located is called sampling.

False (moderate, page 239)

3. A scale whose numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects with a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects is called an ordinal scale.

False (moderate, page 240)

4. Nominal scales are recognized as the most basic or limited.

True (moderate, page 240)

5. According to the text, interval scales are the simplest to use.

False (moderate, page 240)

6. The most complex of the primary scales of measurement is the ratio scale.

True (moderate, page 240)

7. Nominal scales are used for classification purposes only.

True (moderate, page 240)

8. Mutually exclusive means that there is no overlap between classes and every object being measured falls into only one class.

True (moderate, page 240)

9. In marketing research, ordinal scales are used to measure market share.

False (moderate, page 241)

10. The numbers assigned in a nominal scale do not reflect relative amounts of the characteristic being measured.

True (moderate, page 240)

11. In marketing research, interval scales are used both to measure attitudes and opinions, and as index numbers.

True (moderate, page 241)

12. A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which some characteristic is possessed is called a nominal scale.

False (moderate, page 242)

13. Common examples of ordinal scales include educational levels and social security numbers.

False (moderate, page 241)

14. An interval scale is a scale in which the numbers are used to rank objects such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the characteristic being measured.

True (moderate, page 243)

15. A ratio scale is the highest level of measurement and allows the researcher to identify or classify objects, rank order the objects, and compare intervals or differences.

True (moderate, page 244)

16. Temperature scales such as Celsius and Fahrenheit are examples of interval scales.

True (moderate, page 244)

17. Any positive linear transformation of the form y = a + bx would distort the properties of an interval scale.

False (moderate, page 244)

18. Like interval data, it is not meaningful to compute ratios of ratio scale values.

False (moderate, page 244)

19. The scaling techniques commonly used in marketing research can be classified into comparative and noncomparative scales.

True (moderate, page 246)

20. A noncomparative scale is one of the two types of scaling techniques in which there is direct comparison of stimulus objects with one another.

False (moderate, page 246)

21. According to the text, comparative scaling is sometimes referred to as monadic scaling.

False (moderate, page 247)

22. A noncomparative scale is one of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the others.

True (moderate, page 247)

23. The major benefit of comparative scaling is that it is the most widely used scaling technique.

False (moderate, page 247)

24. According to the text, noncomparative scales are also referred to as nonmetric scaling.

False (moderate, page 247)

25. Noncomparative scaling is the most widely used scaling technique in marketing research.

True (moderate, page 247)

26. According to the text, semantic differential scaling is a comparative scaling technique.

False (moderate, page 247)

27. A comparative scaling technique in which a respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criterion is called paired comparison scaling.

True (moderate, page 247)

28. Paired comparison scaling is useful when the number of brands under consideration is limited to no more than seven.

False (moderate, page 247)

29. A comparative scaling technique in which respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion is called rank order scaling.

True (moderate, page 248)

30. The most popular comparative scaling technique is semantic differential scaling.

False (moderate, page 248)

31. Rank order scaling is the comparative scaling technique commonly used to measure preferences among brands as well as among brand attributes.

True (moderate, page 249)

32. An advantage of rank order scaling is that the results are easy to communicate.

True (easy, page 249)

33. Constant sum scaling forces the respondent to discriminate among alternatives and also comes closer to resembling the shopping environment.

False (moderate, page 249)

34. In paired comparison scaling, respondents allocate a constant sum of units, such as points, dollars, or ships, among a set of alternatives according to some specified criterion.

False (moderate, page 249)

35. According to the text, the constant sum should be considered an ordinal scale.

True (moderate, page 250)

Multiple Choice

36. The assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules is called ______________.

a. randomization

b. measurement (easy, page 238)

c. sampling

d. exploring

e. characterization

37. The generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located is called ______________.

a. sampling

b. hypothesizing

c. scaling (moderate, page 239)

d. factoring

e. continuous generation

38. Which of the following is NOT one of the four primary scales of measurement?

a. nominal scales

b. ordinal scales

c. interval scales

d. random scales (moderate, page 240)

e. c and d

39. A scale whose numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects with a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects is called a(n) ______________.

a. nominal scale (moderate, page 240)

b. ratio scale

c. ordinal scale

d. interval scale

e. random scale

40. Which of the following primary scales of measurement is recognized as the most basic or limited?

a. ordinal scales

b. nominal scales (moderate, page 240)

c. ratio scales

d. interval scales

e. random scale

41. According to the text, ______________ are the simplest to use.

a. ratio scales

b. ordinal scales

c. interval scales

d. random scales

e. nominal scales (moderate, page 240)

42. The most complex of the primary scales of measurement is the ______________.

a. ordinal scale

b. interval scale

c. ratio scale (moderate, page 240)

d. nominal scale

e. random scale

43. Which of the following primary scales of measurement is used only for classification purposes?

a. ordinal scales

b. ratio scales

c. nominal scales (moderate, page 240)

d. interval scales

e. random scales

44. According to the text, ______________ means that there is no overlap between classes and every object being measured falls into only one class.

a. Mutually exclusive (moderate, page 240)

b. Collectively exclusive

c. Mutually exhaustive

d. Collectively exhaustive

e. Object non-overlap

45. According to the text, ______________ means that all the objects fall into one of the classes.

a. mutually exclusive

b. collectively exclusive

c. mutually exhaustive

d. collectively exhaustive (moderate, page 240)

e. object non-overlap

46. In marketing research, ordinal scales are used for all of the following purposes EXCEPT:

a. preference rankings.

b. market shares. (moderate, page 241)

c. market position.

d. social class.

e. b and c

47. The numbers assigned in a ______________ do not reflect relative amounts of the characteristic being measured.

a. nominal scale (moderate, page 240)

b. ordinal scale

c. interval scale

d. ratio scale

e. random scale

48. In marketing research, ______________ are used both to measure attitudes and opinions, and as index numbers.

a. nominal scales

b. ordinal scales

c. interval scales (moderate, page 2414)

d. ratio scales

e. random scales

49. A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which some characteristic is possessed is called a(n) ______________.

a. nominal scale

b. ordinal scale (moderate, page 242)

c. interval scale

d. ratio scale

e. random scale

50. Common examples of ordinal scales include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. quality rankings.

b. ranking of teams in a tournament.

c. educational levels.

d. social security numbers. (moderate, page 242)

e. c and d

51. A(n) ______________ is a scale in which the numbers are used to rank objects such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the characteristic being measured.

a. nominal scale

b. ordinal scale

c. interval scale (moderate, page 243)

d. ratio scale

e. random scale

52. Permissible statistics for ordinally-scaled data include which of the following?

a. geometric mean

b. range

c. standard deviation

d. mean

e. percentiles and median (difficult, page 243)

53. Which of the following is NOT true about ratio-scaled data?

a. The origin of the scale is fixed.

b. Such data can be transformed by using y = bx.

c. All statistical techniques can be applied to such data.

d. Common examples include height and weight.

e. They can be transformed using y = a + bx. (difficult, page 244)

54. A(n) ______________ is the highest level of measurement and allows the researcher to identify or classify objects, rank order the objects, and compare intervals or differences.

a. ratio scale (moderate, page 244)

b. nominal scale

c. ordinal scale

d. interval scale

e. random scale

55. Permissible statistics for interval scaled data include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. range

b. mean

c. standard deviation

d. mode

e. all of the above are permissible (moderate, page 244)

56. The scaling techniques commonly used in marketing research can be classified into ______________; ______________.

a. random and nonrandom scales

b. comparative and noncomparative scales (difficult, page 246)

c. interval and ratio scales

d. nominal and ordinal scales

e. object and non-object scales

57. A ______________ is one of the two types of scaling techniques in which there is direct comparison of stimulus objects with one another.

a. random scale

b. nonrandom scale

c. comparative scale (moderate, page 246)

d. noncomparative scale

e. direct scale

58. A major disadvantage of comparative scales would be which of the following?

a. Halo or carryover effects are reduced.

b. Respondents bring the same point of reference to a task.

c. The resulting data measures relative differences.

d. Only big differences between objects can be detected.

e. A researcher cannot generalize beyond the objects under study. (moderate, page 246)

59. According to the text, comparative scaling is sometimes referred to as ______________.

a. metric scaling

b. random scaling

d. nonmetric scaling (moderate, page 246)

e. none of the above

60. A _____________ is one of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the others.

a. random scale

b. nonrandom scale

c. comparative scale

d. noncomparative scale (moderate, page 247)

e. independence scale

61. According to the text, noncomparative scales are also referred to as ______________.

a. metric scaling (moderate, page 247)

b. random scaling

c. interval scaling

d. nonmetric scaling

e. substantive scaling

62. Which of the following is NOT a classification of itemized rating scales?

a. Likert scales

b. semantic differential scales

c. Stapel scales

d. perceptual scales (moderate, page 247)

e. c and d

63. ______________ is the most widely used scaling technique in marketing research.

a. Comparative scaling

b. Noncomparative scaling (moderate, page 247)

c. Random scaling

d. Nonmetric scaling

e. Substantive scaling

64. Which of the following is NOT recognized as a comparative scaling technique?

a. rank order scaling

b. paired comparison scaling

c. constant sum scaling

d. semantic differential scaling (moderate, page 247)

e. b and d

65. A comparative scaling technique in which a respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criterion is called _____________.

a. rank order scaling

b. paired comparison scaling (moderate, page 247)

c. constant sum scaling

d. semantic differential scaling

e. semantic meaning scaling

66. Paired comparison scaling is useful when the number of brands under consideration is limited to no more than ______________.

a. one

b. three

c. five (moderate, page 247)

d. seven

e. ten

67. A comparative scaling technique in which respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion is called ______________.

a. rank order scaling (moderate, page 248)

b. paired comparison scaling

c. constant sum scaling

d. semantic differential scaling

e. semantic meaning scaling

68. After paired comparison scaling, the most popular comparative scaling technique is ______________.

a. perceptual scaling

b. constant sum scaling

c. rank order scaling (moderate, page 248)

d. semantic differential scaling

e. semantic meaning scaling

69. Which of the following comparative scaling techniques is commonly used to measure preferences among brands as well as among brand attributes?

a. rank order scaling (moderate, page 249)

b. constant sum scaling

c. paired comparison scaling

d. semantic differential scaling

e. semantic meaning scaling

70. ______________ forces the respondent to discriminate among alternatives and also comes closer to resembling the shopping environment.

a. Constant sum scaling

b. Rank order scaling (moderate, page 249)

c. Paired comparison scaling

d. Semantic differential scaling

e. Discriminative scaling

71. In ______________, respondents allocate a constant sum of units, such as points, dollars, or ships, among a set of alternatives according to some specified criterion.

a. rank order scaling

b. paired comparison scaling

c. constant sum scaling (easy, page 249)

d. semantic differential scaling

e. semantic meaning scaling

72. Which of the following comparative scaling techniques has an absolute zero and is sometimes treated as metric?

a. rank order scaling

b. constant sum scaling (easy, page 250)

c. paired comparison scaling

d. semantic differential scaling

e. zero scaling

73. A major disadvantage of constant sum scaling is that ______________.

a. it is limited to large discriminations among alternatives.

b. it takes too much time to collect.

c. it has no absolute zero point.

d. it can not be considered an ordinal scale.

e. respondents may allocate more or fewer units than those specified. (moderate, page 250)

74. According to the text, the constant sum should be considered a(n) ______________.

a. ordinal scale (moderate, page 250)

b. ratio scale

c. interval scale

d. nominal scale

e. random scale

75. In developing countries, which of the following scales would be best for measuring consumer preferences?

a. ordinal scales

b. ratio scales

c. interval scales

d. substantive scales

e. dichotomous scales (difficult, page 252)

Essay Questions

76. In a short essay, list and discuss the four primary scales of measurement. Include an example of how each scale of measurement is used in marketing research.

a. A nominal scaleuses numbers as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. When a nominal scale is used for identification, there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers being assigned and the objects being measured. Each number is assigned to only one object, and each object has only one number assigned to it. In marketing research, nominal scales are used for identifying participants in a study, brands, attributes, stores, and other objects.

b. An ordinal scale is a ranking scale. In an ordinal scale, numbers are assigned to objects, which allows researchers to determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object. However, this type of scale cannot determine how much more or less the characteristics differ from the other object. In marketing research, ordinal scales are used to measure relative attitudes, opinions, perceptions, and preferences.

c. An interval scaleis a scale in which the numbers are used to rank objects such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the characteristic being measured. An interval scale contains all the information of an ordinal scale. In addition, it allows the comparison of differences between objects. In marketing research, data on attitudes obtained from rating scales are often treated as interval data.

d. A ratio scaleis the highest level of measurement and allows the researcher to identify or classify objects, rank order the objects, and compare intervals or differences. In addition, an absolute zero point is specified; that is, the origin of the scale is fixed. When measurement is taken using ratio scales, a researcher can identify or classify objects, rank the objects, and compare intervals or differences. In marketing, sales, costs, market share, and number of customers are variables measured on a ratio scale.

(difficult, page 241)

77. In a short essay, compare and contrast the categories of mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive.

Nominal scales are used for classification purposes. They serve as labels for classes or categories. The classes are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. Mutually exclusive means that there is no overlap between classes; every object being measured falls into only one class. The objects in each class are viewed as equivalent in terms of the characteristic represented by the nominal scale. All objects in the same class have the same number, and no two classes have the same number. Collectively exhaustive means that all the objects fall into one of the classes. For example, the numbers 1 and 2 can be used to classify survey respondents based on sex or gender, with 1 denoting females and 2 denoting male. Each respondent will fall into one of these two categories.

(moderate, page 240)

78. In a short essay, discuss the difference between comparative and noncomparative scales. Include an example of each scaling technique to support your answer.

Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of two or more objects. For example, respondents might be asked whether they prefer Coke or Pepsi. A comparative scale gives the marketer data that measure relative differences. It has only ordinal or rank order properties. In noncomparative scales,objects are scaled independently of each other. The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval scaled. For example, respondents may be asked to evaluate Coke on a 1 to 7 preference scale (1 = not at all preferred, 7 = greatly preferred). Similar evaluations would be obtained for Pepsi and RC Cola. Noncomparative scales comprise continuous rating or itemized rating scales.

(easy, pages 246-247)

79. In a short essay, list and discuss the three types of comparative scaling techniques. Include a specific example for each scaling technique to support your answer.

a. Paired comparison scaling is a comparative scaling technique in which a respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criterion. Data obtained in this way are ordinal in nature. For example, a consumer involved in a paired comparison study may state that she shops in J.C. Penney more than in Sears, likes Total cereal better than Kellogg's Product 19, or likes Crest toothpaste more than Colgate. Paired comparison scales are frequently used when the research involves physical products.

b. Rank order scaling is a comparative scaling technique in which respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion. For example, consumers may be asked to rank brands of jeans according to overall preference. These rankings are typically obtained by asking the respondents to assign a rank of 1 to the most preferred brand, 2 to the second most preferred, and so on, until each alternative is ranked down to the least preferred brand.

c. Constant sum scaling is a comparative scaling technique in which respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units, such as points, dollars, or chips, among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion. Respondents may be asked, for example, to allocate 100 points to eight attributes of a bath soap. The points are allocated to represent the importance attached to each attribute. If an attribute is unimportant, the respondent assigns it zero points. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute, the respondent assigns it twice as many points. All the points a respondent assigns must total 100.

(moderate, pages 247-250)

80. In a short essay, discuss the relationship of measurement and scaling to the marketing research process.

First, the marketing research problem is defined. Then, based on this definition, an approach to the problem is developed. An important component of the approach is specifying the information needed to address the marketing research problem. Measurement and scaling are part of the research design. The researcher must identify an appropriate level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) for each item of information needed. If the measurement level is ordinal, the researcher generally selects one of the comparative techniques (paired comparison, rank order, or constant sum). If the data are interval, the researcher selects one of the noncomparative techniques (continuous or itemized rating scale: Likert, semantic differential, or Stapel).

(difficult, page 251)

81. What limitations of taste testing can be inferred from the experiential learning exercise on page 248 of the text where two samples of the same cola brand are tasted along with a third unidentified sample which is actually a different brand?

Taste is assessed here in this "taste test". However, because the samples were NOT labeled with their brand names, brand would not be assessed for most of the respondents. When a respondent associates a brand with a sample, all of the accompanying meanings the brand might have for the respondent are activated (at least partially) in the mind of the respondent. For a marketer of Coke, these meanings are likely to be positive ("This brand was served at all my birthday parties growing up", or "My favorite celebrity endorses Coke", etc.). In a blind taste test as described in the text, the focus is on the taste of the colas. However, taste is not the only consideration in choosing a cola drink. The 1984 introduction of New Coke illustrated this well. Despite the better ratings on taste given by consumers to New Coke in blind taste tests, most consumers preferred the original formula of Coke, which included all the positive meanings that had accrued in their minds for this formulation over the years.

(difficult, page 248)

Chapter 10 – Measurement and Scaling:

Noncomparative Scaling Techniques

Date: 2016-01-14; view: 1433

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