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Resource-and low-waste technologies.

4. Environmentally friendly production. Eco-innovation..

Life-cycle assessment is focused on the actual end-service that products provide: A shift from

individual products to a metabolic systems approach. In recent years, a number of major

companies have cited LCAs in their marketing and advertising, to support claims that their

products are 'environmentally friendly. All products have some impact on the environment. Since some products use more resources, cause more pollution or generate more waste than others, the aim is to identify those which are most harmful. It seems likely that LCA information to be taken into consideration at the design stage of new products.

Eco-innovation means all forms of innovation activities resulting in or aimed at significantly

improving environmental protection. Eco-innovation includes new production processes, new

products or services, and new management and business methods, the use or implementation of

which is likely to prevent or substantially reduce the risks to the environment, pollution and any

other negative impact of the use of resources throughout the lifecycle of related activities.

5. Energy efficiency. Alternative energy sources.Alternative energy sources. There are many reasons we are looking towards alternative energy sources. With many countries, and US cities, signing the Kyoto Treaty, efforts to reduce pollutants and greenhouse gases are a primary focus in today's culture. Alternative or renewable energy, sources show significant promise in helping to reduce the amount of toxins that are by-products of energy use. Not only do they protect against harmful by-products, but using alternative energy helps to preserve many of the natural resources that we currently use as sources of energy.
Wind Power
Wind energy harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. The rotation of turbine blades is converted into electrical current by means of an electrical generator. In the older windmills, wind energy was used to turn mechanical machinery to do physical work, like crushing grain or pumping water. Wind power produces no pollution that can contaminate the environment, since no chemical processes take place, like in the burning of fossil fuels, in wind power generation, there are no harmful by-products left over.
Solar Power
Solar energy is used commonly for heating, cooking, the production of electricity, and even in the desalination of seawater. solar power works by trapping the sun's rays into solar cells where this sunlight is then converted into electricity. Additionally, solar power uses sunlight that hits solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air.

Geothermal Energy
Literally, geothermal means, "earth heat." Geothermal energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath the Earth. Hot rocks under the ground heat water to produce steam. When holes are drilled in the region, the steam that shoots up is purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators.



Energy efficiency is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. Installing fluorescent lights or natural skylights reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared with using traditional incandescent light bulbs. Compact fluorescent lights use one-third the energy of incandescent lights and may last 6 to 10 times longer. Improvements in energy efficiency are most often achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production process

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 337


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Non-conformity to a given set of norms that are accepted by a significant number | Energy efficiency-low consumption in industry.
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