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Non-conformity to a given set of norms that are accepted by a significant number

117.Find the example of deviant subculture.Hare Krishna ,

118.Find the example of deviant subculture.Homeless people, hippy

119.What are positive sanctions?The offering of rewards for conformity

120.What are negative sanctions?Punishment for behaviour that does not conform

121.When does secondary deviance occur?When the individual comes to accept the label and sees himself as deviant

122.To what does the following definition refer: “Forms of activity that have many of the characteristics of orthodox business, but in which the activities engaged in are illegal”?Organized crime

123. To what type of crime embezzlement belong? White-collar crime

124.What can be defined as structured inequalities between different groupings of people? Stratification

125.What did K.Marx define as class groups left over from an earlier type of production system? Transitional classes

126.What are defined as negatively privileged status groups, subject to discrimination that prevent them from taking advantage of opportunities open to most others? Pariah groups

127.To what does status refer in Weber’s theory?Differences between social groups in the social honour or prestige they are accorded by others

128.What did Max Weber define as a group of individuals who work together because they have common backgrounds, aims or interests? Party

129.What refers to all the assets individuals own? Wealth

130.What refers to wages and salaries coming from paid occupations plus money deriving from investments? Income

131.What does vertical mobility mean? Movement up or down the socioeconomic scale

132.What does lateral mobility mean?Geographical movement between neighborhoods, towns or regions

133.What does intragenerational mobility mean?How far individuals move up or down the social scale in the course of their working lives - careers

134.What does intergenerational mobility mean? Analysis how far children enter the same type of occupation as their parents or grandparents- mobility across generation

135.Who was the first in the field of comparative mobility study? Pitirim Sorokin

136. What is defined as a lack of the basic resources needed to maintain health and effective bodily functioning?Subsistence poverty

137. What is defined as the gaps between the living conditions of some groups and those enjoyed by the majority of population? Relative poverty

138. What is defined as a large grouping of people, structured on impersonal lines and set up to achieve specific objectives? Organization

139. Who coined the term ‘bureaucracy’? Monsieur de Gournay

140. Who saw bureaucracy as ‘the giant power wielded by pigmies’? Honore de Balzac

141. Who introduced the term ‘surveillance’? Foucault

142. What is the international division of labour? The worldwide distribution of jobs

143. What is the main feature of the ethnocentric transnationals? Company policy is set, and as far as possible put into practice, from a headquarters in the country of the origin



144. What organizational changes characterize modern stage in the functioning of transnationals? Downsizing and decentring

145. Who pioneered ‘just-in-time’ production system? Taiichi Ohno of Toyota

146. What is the work that is done in exchange for a regular wage or salary? Occupation

147. What consists of institutions that provide for the production and distribution of goods and services? Economic system

148. What refers to the harnessing of science to machinery to achieve greater productive efficiency?Technology

149. What is one of the main features of modern society? Interdependence

150. How is the system of production designed to maximize industrial output called? Taylorism

151. What is the sociological term for the system of mass production tied to the cultivation of mass markets? Fordism

152. How is the type of management characterized by close supervision called? Low-trust system

153. What is the term for programmable machinery? Automation

154. What is the sociological term for collaborative work of special groups in place of assembly lines? Group production

155.What is the term for the new technologies allow the large-scale production of items designed for particular customers? Mass customizing

156. What countries are the most strike-prone at present time? Italy and Canada

157. What countries are the least strike-prone at present time? Germany and Scandinavian countries

158.What event caused the appearance of housework? Separation of the home and workplace

159.What causes unemployment, according to John Maynard Keynes? Lack of sufficient purchasing power to buy goods

160. What is a ‘skill portfolio’? A number of different job skills and credentials, which they will use to move between several jobs during the course of their working life

161. What is the term for the regular enactment of policies, decisions and matters of state on the part of the officials within a political apparatus? Government

162. What is the term for the means whereby power is used to affect the scope and content of governmental activities? Politics

163. What is the term for the ability of individuals or groups to make their own interests or concerns count, even when others resist? Power

164. What is the term for a government’s legitimate use of power? Authority

165. What is the term for the situation when those subject to a government’s authority consent to it? Legitimacy

166. What exist where there is a political apparatus of government ruling over a given territory, whose authority is backed by a legal system and by a capacity to use military force to implement its policies? State

167. What rules over specific territory, possesses a formalized code of law and is backed by the control of military force? Nation-state

168. What notion characterises the situation when a government possesses authority over an area with clear-cut borders, within which it is the supreme power? Sovereignty

169. The system where everyone is a member of a definite national political order. Citizens

170. What can be defined as a set of symbols and beliefs providing the sense of being part of a single political community? Nationalism

171. What was the original type of democracy practised in ancient Greece? Participatory democracy

172. What is the term for the representative multiparty democracy where citizens can vote for one of at least two parties? Liberal democracy

173. What is the term for an organization oriented towards achieving legitimate control of government through an electoral process? Political party

174. Who were suffragettes? Early supporters of women’s right to vote

175. Whose idea was “to build a kind of United States of Europe” after the World War II? Churchill

176. What does the ‘industrialisation of war’ refer to? The application of modern industrial methods to the production and development of weaponry

177. What does ‘Cold War’ mean? The antagonistic rivalry between the US and the former Soviet Union that lasted from the late 1940s until about 1990

178. What is ‘nuclear proliferation’? The spread of nuclear weapons to states that do not currently possess them

179. What term refers to entertainments watched, read or participated in by hundreds of thousands or millions of people? Popular culture

180. What term refers to the transfer of information from one individual or group to another, whether in speech or through another medium? Communication

181. What term did Jurgen Habermas introduce? Public sphere

182. Who introduced the term ‘hyperreality’? Jean Baudrillard

183. What is the term for an international system of the production, distribution and consumption of information? World information order

184. What does ideology hide, justify or legitimate? Symbolic power –Dominant ideas circulating

185.What is ‘media imperialism’? The paramount position of the industrialized countries in the production and diffusion of media

186. Whom does Rupert Murdoch represent? Australian-born entrepreneur

187. When and where did Internet originate? Pentagon 1969

188. What was the first (abbreviated) name for the Internet? ARPA

189. What is the term for the space of interaction formed by the global network of computers which compose the Internet? Cyberspace

190. What is the first step in the research process? Reviewing the evidence

191. What is the second step in the research process? Making the problem precise

192. What is the third step in the research process? Working out a design

193. What is the forth step in the research process? Carrying out the research

194. What is the fifth step in the research process? Interpreting the result

195. What is the sixth step in the research process? Reporting the findings

196. What is the seventh step in the research process? Reality intrudes

197. Another term for fieldwork. Participant observation

198. What research method can be defined as an attempt to test a hypothesis under highly controlled conditions established by an investigator?Experiments

199. What research method gives a time perspective? Historical analysis

200. What problem is posed by any research which concerned with human beings? Ethical dilemma

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 250


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