There are parking stands at each airport where start-up procedure is not available (e.g. near terminal buildings). In such cases a pilot requests tow to start-up area where there is a GPU (Ground Power Unit).
A controller only approves tow clearance to start-up area, but the responsibility is taken by the flight crew and the driver of a tow-unit.
After landing, an aircraft can request a tug if it is unable to taxi using its own power.
Longitudinal separation shall be applied so that the spacing between two aircraft is never less than a prescribed minimum. Longitudinal separation between aircraft following the same or diverging tracks may be maintained by application of speed control, including the Mach number technique.
In applying a time- or distance0based longitudinal separation minimum between two aircraft following the same track, a controller shall ensure that the separation minimum will not be infringed whenever the following aircraft is maintaining a higher air speed than the preceding aircraft. When aircraft are expected to reach minimum separation, speed control shall be applied to ensure that the required separation minimum is maintained.
Longitudinal separation may be established by requiring aircraft to depart at a specified time, to arrive over a geographical location at a specified time, or hold over a geographical location until a specified time.
Longitudinal separation between supersonic aircraft during the transonic acceleration and supersonic phases of flight should normally be established by appropriate timing of the start of transonic acceleration, not by the applying speed restrictions in supersonic flight.
16. - Issuance clearance procedure for taxiing. –18.104.22.168 (4444)
Before issuing a taxi clearance, the controller shall determine where the aircraft concerned is parked. Taxi clearances shall contain detailed instructions and adequate information to assist the flight crew to follow the correct taxi routes, to avoid collision with other aircraft or objects and to minimize the potential entering an active runway taxi routes.
When a taxi clearance contains a taxi limit beyond a runway it shall contain a clearance to cross or an instruction to hold short of that runway.
The appropriate ATS authority should whenever practicable publish in the national AIP standard taxi routes to be used at an aerodrome. Standard taxi routes should be identified by appropriate designators and should be used in taxi clearances.
Where standard taxi routes have not been established, a taxi route should be described by use of taxiway and runway designators. Other relevant information, such as an aircraft to follow or give way to, shall also be provided to a taxiing aircraft.
- Separation of aircraft holding in flight. –5.5 (4444)
Aircraft established in adjacent holding pattern shall, except when lateral separation between the holding area exists as determined by the appropriate ATS authority, be separated by the appropriate vertical separation minimum.
Except when lateral separation exists, vertical separation shall be applied between aircraft holding in flight and other aircraft, arriving, departing or en route, whenever the other aircraft concerned are within 5 minutes flying time of the holding area or within a distance prescribed by the appropriate authority.
17. - Issuance clearance procedure for taking-off –7.9.3. (4444)
Take off clearance shall be issued when there is assurance that necessary separation will exist when the aircraft commences take off.
When an ATC clearance is required prior to take-off an ATC controller should not issue the take-off clearance until the ATC clearance has been transmitted to and acknowledged by the aircraft concerned. An ATC clearance shall be forwarded to the aerodrome control tower as soon as possible upon receipt of a request made by the tower or prior to such request if practicable.
An ATC clearance shall be issued when the aircraft is ready for take-off and at or approaching the departure runway and the traffic situation permits and shall include the designator of the departure runway.
To expedite traffic, a clearance for immediate take-off may be issued to an aircraft before it enters the runway and the aircraft shall taxi out to the runway and take-off in one continuous movement.
- Communication failure. What is it?
If the aircraft cannot establish communication on the primary frequency, it should try to do that on the secondary and nearly ones and through aircraft - retransmits.
If he is unable to contact again, it means communication failure. The pilot should start his transmissions with the phrase “transmitting blind” and repeat his message twice on the primary and secondary frequencies. In case of communication failure a pilot can transmit but not receive messages, receive but not transmit messages, send carrier waves only.
18. - Issuance clearance procedure for landing. – 7.9.4 (4444)
The clearance for landing is issued when:
- There is no obstructions on RW;
- Separation between arriving aircraft is maintained;
- There is no traffic on final approach.
Clearance to land should normally be passed to the aircraft before it reaches a distance of 4 km from touchdown. To reduce the potential for misunderstanding, the landing clearance shall include the designator of the landing runway.
- What shall essential traffic information include? – 5.10.2. (4444)
Essential traffic information shall include:
- Direction of flight of aircraft concerned;
- Type and wake turbulence category of aircraft concerned
- Cruising level of aircraft concerned; and
- estimated time over the reporting point nearest to where the level will be crossed; or
- relative bearing of the aircraft concerned in terms of 12 hour clock as well as distance from the conflicting traffic; or
- actual or estimated position of the aircraft concerned.