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Procedure of providing other types of clearance on landing.

When necessary or desirable in order to expedite traffic, a landing aircraft may be requested to:

- hold short of an intersecting runway after landing;

- land beyond the touchdown zone of the runway;

- vacate the runway at a specified exit taxiway;

- expedite vacating the runway.

If the pilot-in-command considered that he is unable to comply with the instructions, the controller should be advised without any delays.

 

- Essential local information. – 7.3.1.3 (4444)

Information on essential local traffic should be issued in a timely manner, either directly or through the unit providing approach control service when such information is necessary in the interests of safety, or when requested by aircraft.

Essential local traffic shall be considered to consist of any aircraft, vehicle or personnel on or near the manoeuvring area or traffic operating in the vicinity of the aerodrome, which may constitute a hazard to the aircraft departing or arriving.

 

20. - Issuance instructions procedure relating to going around again. –4.8 (9435) Instructions to carry out a missed approach may be given to avert an unsafe situation. Air traffic controller gives an instruction to the aircraft to go around when:

- RW is blocked,

- minimum separation between aircraft is not maintained,

- weather conditions are below pilot’s minima,

- the airport cannot receive the aircraft due meteorological conditions.

Any transmissions to aircraft going around should be brief and kept to minimum because of high cockpit workload, e.g.

Fastair 345 go around

Aircraft on the runway

Fastair 345 going around

Unless instructions are issued to the contrary, an aircraft on an instrument approach will carry out the missed approach procedure and an aircraft operating VFR will continue in the normal traffic circuit.

In the event that the missed approach is initiated by the pilot, when:

- he does not observe the RW,

- he has some technical problems (e.g. landing gear is not extended, or he cannot extend slats)

the phrase “GOING AROUND” shall be used, e.g.

G-CD going around

G-CD roger report downwind

- What emergency situations can appear during the flight?

It is very nice when during a flight nothing happens and a flight is without any delays and problems. But sometimes controllers can hear an emergency signal. Both a pilot and a controller are responsible for the safety of an aircraft and the passengers. Any aircraft part or its equipment can be unserviceable. If something wrong happens, a pilot must inform ATS service about it. Emergency situations can be of different kind such as: navigation system failure, engine failure, fire on board, hydraulic system failure, smoke of unknown origin, electric system failure, fuel consumption system failure, wind shield cracked, chips in oil, problems with gears and other technical problems. A pilot must inform controllers about all changes during a flight and about status on board the aircraft.



 

21.- Procedure of controller’s actions when directing aircraft to the alternative aerodrome.

If the aerodrome cannot receive the aircraft due:

- blocked runway,

- bad runway conditions ( water – 10mm or more, slash – 12mm or more, snow – over 50mm, braking coefficient – less than 0,3, braking action poor),

- weather below minima,

- low RVR or cloud base,

- landing system failure

- and the flight crew has made decision to fly to the alternative aerodrome, the controller shall inform the supervisor about diverting the aircraft to an alternative.

The aircraft is cleared to proceed to the alternative if the length and the operational conditions on the alternative aerodrome are applicable for the aircraft and it handles international flights (for the aircraft carrying out an international flight).

If airspace conditions allow following direct to the alternative aerodrome, the aircraft shall be cleared to fly to new destination via the shortest route. If airspace conditions do not allow to follow direct to the alternative the aircraft shall be cleared to fly to a new destination and the controller shall instruct the pilot to fly via the cleared route.

Directing the aircraft to the alternative aerodrome the controller shall:

- specify the operational conditions, actual and forecast weather conditions at the alternative aerodrome and advise this information to the pilot before the aircraft leaves the zone of responsibility,

- inform the anti-aircraft defense forces unit about the flight directed to the aerodrome of changed destination,

- inform the adjacent ATC unit about diverting the aircraft to the alternative aerodrome (if the aerodrome is located within its FIR) or inform the aerodrome ATC unit about diverting the aircraft to the alternative aerodrome,

- make relevant changes to the flight plan,

- transfer the control under the aircraft to the adjacent ATC unit,

- obtain the information concerning the aircraft landing on the alternative aerodrome.

 

- What should a controller expect and remember in case of gear problems?

Difficulties with landing gear and brakes can lead to:

- belly landing

- overrunning the RW

- sliding off the RW

- overshooting the RW

- blocked RW ( passengers evacuation)

- impact with airport buildings, other obstacles

- ditching

- fire on board the aircraft

- landing out of the field

In event of gear problems, REMEMBER:

Follow the ASSIST code of practice

Clear the runway according to local instructions.

Keep the safety strip clear.

Check if the towing equipment is on standby.

ATC should also prepare for a LOW PASS of the aircraft to allow a visual inspection of the landing gear and the area around it.

Technical assistance will be required e.g. a specialist engineer or another pilot.

If dusk is approaching, the visual inspection should be arranged urgently.

If visibility is bad, the observer should be at the side of the runway.

If fog prevents visual checking from the ground, observation may be arranged from another aircraft.

22.- Procedure of issuing instructions in regard to taxiing after landing.

According to the type of an aircraft and its distance landing length the ATC controller chooses a TW via which an aircraft will be able to vacate the RW after landing. The controller gives information to an appropriate aerodrome service about the landed aircraft type in order to request a stand number. Then he gives taxi instructions to a pilot, when he has vacated the RW, e.g.

Taxi to stand 35 via TW 2.

When some emergency situation occurs during the flight, e.g. engine failure, the controller has to ask if a pilot is able to taxi with engines, e.g.

Are you able to taxi with engines?

If no, a pilot requests a tug.

 

- Priority in the manoeuvring area. –7.5.3.2.2. (4444)

All vehicles and pedestrians shall give way to aircraft which are landing, taxiing or taking-off, except that emergency vehicles proceeding to assist an aircraft in distress have priority over all other surface movement traffic.

When an aircraft is landing or taking off, vehicles shall not be permitted to hold closer to the runway-in-use than:

1. at a taxiway / runway intersection – at a runway holding position; and

2. at a location other than a taxiway / runway intersection – at a distance equal to the separation distance of the runway-holding position.

 

 

23.- Peculiarities of aerodrome service under VMC conditions.

VMC conditions: visibility – 5000m and more, cloud base – 450m and more.

IFR and VFR flights can be performed at the same time (if weather conditions are lower, so IFR and VFR flights can be performed but on opposites sides of the CTR).

The controller has to inform all aircraft flying VFR about traffic (IFR and VFR flights). A pilot will be able to maintain own separation, e.g.

KLM 127. Traffic 1 o’clock, 50 km, opposite direction, FL 240, TU – 134.

The controller informs about the highest altitude which is available, e.g.

KLM 127. Enter controlled area not above 3 000ft.

An aerodrome traffic circuit is provided for all aircraft flying under VMC conditions.

- Entry of traffic circuit. – 7.6.2. (4444)

The clearance to enter the traffic circuit should be issued to an aircraft whenever it is desired that the aircraft approach the landing area in accordance with current traffic circuits but traffic conditions do not allow issuing a landing clearance.

Depending on the circumstances and traffic conditions, an aircraft may be cleared to join at any position in the traffic circuit.

An aircraft making instrument approach shall normally be cleared to land straight in unless visual manoeuvring to the landing runway is required.

If an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper authorization (e.g. in cases of emergency), it shall be permitted to land. The other aircraft may be instructed to give it way to remove the hazard.

Priority shall be given to:

- an aircraft in cases of engine failure, shortage of fuel and others affecting the safe operation of the aircraft;

- hospital aircraft and aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured persons requiring urgent medical assistance;

- aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations;

- other aircraft determined by the appropriate authorities.

24.- Controller’s actions when aircraft is entering aerodrome traffic circuit. -7.6.2. (4444)

The clearance to enter the traffic circuit should be issued to an aircraft when it is desired that aircraft approach the landing area in accordance with current traffic circuits but traffic conditions do not allow a landing clearance to be issued. Depending on the circumstances and traffic conditions, an aircraft may be cleared to join at any position in the traffic circuit.

An aircraft making instrument approach shall normally be cleared to land straight in unless visual manoeuvring to the landing runway is required.

If an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper authorization (e.g. in cases of emergency), it shall be permitted to land. The other aircraft may be instructed to give it way to remove the hazard.

Priority shall be given to:

- an aircraft in cases of engine failure, shortage of fuel and others affecting the safe operation of the aircraft;

- hospital aircraft and aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured persons requiring urgent medical assistance;

- aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations;

- other aircraft determined by the appropriate authorities.

 

- Priority for landing. – 7.6.3. (4444)

If an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper authorization, it shall be permitted to land if its actions indicate that it so desires. If circumstances warrant, aircraft which are in contact with the controller may be instructed by the controller to give way so as to remove as soon as possible the hazard introduced by such unauthorized operation. Permission to land shall not be withheld in any case.

In cases of necessary it may be necessary, in the interest of safety, for an aircraft to enter a traffic circuit and effect a landing without proper authorization. Controllers shall recognize the possibilities of emergency action and provide all necessary assistance.

The other aircraft may be instructed to give it way to remove the hazard.

Priority shall be given to:

- an aircraft in cases of engine failure, shortage of fuel and others affecting the safe operation of the aircraft;

- hospital aircraft and aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured persons requiring urgent medical assistance;

- aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations;

- other aircraft determined by the appropriate authorities.

 

25.- Controller’s actions when aircraft is entering aerodrome traffic circuit. -7.6.2. (4444)

The clearance to enter the traffic circuit should be issued to an aircraft when it is desired that aircraft approach the landing area in accordance with current traffic circuits but traffic conditions do not allow a landing clearance to be issued. Depending on the circumstances and traffic conditions, an aircraft may be cleared to join at any position in the traffic circuit.

An aircraft making instrument approach shall normally be cleared to land straight in unless visual manoeuvring to the landing runway is required.

If an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper authorization (e.g. in cases of emergency), it shall be permitted to land. The other aircraft may be instructed to give it way to remove the hazard.

Priority shall be given to:

- an aircraft in cases of engine failure, shortage of fuel and others affecting the safe operation of the aircraft;

- hospital aircraft and aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured persons requiring urgent medical assistance;

- aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations;

- other aircraft determined by the appropriate authorities.

 

- What is a bird strike?

The definition of a bird strike:

An incident in which aircraft collide with a bird or with a flock of birds known as a bird strike.

An emergency situation when aircraft hitting a bird known as a Bird Strike.

The seriousness of the emergency depends upon some factors :

- the size of the bird

- the speed of the aircraft on impact

- the place it hits the aircraft

- the phase of flight

A bird strike may result in (lead to)

- broken windshield/canopy

- engine failure

- hydraulic problems

- handling difficulties

- electrical problems

- landing gear problems

- fire on board the aircraft

- crew incapacitation

 

Broken windshield (its dirtiness) or crack in the windscreen may cause view problems, injury of the pilot or communication problems due to noise (wind blast). Incase of windshield damage pilots will try to terminate the flight and land at the next suitable aerodrome as soon as possible.

Engine failure (struck into the engine) may impair the flying characteristics of the aircraft, making levels and heading difficult to maintain and safe landing difficult. It may ultimately lead to loss of control. It is particularly dangerous for single engine aircraft.

Hydraulic problems (damage of the hydraulic system) - if the hydraulic system fails, flight controls, brake, flaps and the nose wheel steering might be affected.

Electrical problems - can cause fire on board the aircraft.

Crew incapacitation - can lead to unpredictable action.

 

26.- Controller’s actions when an aircraft is operating in the traffic circuit. –7.6.1(4444)

Aircraft in the traffic circuit shall be controlled to provide the separation minima, except that:

a. aircraft in the formation are exempted from the separation minima with respect to separation from other aircraft of the same time;

b. aircraft operating in different areas or different runways on aerodromes suitable for simultaneous landings or take-offs are exempted from the separation minima;

c. separation minima shall not apply to aircraft operating under military necessity.

Sufficient separation shall be effected between aircraft in flight in the traffic circuit to allow the appropriate spacing of arriving and departing aircraft.

The clearance to enter the traffic circuit should be issued to an aircraft when it is desired that aircraft approach the landing area in accordance with current traffic circuits but traffic conditions do not allow a landing clearance to be issued. Depending on the circumstances and traffic conditions, an aircraft may be cleared to join at any position in the traffic circuit.

An aircraft making instrument approach shall normally be cleared to land straight in unless visual manoeuvring to the landing runway is required.

The clearance to enter the traffic circuit should be issued to an aircraft whenever it is desired that the aircraft approach the landing area in accordance with current traffic circuits but traffic conditions do not allow issuing a landing clearance.

If an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper authorization (e.g. in cases of emergency), it shall be permitted to land. The other aircraft may be instructed to give it way to remove the hazard.

Priority shall be given to:

- an aircraft in cases of engine failure, shortage of fuel and others affecting the safe operation of the aircraft;

- hospital aircraft and aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured persons requiring urgent medical assistance;

- aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations;

- other aircraft determined by the appropriate authorities.

- Identification of aircraft– 8.6.2 (4444)

Before providing radar service to an aircraft, radar identification shall be established and the pilot informed.

If radar identification is lost, the pilot shall be informed about that and, if possible, appropriate instructions issued.

Where SSR is used, aircraft may be identified by one or more of the following procedures:

a. recognition of the aircraft identification in a radar label;

b. recognition of the aircraft discrete code, the setting of which has been verified, in a radar label;

c. direct recognition of aircraft identification of a Mode S-equipped aircraft in a radar label;

d. by transfer of radar communication;

e. observation of compliance with an instruction to set a specific code;

f. observation in compliance with an instruction to squawk IDENT.

When a discrete code has been assigned to an aircraft, a check shall be made at the earliest opportunity to ensure that the code set by a pilot is identical to that assigned for the flight. Only after this check has been made shall the discrete code be used as a basis for identification.

Where SSR is not available, radar identification shall be established by at least one of the following methods:

a. by correlating a particular radar position indication with an aircraft reporting its position over, or as bearing and distance from, a point displayed on the radar map, and by ascertaining that the position is consistent with an aircraft path or reported heading;

b. by correlation an observed radar position indication with an aircraft which is known to have just departed, provided that the identification is established within 2 km( 1 NM) from the end of the runway used. Particular care should be taken to avoid confusion with aircraft holding over or overflying the aerodrome, or with aircraft departing or making a missed approach over adjacent runways;

c. by transfer of radar communication;

d. by ascertaining the aircraft heading, if circumstances require, and following a period of track observation:

▫instructing the pilot to execute one or more changes of heading of 30 degrees or more and correlating the movement of one particular radar position indication with the aircraft’s acknowledged execution of the instruction given, or

▫correlating the movements of a particular radar position indication with manoevres currently executed by an aircraft having so reported.

When using these methods, the radar controller shall:

i. verify that the movements of more than one radar position indication correspond with those of the aircraft; and

ii. ensure that the manoevre(s) will not carry the aircraft outside the coverage of the radar display.

Use may be made of direction-finding bearings to assist in radar identification of an aircraft.

When doubt exists as to identify of a radar position identification for any reason, changes of heading should be prescribed and repeated as many times as necessary, or additional methods of identification should be applied.

 


Date: 2014-12-29; view: 191


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