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UNIT 84. Some and any

A. In general we use some (also somebody/someone/something) in positive sentences and any (also anybody etc.) in negative sentences (but see also Sections C and D):

#1 some

* We bought some flowers.

* He's busy. He's got some work to do.

* There's somebody at the door.

* I'm hungry. I want something to eat.

#2 any

* We didn't buy any flowers.

* He's lazy. He never does any work.

* There isn't anybody at the door.

* I'm not hungry. I don't want anything to eat.

We use any in the following sentences because the meaning is negative:

* She went out without any money. (She didn't take any money with her.)

* He refused to eat anything. (He didn't eat anything.)

* Hardly anybody passed the examination. (= almost nobody passed)

B. In most questions we use any:

* 'Have you got any luggage?' 'No, I haven't.'

* 'Has anybody seen my bag?' 'Yes, it's under the table.'

But we use some in questions when we expect the answer 'yes':

* What's wrong? Have you got something in your eye? (It seems that you have got

something in your eye and I expect you to answer 'yes'.)

We use some in questions when we offer or ask for things:

* Would you like something to eat?

* Can I have some sugar, please?

C. We often use any after if:

* If there are any letters for me, can you send them on to this address?

* If anyone has any questions, I'll be pleased to answer them.

* Let me know if you need anything.

The following sentences have the idea of if:

* I'm sorry for any trouble I've caused. (= if I have caused any trouble)

* Anyone who wants to do the exam must give me their names today. (= if there is anyone)

D. We also use any with the meaning 'it doesn't matter which':

* You can catch any bus. They all go to the centre. (= it doesn't matter which bus you catch)

* 'Sing a song.' 'Which song shall I sing?' 'Any song. I don't mind.' (= it doesn't matter which song)

* Come and see me any time you want.

* 'Let's go out somewhere.' 'Where shall we go?' 'Anywhere. I don't mind.'

* We left the door unlocked. Anybody could have come in.

Compare something and anything:

* A: I'm hungry. I want something to eat.

B: What would you like?

A: I don't mind. Anything. (= something, but it doesn't matter what)

E. Somebody/someone/anybody/anyone are singular words:

* Someone is here to see you.

But we often use they/them/their after these words:

* Someone has forgotten their umbrella. (= his or her umbrella)

* If anybody wants to leave early, they can. (= he or she can)

 

 

EXERCISES

84.1 Complete the sentences with some or any.

1. We didn't buy _any_ flowers.

2. This evening I'm going out with --- friends of mine.

3. 'Have you seen --- good films recently?' 'No, I haven't been to the cinema for ages.'

4. I didn't have --- money, so I had to borrow ---.

5. Can I have --- milk in my coffee, please?

6. I was too tired to do --- work.

7. You can cash these traveller's cheques at --- bank.



8. Can you give me --- information about places of interest in the town?

9. With the special tourist train ticket, you can travel on --- train you like.

10. If there are --- words you don't understand, use a dictionary.

84.2 Complete the sentences with some- or any- + -body/-thing/-where.

1. I was too surprised to say _anything._

2. There's --- at the door. Can you go and see who it is?

3. Does --- mind if I open the window?

4. I wasn't feeling hungry, so I didn't eat ---.

5. You must be hungry. Would you like --- to eat?

6. Quick, let's go! There's --- coming and I don't want --- to see us.

7. Sally was upset about --- and refused to talk to ---.

8. This machine is very easy to use --- can learn to use it in a very short time.

9. There was hardly --- on the beach. It was almost deserted.

10. 'Do you live --- near Jim?' 'No, he lives in another part of town.'

11. We slept in a park because we didn't have --- to stay.

12. 'Where shall we go on holiday?' 'Let's go --- warm and sunny.'

13. They stay at home all the time. They never seem to go ---.

14. I'm going out now. If --- phones while I'm out, can you tell them I'll be back at 11.30?

15. Why are you looking under the bed? Have you lost ---?

16. --- who saw the accident should contact the police.

17. Sue is very secretive. She never tells --- (2 words)

84.3 Complete the sentences. Use any (+ noun) or anybody/anything/anywhere.

1. Which bus do I have to catch? Any bus. They all go to the centre.

2. Which day shall I come? I don't mind. ---.

3. What do you want to eat? ---. I don't mind. Whatever you have.

4. Where shall I sit? It's up to you. You can sit ---you like.

5. What sort of job are you looking for? ---. It doesn't matter.

6. What time shall I phone tomorrow? ---. I'll be in all day.

7. Who shall I invite to the party? I don't mind. --- you like.

8. Which newspaper shall I buy? ---. Whatever they have in the shop.

 

 

UNIT 85. No/none/any

A. No none nothing nobody/no one nowhere

You can use these negative words at the beginning of a sentence or alone:

* No cars are allowed in the city centre.

* None of this money is mine.

* 'What did you say?' 'Nothing.'

* Nobody (or No one) came to visit me while I was in hospital.

* 'Where are you going?' 'Nowhere. I'm staying here.'

You can also use these words after a verb, especially after be and have:

* The house is empty. There's nobody living there.

* She had no difficulty finding a job.

No/nothing/nobody etc. = not + any/anything/anybody etc.:

* We haven't got any money. (= We've got no money.)

* I didn't say anything. (= I said nothing.)

* She didn't tell anybody about her plans. (= She told nobody...)

* The station isn't anywhere near here. (= ... is nowhere near here)

When you use no/nothing/nobody etc., do not use a negative verb (isn't, didn't, can't etc.):

* I said nothing. (not 'I didn't say nothing')

* Nobody tells me anything. (not 'Nobody doesn't tell ...')

B. We also use any/anything/anybody etc. (without 'not') to mean 'it doesn't matter which/ hat/who' (see Unit 84D). Compare no- and any-:

* 'What do you want to eat?' 'Nothing. I'm not hungry.'

I'm so hungry. I could eat anything. (= it doesn't matter what)

* The exam was extremely difficult. Nobody passed. (= everybody failed)

The exam was very easy. Anybody could have passed. (= it doesn't matter who)

C. No and none

We use no + a noun. No = not a or not any:

* We had to walk home because there was no bus. (= there wasn't a bus)

* I can't talk to you now. I've got no time. (= I haven't got any time)

* There were no shops open. (= there weren't any shops open)

We use none alone (without a noun):

* 'How much money have you got?' 'None.' (= no money)

* All the tickets have been sold. There are none left. (= no tickets left)

Or we use none of ...:

none of these shops none of my money none of it/them/us/you

After none of + a plural word ('none of the shops', 'none of them' etc.) you can use a singular or a plural verb. A plural verb is more usual:

* None of the shops were (or was) open.

D. After nobody/no one you can use they/them/their:

* Nobody phoned, did they? (= did he or she)

* The party was a disaster. Nobody enjoyed themselves. (= himself or herself)

* No one in the class did their homework. (= his or her homework)

 

 

EXERCISES

85.1 Answer these questions using none/nobody/nothing/nowhere.

1. What did you do? _Nothing._

2. Who were you talking to? ---

3. Where are you going? ---

4. How much luggage have you got? ---

5. How many children have they got? ---

6. Who did you meet? ---

7. What did you buy? ---

Now write full sentences using any/anybody/anything/anywhere.

8 (1) _I didn't do anything._

9. (2) I ---

10. (3) ---

11. (4) ---

12. (5) ---

13. (6) ---

14. (7) ---

85.2 Complete these sentences with no, none or any.

1. It was a public holiday, so there were _no_ shops open.

2. I haven't got _any_ money. Can you lend me some?

3. I couldn't make an omelette because there were --- eggs.

4. I couldn't make an omelette because there weren't --- eggs.

5. 'How many eggs have we got? --- I'll go and buy some from the shop if you like.'

6. We took a few photographs but --- of them were very good.

7. What a stupid thing to do! --- intelligent person would do such a thing.

8. I'll try and answer --- questions you ask me.

9. I couldn't answer --- of the questions they asked me.

10. We cancelled the party because --- of the people we invited were able to come.

85.3 Complete these sentences with no- or any- + -body/-thing/-where.

1. I don't want _anything_ to drink. I'm not thirsty.

2. The bus was completely empty. There was --- on it.

3. 'Where did you go for your holidays? --- I stayed at home.'

4. I went to the shops but I didn't buy ---.

5. 'What did you buy? '---. couldn't find --- I wanted.'

6. The town was still the same when I returned years later --- had changed.

7. Have you seen my watch? I've looked all over the house but I can't find it ---.

8. There was complete silence in the room. --- said ---.

85.4 Choose the right word.

1. She didn't tell _nobody/anybody_ about her plans. (anybody is correct)

2. The accident looked serious but fortunately _nobody/anybody_ was injured.

3. I looked out of the window but I couldn't see _nobody/anybody._

4. My job is very easy. _Nobody/Anybody_ could do it.

5. 'What's in that box?' _'Nothing/Anything._ It's empty.'

6. The situation is uncertain. _Nothing/Anything_ could happen.

7. I don't know _nothing/anything_ about economics.

 

 


Date: 2015-02-03; view: 945


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