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UNIT 82. Myself/yourself/themselves etc.

A. Study this example:

George cut himself when he was shaving this morning.

We use myself/yourself/himself etc. (reflexive pronouns)

when the subject and object are the same:

subject -> (George) cut (himself). <- object

The reflexive pronouns are:

singular: myself yourself (one person) himself/herself/itself

plural: ourselves yourselves (more than one person) themselves

* I don't want you to pay for me. I'll pay for myself. (not 'I'll pay for me')

* Julia had a great holiday. She enjoyed herself very much.

* Do you sometimes talk to yourself? (said to one person)

* If you want more to eat, help yourselves. (said to more than one person)


* It's not our fault. You can't blame us.

* It's our own fault. We blame ourselves.

Note that we do not use myself/yourself etc. after 'bring/take something with ...':

* It might rain. I'll take an umbrella with me. (not 'with myself')

B. We do not use myself etc. after concentrate/feel/relax/meet:

* You must try and concentrate. (not 'concentrate yourself')

* 'Do you feel nervous?' 'Yes, I can't relax.'

* What time shall we meet? (not 'meet ourselves', not 'meet us')

We normally use wash/shave/dress without myself etc.:

* He got up, washed, shaved and dressed. (not 'washed himself' etc.)

But we say 'I dried myself'.

C. Study the difference between -selves and each other:

* Tom and Ann stood in front of the mirror and looked at themselves. (= Tom and Ann looked at Tom and Ann)

but * Tom looked at Ann; Ann looked at Tom. They looked at each other.

You can use one another instead of each other:

* How long have you and Bill known one another? (or ... known each other)

* Sue and Ann don't like each other. (or ... don't like one another)

D. We also use myself/yourself etc. in another way. For example:

* 'Who repaired your bicycle for you?' 'Nobody. I repaired it myself.'

'I repaired it myself' = I repaired it, not anybody else. Here, myself is used to emphasize I (=it makes it stronger). Some more examples:

* I'm not going to do it for you. You can do it yourself. (= you, not me)

* Let's paint the house ourselves. It will be much cheaper.

* The film itself wasn't very good but I liked the music.

* I don't think Sue will get the job. Sue herself doesn't think she'll get it. (or Sue doesn't think she'll get it herself.)




82.1 Complete each sentence using myself/yourself etc. with one of these verbs (in the correct form):

blame burn cut enjoy express hurt put

1. George _cut himself_ while he was shaving this morning.

2. Bill fell down some steps but fortunately he didn't --- badly.

3. It isn't her fault. She really shouldn't ---.

4. Please try and understand how I feel --- in my position.

5. They had a great time. They really ---.

6. Be careful! That pan is very hot. Don't ---.

7. Sometimes I can't say exactly what I mean. I wish I could --- better.

82.2 Put in myself/yourself/ourselves etc. or me/you/us etc.

1. Julia had a great holiday. She enjoyed herself.

2. It's not my fault. You can't blame ---.

3. What I did was very wrong. I'm ashamed of ---.

4. We've got a problem. I hope you can help ---.

5. 'Can I take another biscuit?' 'Of course. Help ---!'

6. Take some money with --- in case you need it.

7. Don't worry about Tom and me. We can look after ---.

8. I gave them a key to our house so that they could let --- in.

9. When they come to visit us, they always bring their dog with ---.

82.3 Complete these sentences. Use myself/yourself etc. only where necessary, Use one of these verbs (in the correct form): concentrate defend dry feel meet relax shave wash

1. Martin decided to grow a beard because he was fed up with _shaving._

2. I wasn't very well yesterday but I --- much better today.

3. She climbed out of the swimming pool and --- with a towel.

4, I tried to study but I just couldn't ---.

5. If somebody attacks you, you need to be able to ---.

6. I'm going out with Chris this evening. We're --- at the station at 7.30.

7. You're always rushing around. Why don't you sit down and ---?

8. There was no water, so we couldn't ---.

82.4 Complete the sentences with -selves or each other.

1. How long have you and Bill known _each other?_

2. If people work too hard, they can make ---ill.

3. I need you and you need me. We need ---.

4. In Britain friends often give --- presents at Christmas.

5. Some people are very selfish. They only think of ---.

6. Nora and I don't see --- very often these days.

7. We couldn't get back into the house. We had locked --- out.

8. They've had an argument. They're not speaking to --- at the moment.

9. We'd never met before, so we introduced --- to ---.

82.5 Complete the answers to the questions using myself/yourself/itself etc.

1. Who repaired the bicycle for you? Nobody. I repaired it myself.

2. Did Brian have his hair cut by a hairdresser? No, he cut ---.

3. Do you want me to post that letter for you? No, I'll ---.

4. Who told you that Linda was getting married? Linda ---.

5. Can you phone John for me? Why can't you ---?



UNIT 83. There ... and it ...

A. There and it'

We use there ... when we talk about something for the first time, to say that it exists:

* There's a new restaurant in King Street. (not 'A new restaurant is in King Street')

* The journey took a long time. There was a lot of traffic. (not 'It was a lot of traffic')

* * Things are much more expensive now. There has been a big rise in the cost of living.

It = a particular thing, place, fact, situation etc. (but see also Section C:

* We went to the new restaurant. It's very good. (it = the restaurant)

* 'Was the traffic bad?' 'Yes, it was terrible.' (it = the traffic)

* I wasn't expecting them to come. It (= that they came) was a complete surprise.


* I don't like this town. There's nothing to do here. It's a boring place.

Note that there also means 'to/at/in that place':

* The new restaurant is very good. I went there (= to the restaurant) last night.

* When we arrived at the party, there were already a lot of people there (= at the party).

B. You can say there will be, there must be, there used to be etc.

* Will there be many people at the party?

* 'Is there a flight to Paris this evening?' 'There might be. I'll phone the airport.'

* If people drove more carefully, there wouldn't be so many accidents.

Also: there must have been, there should have been etc.:

* There was a light on. There must have been somebody at home.

Compare there and it:

* They live on a busy road. There must be a lot of noise from the traffic.

They live on a busy main road. It must be very noisy.

* There used to be a cinema in King Street but it closed a few years ago.

That building is now a supermarket. It used to be a cinema.

You can also say there is sure/certain/likely to be something (see also Unit 64E):

* There is sure to be a flight to Paris this evening.

C. We use it in sentences like this:

* It's dangerous to walk in the road. (It = to walk in the road)

It is unusual to say 'To walk in the road is dangerous.' Normally we begin with It...

* It didn't take us long to get here. (it = to get here)

* It's a pity (that) Sandra can't come to the party. (It = that Sandra can't come)

* Let's go. It's not worth waiting any longer. (It = waiting any longer)

We use it to talk about distance, time and weather:

* It's a long way from here to the airport.

* How far is it to the airport?

* What day is it today?

* It's a long time since I last saw you.

* It's going to be a nice day.

* It was windy. (but 'There was a cold wind.')




83.1 Put in there is/was or it is/was. Some sentences are questions (is there ...?/is it ...? etc.) and some are negative (isn't/wasn't).

1. The journey took a long time. _There was_ a lot of traffic.

2. What's the new restaurant like? is _it_ good?

3. '--- a bookshop near here?' 'Yes, --- one in Hill Street.'

4. When we got to the cinema --- a queue outside ---a very long queue, so we decided not to wait.

5. I couldn't see anything --- completely dark.

6. --- trouble at the club last night. They had to call the police.

7. How far --- from Milan to Rome?

8. --- Keith's birthday yesterday. We had a party.

9. --- three years since I last went to the theatre.

10. I wanted to visit the museum but --- enough time.

11. '--- time to go?' 'Yes, --- nearly midnight.'

12. A few days ago --- a storm. --- a lot of damage.

13. --- a beautiful day yesterday. We had a picnic.

14. --- anything on television, so I turned it off.

15. --- an accident in King Street but --- very serious.

83.2 Read the first sentence and then write a sentence beginning There...

1. The roads were busy today. _There was a lot of traffic._

2. This soup is very salty. There --- in the soup.

3. The box was empty. --- in the box.

4. The film was very violent. ---

5.The shops were very crowded. ---

6. I like this town - it's lively. ---

83.3 Complete the sentences. Use there will be, there would be etc. Choose from:

will might would wouldn't should used to (be) going to

1. If people drove more carefully, there would be fewer accidents.

2. 'Have we got any eggs?' 'I'm not sure --- some in the fridge.'

3. I think everything will be OK. I don't think --- any problems.

4. Look at the sky --- a storm.

5. 'Is there a school in the village?' 'Not now --- one but it closed.'

6. People drive too fast on this road. I think --- a speed limit.

7. If people weren't aggressive --- any wars.

83.4 Are these sentences right or wrong? Change it to there where necessary.

1. They live on a busy road. It must be a lot of noise. _WRONG; There must be ..._

2. Last winter it was very cold and it was a lot of snow.

3. I wish it was warmer. I hate cold weather.

4. It used to be a church here, but it was knocked down.

5. It's a long way from my house to the nearest shop.

6. Why was she so unfriendly? It must have been a reason.

7. I don't know who will win but it's sure to be a good match.

8. 'Where can we park the car?' 'Don't worry. It's sure to be a car park somewhere.'

9. After the lecture it will be an opportunity to ask questions.

10. I like the place where I live but it would be nicer to live by the sea.

11. I was told that it would be somebody to meet me at the station but it wasn't anybody.



Date: 2015-02-03; view: 475

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