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True/False Questions

 

1. A noncomparative scale is one of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the other objects in the stimulus set.

True (moderate, page 260)

 

2. An itemized rating scale describes a measurement scale in which respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other.

False (moderate, page 260)

 

3. A continuous rating scale allows the respondent to place a mark at any point along a line running between two extreme points rather than selecting from among a set of predetermined response categories.

True (moderate, page 260)

 

4. According to the text, noncomparative scales are broadly classified as either continuous or itemized.

True (moderate, page 260)

 

5. With the development of information technologies, such as computers and the Internet, continuous scales are being used less frequently.

True (moderate, page 264)

 

6. According to the text, a balanced rating scale is one of the commonly used itemized rating scales.

False (moderate, page 264)

 

7. An itemized rating scale is a measurement scale having numbers and/or brief descriptions associated with each category with the categories ordered in terms of scale position.

True (moderate, page 264)

 

8. A measurement scale with five response categories ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree," which requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements related to the stimulus object, is called a Stapel scale.

False (difficult, page 264)

 

9. A Likert scale is described as a seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning.

False (moderate, page 264)

 

10. When using a semantic differential, the respondent is typically asked to rate a brand, store, or some other object in terms of bipolar adjectives, such as cold and warm.

True (moderate, page 265)

 

11. A scale for measuring attitudes that consists of a single adjective in the middle of an even-numbered range of values is called a Stapel scale.

True (moderate, page 267)

 

12. According to the text, while there is no single, optimal number, traditional guidelines suggest that there should be between one and four categories when using itemized rating scales.

False (moderate, page 268)

 

13. If a neutral or indifferent scale response is possible for at least some of the respondents, an even number of categories should be used.

False (moderate, page 268)

 

14. A scale with an equal number of favorable and unfavorable categories is called a balanced scale.

True (easy, page 268)

 

15. A forced rating scale is a scale that requires the respondents to express an opinion since a "no opinion" option is not provided.



True (moderate, page 269)

 

16. Scales are only presented horizontally.

False (moderate, page 270)

17. A construct is more abstract than everyday concepts.

True (moderate, page 271)

 

18. A scale consisting of multiple items, in which an item is a single question or statement to be evaluated is called a multi-item scale.

True (easy, page 271)

 

19. Random error affects the measurement in a constant way and represents stable factors that affect the observed score in the same way each time the measurement is made.

False (moderate, page 273)

 

20. Systematic error describes measurement error that arises from arbitrary changes that have a different effect each time the measurement is made.

False (moderate, page 273)

 

21. The extent to which a scale produces consistent results if repeated measurements are made on the characteristic is called reliability.

True (moderate, page 273)

 

22. According to the text, total measurement error is determined by multiplying systematic error with random error.

False (moderate, page 273)

 

23. Random reliability is a popular approach for assessing reliability.

False (moderate, page 273)

 

24. Test-retest reliability is an approach for assessing reliability in which respondents are administered identical sets of scale items at two different times under as nearly equivalent conditions as possible.

True (moderate, page 273)

 

25. An approach for assessing reliability, which requires two equivalent forms of the scale to be constructed and then measures the same respondents at two different times using the alternate forms, is called alternative-form reliability.

True (moderate, page 273)

 

26. Internal consistency reliability is used to assess the reliability of a summated scale and refers to the consistency with which each item represents the construct of interest.

True (moderate, page 274)

 

27. Alternative-form reliability is a form of internal consistency reliability in which the items constituting the scale are divided into two halves, and the resulting half scores are correlated.

False (moderate, page 273)

 

 

28. A measure of internal consistency reliability that is the average of all possible split-half coefficients resulting from different splittings of the scale items is called coefficient gamma.

False (moderate, page 274)

 

29. Validity is the extent to which differences in observed scale scores reflect true differences among objects on the characteristic being measured, rather than systematic or random errors.

True (easy, page 274)

 

30. According to the text, researchers may assess validity using coefficient validity.

False (difficult, page 274)

 

31. Criterion validity is a type of validity that consists of a subjective but systematic evaluation of the representativeness of the content of a scale for the measuring task at hand.

False (moderate, page 274)

 

32. A type of validity that addresses the question of what characteristic the scale is measuring is called construct validity.

True (moderate, page 274)

 

33. Discriminant validity is a measure of construct validity that measures the extent to which the scale correlates positively with other measures of the same construct.

False (difficult, page 275)

 

34. Perfect reliability implies perfect validity.

False (moderate, page 264)

 

35. Perfect validity implies perfect reliability.

True (moderate, page 264)

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

36. A(n) ______________ is one of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the other objects in the stimulus set.

 

a. noncomparative scale (moderate, page 260)

b. continuous rating scale

c. itemized rating scale

d. Likert scale

e. random scale

 

37. Which of the following describes a measurement scale in which respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other?

a. a noncomparative scale

b. a continuous rating scale (moderate, page 260)

c. an itemized rating scale

d. a Likert scale

e. extreme scaling


 

38. A(n) _______________ allows the respondent to place a mark at any point along a line running between two extreme points rather than selecting from among a set of predetermined response categories.

a. noncomparative scale

b. itemized rating scale

c. continuous rating scale (moderate, page 260)

d. Likert scale

e. extreme scaling

 

39. Which of the following types of scales are sometimes referred to as graphic rating scales?

a. noncomparative scales

b. continuous rating scales (moderate, page 260)

c. itemized rating scales

d. Likert scales

e. none of the above

 

40. A disadvantage of which of the following itemized rating scales is confusion and difficulty to application?

a. Likert scale

b. semantic differential

c. Stapel scale (moderate, page 263)

d. continuous rating scale

e. random scales

 

41. According to the text, which of the following is NOT one of the commonly used itemized rating scales?

a. Likert scale

b. semantic differential

c. Stapel scale

d. random scale

e. balanced rating scale (moderate, page 264)

 

42. A(n) ______________ is a measurement scale having numbers and/or brief descriptions associated with each category with the categories ordered in terms of scale position.

a. noncomparative scale

b. itemized rating scale (moderate, page 264)

c. continuous rating scale

d. Likert scale

e. descriptor scales

 

43. A measurement scale with five response categories ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree," which requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements related to the stimulus object is called a(n) ______________.

a. Likert scale (moderate, page 264)

b. semantic differential

c. Stapel scale

d. balanced rating scale

e. penta scales

 

44. Characteristics of the Likert scale include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. easy to construct

b. easy to administer

c. easy for the respondent to understand

d. in marketing, scale points vary

e. respondents read a short phrase rather than an entire statement (difficult, page 265)


 

45. Which of the following types of scales is described as a seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning?

a. Likert scale

b. semantic differential (easy, page 265)

c. Stapel scale

d. balanced rating scale

e. siete scales

 

46. When using a _______________, the respondent is typically asked to rate a brand, store, or some other object in terms of bipolar adjectives, such as cold and warm.

a. Likert scale

b. Stapel scale

c. balanced rating scale

d. semantic differential (moderate, page 263)

e. image scale

 

47. According to the text, individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored ______________.

a. on a 1 to 7 scale

b. on a -3 to +3 scale

c. on a 1 to 5 scale

d. All of the above are correct.

e. a and b only (difficult, page 266)

 

48. A scale for measuring attitudes that consists of a single adjective in the middle of an even-numbered range of values is called a ______________.

a. Likert scale

b. semantic differential

c. Stapel scale (moderate, page 267)

d. balanced rating scale

e. mid-range scale

 

49. According to the text, while there is no single, optimal number, traditional guidelines suggest that there should be between ______________ categories when using itemized rating scales.

a. one and four

b. five and nine (moderate, page 268)

c. 10 and 14

d. 12 and 15

e. 15 and 19

 

50. If a neutral or indifferent scale response is possible for at least some of the respondents, _______________.

a. an even number of categories should be used

b. an odd number of categories should be used (moderate, page 269)

c. only one category should be used

d. the number of categories used is unimportant

e. b and c

 

51. A scale with an equal number of favorable and unfavorable categories is called a(n) ______________.

a. balanced scale (easy, page 268)

b. unbalanced scale

c. forced scale

d. systematic scale

e. equal scale


 

52. A(n) ______________ is a rating scale that requires the respondents to express an opinion since a "no opinion" option is not provided.

a. balanced rating scale

b. unbalanced rating scale

c. forced rating scale (easy, page 269)

d. systematic rating scale

e. opinion scale

 

53. Scale categories can be ______________.

a. assigned numerical values

b. presented horizontally

c. expressed by boxes

d. expressed by discrete lines

e. all of the above (moderate, page 270)

 

54. A scale consisting of multiple items, in which an item is a single question or statement to be evaluated, is called a ______________.

a. forced rating scale

b. systematic scale

c. balanced rating scale

d. multi-item scale (easy, page 271)

e. single question scale

 

55. According to the text, to develop a multi-item scale, all of the following must be done EXCEPT:

a. generate a pool of scale items

b. reduce pool of items based on judgment

c. collect data

d. purify the scale based on statistics

e. add additional items after statistical analysis (difficult, page 272)

 

56. ______________ affects the measurement in a constant way and represents stable factors that affect the observed score in the same way each time the measurement is made.

a. Systematic error (easy, page 273)

b. Random error

c. Forced error

d. Coefficient error

e. Dispersion error

 

57. Which of the following types of error describes measurement error that arises from arbitrary changes that have a different effect each time the measurement is made?

a. systematic error

b. forced error

c. coefficient error

d. random error (easy, page 273)

e. dispersion error

 

58. The extent to which a scale produces consistent results if repeated measurements are made on the characteristic is called ______________.

a. reliability (moderate, page 273)

b. validity

c. accuracy

d. efficiency

e. substantiality


 

59. According to the text, which of the following formulas determines total measurement error?

a. systematic error random error

b. systematic error + random error (moderate, page 273)

c. systematic error x random error

d. systematic error/random error

e. square root of (systematic error/random error)

 

60. Which of the following is NOT a popular approach for assessing reliability?

a. test-retest reliability

b. alternative-form reliability

c. internal consistency reliability

d. random reliability (moderate, page 273)

e. b and d

 

61. _____________ is an approach for assessing reliability in which respondents are administered identical sets of scale items at two different times under as nearly equivalent conditions as possible.

a. Test-retest reliability (moderate, page 273)

b. Alternative-form reliability

c. Internal consistency reliability

d. Random reliability

e. binary reliability

 

62. An approach for assessing reliability, which requires two equivalent forms of the scale to be constructed, and then measures the same respondents at two different times using the alternate forms is called ______________.

a. test-retest reliability

b. alternative-form reliability (moderate, page 273)

c. internal consistency reliability

d. random reliability

e. binary reliability

 

63. ______________ is used to assess the reliability of a summated scale and refers to the consistency with which each item represents the construct of interest.

a. Test-retest reliability

b. Alternative-form reliability

c. Internal consistency reliability (moderate, page 274)

d. Random reliability

e. Summated reliability

 

64. ______________ is a form of internal consistency reliability in which the items constituting the scale are divided into two halves, and the resulting half scores are correlated.

a. Split-half reliability (moderate, page 274)

b. Test-retest reliability

c. Alternative-form reliability

d. Random reliability

e. Correlated half-scores

 

65. A measure of internal consistency reliability that is the average of all possible split-half coefficients resulting from different splittings of the scale items is called ______________.

a. coefficient alpha (moderate, page 274)

b. coefficient beta

c. coefficient gamma

d. coefficient theta

e. splitting consistency

 

66. ______________ is the extent to which differences in observed scale scores reflect true differences among objects on the characteristic being measured, rather than systematic or random errors.

a. Reliability

b. Validity (moderate, page 274)

c. Effectiveness

d. Consistency

e. Substantive difference

 

67. According to the text, researchers may assess validity in all of the following ways EXCEPT:

a. content validity.

b. criterion validity.

c. construct validity.

d. coefficient validity. (moderate, page 274)

e. a and d

 

68. _______________ is a type of validity that consists of a subjective but systematic evaluation of the representativeness of the content of a scale for the measuring task at hand.

a. Content validity (moderate, page 274)

b. Criterion validity

c. Construct validity

d. Coefficient validity

e. Type I validity

 

69. Which of the following is a type of validity that examines whether the measurement scale performs as expected in relation to other variables selected as meaningful criteria?

a. content validity

b. criterion validity (difficult, page 274)

c. construct validity

d. coefficient validity

e. Type II validity

 

70. ______________ addresses the question of what characteristic the scale is measuring.

a. Content validity

b. Criterion validity

c. Construct validity (difficult, page 274)

d. Coefficient validity

e. Characteristic measurement

 

71. According to the text, construct validity includes all the following EXCEPT:

a. convergent validity.

b. discriminant validity.

c. nomological validity.

d. coefficient validity. (difficult, page 274)

e. c and d

 

72. ______________ is a measure of construct validity that measures the extent to which the scale correlates positively with other measures of the same construct.

a. Convergent validity (difficult, pages 274-275)

b. Discriminant validity

c. Nomological validity

d. Content validity

e. Characteristic measurement


 

73. A type of construct validity that assesses the extent to which a measure does not correlate with other constructs from which it is supposed to differ is called ______________.

a. convergent validity

b. discriminant validity (difficult, page 275)

c. nomological validity

d. content validity

e. Type I validity

 

74. ______________ is a type of validity that assesses the relationship between theoretical constructs and seeks to confirm significant correlations between the constructs as predicted by a theory.

a. Convergent validity

b. Discriminant validity

c. Nomological validity (difficult, page 275)

d. Content validity

e. Type II validity

 

75. According to the text, an alternative approach to pan-cultural scales is to ______________.

a. use only open-ended questions

b. avoid survey research and do only qualitative interviews

c. use demographic questions only

d. use continuous rating scales

e. use descriptors the respondents provide themselves (difficult, page 277)

 

 

Essay Questions

 

76. In a short essay, list and discuss the three commonly used itemized rating scales in marketing. Include at least one advantage and one disadvantage of each itemized rating scale to support your answer.

 

Answer

a. The Likert scale is a measurement scale with five response categories ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree," which requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements related to a stimulus object. The Likert scale has several advantagesthat include being easy for the researcher to construct and administer and being easy for the respondent to understand. The major disadvantage is that it takes longer for respondents to complete than other itemized rating scales.

b. The semantic differential is a seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. When using a semantic differential, the respondent is typically asked to rate a brand, store, or some other object in terms of these bipolar adjectives, such as cold and warm. The advantage of this scale is its versatility. The major disadvantage is the difficulty in determining the appropriate bipolar adjectives required to construct the scale.

c. The Stapel scale measures attitudes that consist of a single adjective in the middle of an even-numbered range of values. Respondents indicate how accurately or inaccurately each term describes an object by selecting the number that is appropriate. The higher the number, the more accurately the adjective describes the object. The advantage of this scale is that it is simple to use. However, some researchers consider the Stapel scale's disadvantage to be that it is confusing and difficult to apply.

(difficult, pages 264-267)


 

77. In a short essay, define reliability, and list and discuss the three popular approaches for assessing reliability.

 

Answer

Reliability refers to the extent to which a scale produces consistent results if repeated measurements are made on the characteristic. Reliability is determined by repeatedly measuring the construct or variable of interest. The higher the degree of association between the scores derived through this repeated measurement, the more reliable the scale. Popular approaches for assessing reliability are test-retest, alternative-forms, and internal consistency methods.

a. In test-retest reliability,respondents are administered scales at two different times under as nearly equivalent condition as possible. The retest typically follows the original measurement by two to four weeks. The degree of similarity between the two measurements is determined by computing a correlation coefficient.

b. In order to test alternative-form reliability,two equivalent forms of the scale are constructed. The same respondents are measured at two different times using alternative scale forms. Correlation between the responses to the two equivalent forms of the scale provides a measure of reliability.

c. Internal consistency reliabilityis used to assess the reliability of a summated scale, or subscale, where scores for several items are summed to form a total score for a construct. In a scale of this type, each item measures some aspect of the construct measured by the entire scale. The items should be consistent in what they indicate about the characteristic.

(moderate, pages 273-274)

 

78. In a short essay, discuss split-half reliability and discuss the use of a coefficient alpha.

 

Answer

The simplest measure of internal consistency is split-half reliability. In applying this procedure, the scale items are randomly divided into halves, and the resulting half scores are correlated. High correlations between the halves indicate high internal consistency. The correlation between the halves will be affected by how the groups are split. A popular approach to overcoming this problem is to use the coefficient alpha.The coefficient alpha is calculated by averaging the coefficients that result from all possible combinations of split halves. This coefficient varies from 0 to 1, and a value of 0.6 or less generally indicates unsatisfactory internal consistency reliability.

(difficult, page 274)

 

79. In a short essay, list and discuss the three ways in which researchers may assess validity.

 

Answer

a. Content validity involves a systematic but subjective assessment of how well a scale measures the construct or variable of interest. Content validity alone is not a sufficient measure of the validity of a scale. It must be supplemented with a more formal evaluation of the scale's validity, namely, criterion validity and construct validity.

b. Criterion validity reflects whether a scale performs as expected given other variables considered relevant to the construct. These variables are called criterion variables. They may include demographic and psychographic characteristics, attitudinal and behavioral measures, or scores obtained from other scales.

c. Construct validity addresses the question of what construct or characteristic the scale is, in fact, measuring. In order to assess construct validity, the researcher must have a strong understanding of the theory that provided the basis for constructing the scale. (moderate, page 274)


80. In a short essay, discuss the proper steps in choosing a scaling technique for a particular marketing research problem.

 

Answer

In addition to theoretical considerations and evaluation of reliability and validity, the researcher should consider certain practical factors in selecting scaling techniques for a particular marketing research problem. These include the level of measurement desired, the experience of the respondents with the research topic, the difficulty of administering the scales, and the context. As a general rule, the scaling technique used should be the one that will yield the highest level of measurement feasible. Such a scaling technique will permit the greatest flexibility in statistical analysis of the results. Additionally, using multiple scale items to measure the same characteristic will improve the accuracy of results. In many situations, it is desirable to use more than one scaling technique.

(easy, page 276)

 

81. In a short essay, discuss issues related to scale anchors in international research.

 

Answer

Respondents may be asked to indicate the verbal descriptors for the extreme scale categories (anchors) before positioning an object along the scale. This approach is useful when conducting attitude research related to cultural norms (for example, attitude toward friends). Suppose the researcher is interested in measuring the influence of friends on the purchase of personal clothing in a cross-cultural study involving students in the United States and India. The question asked is, "To what extent should your friends influence your purchase of personal clothing?" The responses are obtained on a seven-point scale. Respondents in India may provide the anchors as 1 = little, 7 = much. Respondents in the United States may provide different anchors: 1 = not at all, 7 = a great deal. Such scales have proven to be universally adaptable because they are relatively insensitive to differences in educational level across countries. On the other hand, if the researchers specify the anchors, they should pay special attention to determining equivalent verbal descriptors in different languages and cultures. The end descriptors used to anchor the scale are particularly prone to different interpretations. Additionally, the scale numbering may have different meanings. In some cultures, 1 may be interpreted as best, while in others it may be interpreted as worst, regardless of how it is scaled (1 = best, 7 = worst, or 1 = worst, 7 = best). In such cases, it may be desirable to avoid numbers and to just use boxes that respondent can check (worst      best). It is important that the scale end points and the verbal descriptors be employed in a manner that is consistent with the culture.

(easy, pages 277-278)

Chapter 11 Questionnaire and Form Design

 


Date: 2016-01-14; view: 578


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