WAYS OF RENDERING THE LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL MEANINGS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE ENGLISH INFINITIVE
Translation of the English infinitive is greatly predetermined by its form and sometimes by its function in the sentence. The infinitive functioning as a single part of the sentence, i.e., not being a component of a secondary predication complex, has usually corresponding equivalents in Ukrainian. The latter are a single infinitive or infinitival phrase when the infinitive functions as 1. The subject:
Було так приємно знову дістатися до своєї кімнати.«Вивезти Айріні за місто... - в цьому було все!»Не було жодної потреби описувати родину Келсів.
It was pretty nice to get back to my room. /Salinger/
To get Irene out of London ... that was the thing. /Galsworthy/
There was no need to desribe
the Kelseys. (Christie)
«Щоб чоловікові вдарити / бити жінку!»
2. The simple nominal predicate: «A gentleman to strike a lady!» (B.Shaw)
This function of the infinitive is often observed in Ukrainian literary speech style, eg: Hi. He бути панам на Вкраїні! (Сосюра)
Вже скоро бути бабиному літу. (Дмитерко)
3. Part of a compound predicate /or predicative:
No, you couldn't have called Hi, її не можна було назвати her beautiful. (Mansfield) гарною.
... the company began to ...товариство заходилося/
mark the time. (LDurrel) розпочало відраховувати час.
Her next step was to speak її наступним кроком було
to Llewellyn. (Cronin) ^ поговорити з Ллевеллином.
«You will have to wait until you «Вам доведеться почекати.
hear from me again.» (Dreiser) доки я знову сповіщу про себе».
4. The Object (simple, extended or expanded):
~i- --- - - ,
Julia found it very pleasant to sit then in the shade looking at the river. (Maugham)She taught him tosjtata table and not put his elbows on it. (Ibid.)
Джулїі дуже подобалось тоді сидіти в затінку і дивитися на річку/воду.
Вона вчила його сидіти за столом і не класти на нього руки.
The infinitive has also its equivalents in Ukrainian when it is
used as a complement to an adjective or adjectivized past participle:
«I'm very glad to have seen «я дуже радий, що зуст-
you again...» (Cronin) рівся з вами знову/що побачив
Very often the English infinitival object may have in Ukrainian an equivalent infinitival phrase introduced by the conjunction:
/ was too much disturbed to Я був аж надто стурбова- go tQ bed. (C.P.Snow) ний, щоб іти спати.
5. An attribute (which is less often used in Ukrainian) as in the sentence below:
«Can I give you anything to «Дати вам щось поїсти чи. eat or to drink?» (Lawrence) попити?»
Attributive infinitives can also be conveyed with the help of attributive subordinate clauses:
We made a list of things to be Ми склали список речей, taken ... (Jerome) щоб узяти з собою/які візьме мо з собою.
This same attributive syntaxeme may also be translated as які/що треба було взяти з собою.
Some English attributive syntaxemes can be conveyed in Ukrainian with the help of an attributive subordinate clause:
«... he wasn't a sort of boy to «... він був не з тих хлопців,
яких можна збити з_ пан-телику.
bje moved from 3. purpose ... (Ibid.)
Some English attributive infinitives may have apart from subordinate clauses or infinitival phrases also prepositional nouns for their semantic equivalents in Ukrainian:
... there were instructions to ... були дані інструкції до / be carried out. (Cronin) для виконання (які треба було
Note. This function of the infinitive is also observed in Ukrainian: мати бажання поїсти/щось випити. Він мав надію ще зустрітися.
6. An adverbial modifier (usually of purpose, result or consequence) may be conveyed in Ukrainian with the help of an infinitival щоб-phrase, a prepositional noun or a noun word-group:
She wanted time to, think it їй треба було часу для over. (Galsworthy) обдумування/щоб обміркува ти це.
It was too dark to_ distinguish Було занадто темно, щоб anything. (Lawrence) розрізняти що-небудь.
These were the main Ukrainian semantic equivalents for single English infinitives performing different functions in the sentence.
Exercise I. Prior to translating the English sentences be-low point out the function of the underlined infinitive and suggest a Ukrainian semantic equivalent for it.
1. Then she remembered about his own children; how most of them had been bom but to sicken and die before they grew up. (Maugham)
2. «I hope you'll have enough to eat», said. Julia. (Ibid.) 3. You did it deliberately to separate us. (Ibid.) 4. In the creek there are birds to watch, and fish to catch- and streams to explore. (Maurier). 5. It was necessary to do something. (D.Lessing). 6. I have not had time to examine that room yet. (C.Doyle) 7. It must be a big thing to swing the telescope like that. (H. Wells) 8. Sometimes you retreat in order to advance. (Galsworthy) 9.1 was too young to think such things at the time. (Ibid.). 10. His eyes were sharp enough to look after his own interest. (Ibid.) 11. George said we had better get the canvas up first. (Jerome K.Jerome) 12. He forgot to wind the watch when he
went to bed. (Ibid.). 13. We intended to camp in one of the inlets to be found round that tiny shore, (ibid.) 14. «I think», he said, «that to prolong this discussion is to waste time.» (Galsworthy) 15. He felt that it was something to be connected with such a place, and he made her feel that way. (Dreiser) 16. It is useless to discuss this problem. (Cusack) 17. Soames put on his coat as not to be cold. (Galsworthy) 18. Katie surmised that something had gone wrong in school to upset Francie. (Mowat) 19.1 crept back to my hut, to cast myself on my grass bed and sink into a dull, miserable, desponding stupor. (Ibid.) 20. Our job will be to investigate some of its properties. (M.Wilson) 21. I'm glad to meet you. (Dreiser) 22. She refused to answer him. (Lawrence) 23. Annie was now studying to be a teacher. (Lawrence) 24. It was sufficient to sit there to breathe, to look at the river and trees, simply to exist. (Braine) 25.1 meant to have a talk to him. (Wells) 26. He was ...too good a workman to be sacked and too outspoken about his Labour convictions to be promoted. (Braine) 27.1 told the driver the address to drive to. (Hemingway) 28. It was the automatic instinct to live. (London) 29. Anything was good enough so long as it paid - say, five dollars a week, to begin with. (Dreiser)
30. He was a fool to attempt to make a pretence that way. (London)
31. He was satisfied to turn his face away entirely, and any call to look back was irksome. (Dreiser).