There are three types of infinitival complexes in present-day English (which are often referred to as secondary predication constructions): 1) the for-to-infinitival complex; 2) the objective with the infinitive and 3) the subjective with the infinitive complexes.
Each type of these predicative constructions has some explicit and implicit grammatical characteristics of its own. Since translation of these complexes is often predetermined by their nature and structure, it would be expedient to dwell upon each of them separately.
A. Ways of Translating the For-to-lnfinitive Constructions These secondary predication constructions are used in their active and passive forms which does not influence their functioning as various complex parts of the sentence. Depending on its function in the sentence and on the voice form (active or passive) of the infinitive, this secondary predication word-group may have different equivalents in Ukrainian. The most often occurring are the infinitive, an
infinitival phrase introduced by the conjunction щоб, a finite form of the verb or a subordinate clause. The realization of a definite meaning may be predetermined by the function of the infinitival for-phrase which may be as follows:
1. The complex subject having for its equivalent in Ukrainian a simple subject expressed by the infinitive or an extended subject expressed by the subordinate clause:
«For me to see you is the hap- «Побачити тебе - для piest minute in my life... (P. мене найщасливіша мить у Abrahams) житті/є для мене найщасли-
вішою хвилиною ...
«It would be better for us to «Було б краще для нас leave him.» (Wilde) залишити його/щоб ми зали шили його.
2. A complex predicative having for its Ukrainian equivalent either an infinitive functioning as the simple nominal predicate, or a finite form of the verb, i.e., a simple verbal predicate:
«If is not for you to make Ue не тобі ставити умови/ terms.» (Wilde) He ти ставиш умови.
«The simplest thing,» said «Найпростіший вихід для Fleur, «is for him to resign at нього ... — негайно відмови- once.» (Galsworthy) тись від членства.»
3. A complex object corresponding to a simple or extended object in Ukrainian:
We are waiting for the bovs Ми чекаємо повернення/на back from Hanoi. (Greene) повернення наших хлопиів з
The condensed form of this infinitival complex may also have an object clause for its equivalent in Ukrainian: ми чекаємо, доки наші хлопці повернуться з Ганоя.
4. An attribute to a nominal part of speech: She had only to express а Варто було їй тільки wish for him to fulfil. (Mauaham} виголосити якесь (своє)
бажання, він негайно ж виконував його.
There was no room for us to He було місця, де сісти/де. sit down... (Galsworthy) можна було сісти.
5. An adverbial modifier of equivalents a subordinate clause / left something under your door for you to read it. (Carter)Her home was too far west for anyone to come to him. (Cusack)
purpose or result having for their or an infinitive in Ukrainian:
Я дещо залишив тобі під дверима, щоб ти почитав/ тобі почитати.
її'домівка була далеко західніше, тож ніхто не міг навідатись до нього.
Sometimes, however, an equivalent of the for-phrase in Ukrainian may be only a subordinate (or coordinate) clause:
He paused for me to show my Він помовчав, аби я ще раз ignorance again... (Greene) показав своє неуцтво ...
Exercise II. Identify the function of the infinitival for-phrase and translate each sentence below into Ukrainian.
1. For me to ask would be treason; and for me to be told would be treason. (M.Wilson) 2. For you to come here is impossible. 3. «For me to discover England to him,» she thought, «for him to discover the East to me.» (Galsworthy) 4. It was impossible for me now to persuade myself that this urgent desire of his to dispense hospitality was disinterested. 5.... It was out of the question for him to absnnt himself for any length of time. 6. It would have been easy for him to get out of it. 7. It seemed a good opportunity for Julia to get away. (Maugham) 8. It would be better for us to leave him. (Wilde) 9. It was not unknown for small boys to enter a monastery. (Ken Follett) 10. It was so easy for a young man of his looks and character to be led astray by evil woman. (Dreiser) 11. There was need for him to be economical. 12. It seems so babyish for me to be young to night school. (London) 13. It is for me to thank you. 14. «The simplest thing,» said Fleur, «is for him to resign at once». (Galsworthy). 15. «That is for me to decide, is it not?» (C.Doyle) 16. He wants me to do something pleasant - for him to feel better.» (Maugham) 17. All he wanted desperately now ... was for their child to live. (A. Hailey) 18. «What is there for me to do, except one thing?» (J. Conrad) 19. Rosemary looked for a place to sit. (Fitzgerald) 20. David had decided to let him wait for his seventeenth birthday to come. 21. We think it natural for parents to want their children to conform to a pattern they understand. 22. David prayed nightly for her and Blaise to come back. (I.Murdoch) 23. I'll try and arrange for you to see him at Mount Street. (Galsworthy) 24. He sat there in the little hot office
waiting for one of us to speak. (Greene) 25. She also asked for more women to be appointed news-readers. (M. Guardian) 26. I sometimes think it is a shame for people to spend so much money this way. (Dreiser) 27.1 bought something for you to read. 28. «It's not a bad thing for you to judge others by yourself». (Maugham) 29. There was milk in the ice-chest for her to drink.(Cusack) 30. And there was a child's shirt in the living-room waiting for a button to be sewn on. (Greene) 31. Arrangements are being made for the girl to be taken back to her own country. (M. Guardian) 32. Dr. Saunders stopped for us to join him. (Maugham) 33. But five minutes was enough for them to understand one another. (Cronin)