1.Which goods need specific treatment during transportation?
2.Name three products for which:
· special wrapping or packaging is necessary while transporting them
· specific vehicles are a must
'Facilities create traffic' is an old rule in transport which means that you must have a specific vehicle for a particular class of traffic. Road tanker manufacturers offer specific vehicles for different goods units of which the following are important:
1. Covered vans which range from light vans and delivery vehicles up to bulk deliveries of furniture and equipment.
2. Open trucks which have sides and tailboards, but are not covered. They may be used for goods which do not spoil in wet weather.
3. Tippers which are usually very large open trucks, used for carrying bulk deliveries of non-spoiling commodities such as aggregates, ores, etc., which can easily be discharged by tipping.
4. Platform vehicles or 'flats 'which have no sides or tailboards, and are used for containers or packaged timber, or crates and boxes stacked on the platform and restrained by ropes, chains and/or tarpaulins.
5. Tankers which are usually of large size, with capacities up to about 5,000-6,000 gallons (22,000-27,000 liters) for the carriage of petroleum products and other liquids, bulk powders like sugar and flour, or grains.
6. Hopper vehicles which are used for carrying bulk grains, cement and similar products.
The way imposes serious limitations on the size, shape and speed of the units of carriage which use it. There are other factors, like: the requirements of traffic to be moved, the needs of staff, the need to keep costs down to remain competitive. You must also have a specific vehicle for a particular class of goods. Nowhere is the specific nature of vehicles more evident than in the problem of the 'empty leg' journey.
For example, milk moves in tankers from the agricultural areas to big cities all over the advanced world. Yet what use is the vehicle on the return journey to the countryside? Clearly its specific nature renders the return journey an 'empty leg'. It cannot be filled with fertilizer for the farms, or with furniture for rural households. At least one big firm has found a useful solution to the problem. A huge plastic bag the same shape as a container is filled with fruit concentrate and transported in a container. On arrival it is pumped clear, cleaned and sterilized, and returned rolled up for re-use. Other firms which have tried this solution have found it inconvenient and unsatisfactory for their purposes. Such happy solutions to the 'empty leg' problem are rare and only possible if a suitable return load is available.
3.Answer the following questions:
a) What are tarpaulins, ropes and chains used for while transporting goods?
b) What kind of cargo can be discharged by tipping?
c) What factors should transporting companies analyze before deciding what type of vehicle to choose?
d) Give Polish equivalent for the term 'empty leg'. Can you think of or give an example of how to solve the problem of 'empty leg' journeys?
4.Interpret the nominal compounds:
Example: delivery vehicle a vehicle used for delivering goods
a) bulk delivery
b) packaged timber
c) return journey
d) suitable return load
e) non-spoiling commodities
f) petroleum product
g) fruit concentrate
5.Find the words in the jumbles:
Example: rock or earth from which metal can be obtained (EOR ore)
a) a sheet of heavy waterproof material that is used to cover things in order to protect them against rain or to hold them in place
b) a large mass of something
c) a large box made of pieces of wood which is used for transporting or storing things
d) opposite to 'urban'
e) nearly the same
f) a chemical mixture spread on the ground in order to make plants grow better
g) unusual, infrequent
6.Translate and learn the following names of the vehicles.
tipper / dumper truck (Br. E)
dump truck (Am. E)
articulated lorry (Br. E)
tractor-trailer (Am. E)
7.Seven names of vehicles have been hidden in the box below. Find them.
8.Complete each sentence with the correct form of the word in capitals:
Example: It will be to discuss each of these problems separately. (USE useful)
a) She stared at me with her eyes with tears.
b) Soon the cost of will be greater than the profit from the crop.
c) The company offered their services at prices so no wonder that they won the bid.
d) Industry has been revolutionized by the of the computer.
e) The loan was only a temporary to the country's financial problems.
f) These flats are not really for families with children.
g) All goods must be paid for before
9.Fill in the correct preposition which goes with the underlined word. Some of them may be used more than once.
from to , on, up, for, with, to
Example: Some of me limitations imposed on traffic operators by the previous government should be discussed and changed.
a) It's extremely difficult for transport operators to find a solution the 'empty leg' problem.
b) His son's lies filled him anger.
c) Prices of wine in this shop range £7 £40.
d) He walked over to a closet that he used hanging up his clothes.
e) It's fun to move project project.
f) He rolled the sleeping bag so that he could put it into his rucksack.
g) Both car crash victims were dead arrival at the hospital.
10.Substitute the words in italics with their synonyms from the list below:
Example: His behaviour during the wedding party ruined therelationships with his wife's family. (spoiled)
a) Great barges stop here to unload rice from Thailand.
b) Grains and milk are transported to the factory from the farming areas around the town.
c) She was a strict mother and enforced severe discipline on her children.
d) Very large wooden earrings dangled from her ears.
e) The Board introduced financial restrictions to save the companys budget.
f) We can identify only one type of solvents which may wash out this kind of paint.
g) The best land is reserved for such products as coffee, cotton and bananas.
h) British prisoners were transported to Australia.
11.Complete the messages from amessage board on the Internet. Use a, the or one.
Message 1: posted by Martin
I think it's (o) ........ good idea to exercise outdoors, it's good to be outside in ........ fresh air. I live quite near sea, so it's quite easy for me to do my favourite sport - surfing. It's so exciting. There's only .......... surf dub in my town - I joined it last year. I also went on holiday with some friends from club-surfing, of course!
Message 2: posted by Sammy
I go running with .......... friend. We plan our routes carefully because we enjoy running more if route is interesting. We try and run in places that are nice. My favourite route takes us down hill, along river, back up ......... hill and past small wood.
Message 3: posted by Lisa
We only have ........ leisure centre in our town, but Ive joined ........ girls' basketball team there and I really enjoy it. I go swimming too. There isn't pool in leisure centre, but when I go into Norwich, I go to pool there.
12.Complete the blanks with a (an), the or zero article.
Enzo Ferraris death in August 1988 was sad occasion. However, it did release company from grip of his idiosyncratic ways and enabled firm to move into new era. appointment of Luca di Montezemolo in December 1991 was beginning of series of changes. His aim was to invest in research and development and to bridge gap between racing and production car businesses. He also introduced sponsorship, although constructor still has fewer names on its cars than other teams. CEO is steering narrow course between modernizing company while trying to avoid diluting mystique that makes brand so great.
13.Complete the conversation. Use a, the or .
A: Shall we have lunch now or later?
B: Let's have it now. Let's go to that cafein South Street - the one near Pizza Express. My neighbours, Armstrongs, often go there and they say it's very good.
A: All right! I went there with Jamie once, a long time ago. It was quite nice.
B: OK. I just want to stop at a newsagent's. I want to get Times.There's a good article in it about Costa Rica. It's an amazing place. They say that there are about million different species of animals and plants there.
A: Really? That's ΰ lot!
B: I saw a programme about it on TV once and I was fascinated by it. I'd love to go there and see all the birds and animals.
A; Have you always been interested in natural history?
B: Yes. I really love it.
14.Comment on the following famous words:
· The world is a book and those who do not travel, read only a page. (Saint Augustine)
· A man travels the world over in search of what he needs, and returns home to find it. (George Moore)