CATEGORIES:

UNIT 19. Present tenses (I am doing/I do) for the future

A. Present continuous J am doing) with a future meaning

Study this example situation:

This is Tom's diary for next week.

He is playing tennis on Monday afternoon.

He is going to the dentist on Tuesday morning.

He is having dinner with Ann on Friday.

In all these examples, Tom has already decided and arranged to do these things.

Use the present continuous to say what you have already arranged to do. Do not use the present simple J do):

* A: What are you doing on Saturday evening? (not 'what do you do')

B: I'm going to the theatre. (not 'I go')

* A: What time is Cathy arriving tomorrow?

B: At 10.30. I'm meeting her at the station.

* I'm not working tomorrow, so we can go out somewhere.

* Ian isn't playing football on Saturday. He's hurt his leg.

'(I'm) going to (do)' is also possible in these sentences:

* What are you going to do on Saturday evening?

But the present continuous is more natural for arrangements. See also Unit 20B.

Do not use will to talk about what you have arranged to do:

* What are you doing this evening? (not 'what will you do')

* Alex is getting married next month. (not 'will get')

B. Present simple (I do) with a future meaning

We use the present simple when we talk about timetables, programmes etc. (for example, for public transport, cinemas etc.):

* The train leaves Plymouth at 11.30 and arrives in London at 14.45.

* What time does the film begin?

* It's Wednesday tomorrow.

You can use the present simple for people if their plans are fixed like a timetable:

* I start my new job on Monday.

* What time do you finish work tomorrow?

But the continuous is more usual for personal arrangements:

* What time are you meeting Ann tomorrow? (not 'do you meet')

Compare:

* What time are you leaving tomorrow?

but * What time does the train leave tomorrow?

* I'm going to the cinema this evening.

but * The film starts at 8.15 (this evening).

EXERCISES

19.1 A friend of yours is planning to go on holiday soon. You ask her about her plans. Use the words in brackets to make your questions.

1. (where/go?) Where are you going? Scotland.

2. (how long/stay?) Ten days.

3. (when/go?) Next Friday.

4. (go/alone?) No, with a friend of mine.

5. (travel/by car?) No, by train.

6. (where/stay?) In a hotel.

19.2 Tom wants you to visit him but you are very busy. Look at your diary for the next few days and explain to him why you can't come.

TOM: Can you come on Monday evening?

You: Sorry but I'm playing volleyball. (1)

TOM: What about Tuesday evening then?

You: No, not Tuesday I --- (2)

TOM: And Wednesday evening?

YOU: --- (3)

TOM: Well, are you free on Thursday?

YOU: I'm afraid not. --- (4)

19.3 Have you arranged to do anything at these times? Write (true) sentences about yourself.

1. (this evening) I'm going out this evening. or I'm not doing anything this evening. or I don't know what I'm doing this evening.

2. (tomorrow morning) I ---

3. (tomorrow evening)

4. (next Sunday)

5. (choose another day or time)

19.4 Put the verb into the more suitable form, present continuous or present simple.

1. I'm going (go) to the theatre this evening.

2. Does the film begin (the film/begin) at 3.30 or 4.30?

3. We --- (have) a party next Saturday. Would you like to come?

4. The art exhibition --- (open) on 3 May and --- (finish) on 15 July.

5. I --- (not/go) out this evening. I --- (stay) at home.

6. '--- (you/do) anything tomorrow morning?' 'No, I'm free. Why?'

7. We --- (go) to a concert tonight. It --- (begin) at 7.30.

8. You are on the train to London and you ask another passenger:

Excuse me. What time --- (this train/get) to London?

9. You are talking to Ann:

Ann, I --- (go) to town. --- (you/come) with me?

10. Sue --- (come) to see us tomorrow. She --- (travel) by train and her train --- (arrive) at 10.15. I --- (meet) her at the station.

11. I --- (not/use) the car this evening, so you can have it.

12. You and a friend are watching television. You say:

I'm bored with this programme. When --- (it/finish)?

UNIT 20. (I'm) going to (do)

A. 'I am going to do something' = I have already decided to do it, I intend to do it:

* A: There's a film on television tonight. Are you going to watch it?

B: No, I'm tired. I'm going to have an early night.

* A: I hear Ruth has won some money. What is she going to do with it?

B: She's going to buy a new car.

* A: Have you made the coffee yet?

B: I'm just going to make it. (just = right at this moment)

* This food looks horrible. I'm not going to eat it.

B. I am doing and I am going to do

We normally use I am doing (present continuous) when we say what we have arranged to do for example, arranged to meet somebody, arranged to go somewhere (see Unit 19A):

* What time are you meeting Ann this evening?

* I'm leaving tomorrow. I've got my plane ticket.

'I am going to do something' = I've decided to do it (but perhaps not arranged to do it):

* 'The windows are dirty.' 'Yes, I know. I'm going to clean them later.' (= I've decided to clean them but I haven't arranged to clean them)

* I've decided not to stay here any longer. Tomorrow I'm going to look for somewhere else to stay.

Often the difference is very small and either form is possible.

C. You can also say that 'something is going to happen' in the future. For example:

The man can't see where he's walking. There is a hole in front of him.

He is going to fall into the hole.

When we say that 'something is going to happen', the situation now makes us believe this. The man is walking towards the hole now, so he is going to fall into it.

* Look at those black clouds! It's going to rain. (the clouds are there now)

* I feel terrible. I think I'm going to be sick. (I feel terrible now)

D. 'I was going to (do something)' = I intended to do it but didn't do it:

* We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car instead.

* A: Did Peter do the examination?

B: No, he was going to do it but he changed his mind.

* I was just going to cross the road when somebody shouted 'Stop!'

You can say that something was going to happen (but didn't happen):

* I thought it was going to rain but then the sun came out.

EXERCISES

20.1 Answer the questions. You are going to do all these things but you haven't done them yet. Use going to and the word(s) in brackets.

1. Have you cleaned the car? (tomorrow) Not yet. I'm going to clean it tomorrow.

2. Have you phoned Sally? (later) Not yet. ---

3. Have you done the shopping? (this afternoon) Not yet. ---

4. Have you read the paper? (after dinner) Not ---

5. Have you had dinner? (just) ---

20.2 Write a question with going to for each situation.

(what/do with it?) What are you going to do with it?

(what/wear?)

(where/put it?)

(who/invite?)

20.3 Read the situations and complete the dialogues. Use going to.

1. You have decided to write some letters this evening.

FRIEND: Are you going out this evening? You: No, I'm going to write some letters.

2. You are a smoker but you have decided to give it up soon.

FRIEND: Smoking is very bad for you.

YOU: I know. ---

3. You have been offered a job but you have decided not to take it.

FRIEND: I hear you've been offered a job.

YOU: That's right, but ---

4. You are in a restaurant. The food is awful and you've decided to complain.

FRIEND: This food is awful, isn't it?

YOU: Yes, it's disgusting. ---

20.4 What is going to happen in these situations? Use the words in brackets.

1. There are a lot of black clouds in the sky. (rain) It's going to rain.

2. It is 8.30. Jack is leaving his house. He has to be at work at 8.45 but the journey takes 30 minutes. (late) He ---

3. There is a hole in the bottom of the boat. A lot of water is coming in through the hole. (sink) The boat ---

4. Emma is driving. There is very little petrol left in the tank. The nearest petrol station is a long way away. (run out) She ---

20.5 Complete the sentences with was/were going to + one of these verbs:

give up have phone play travel

1. We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car instead.

2. We --- tennis yesterday but it rained all day.

3. I --- Jim, but I decided to write him a letter instead.

4. When I last saw Tim, he --- his job but in the end he decided not to.

5. We --- a party last week but some of our friends couldn't come, so we cancelled it.

UNIT 21. Will/shall (1)

A. We use I'll (= I will) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking:

* Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it.

* 'What would you like to drink?' 'I'll have an orange juice, please.'

* 'Did you phone Ruth?' 'Oh no, I forgot. I'll phone her now.'

You cannot use the present simple (I do/I go etc.) in these sentences:

* I'll go and shut the door. (not 'I go and shut')

We often use I think I'll ... and I don't think I'll ...:

* I feel a bit hungry. I think I'll have something to cat.

* I don't think I'll go out tonight. I'm too tired.

In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (= will not):

* I can see you're busy, so I won't stay long.

B. Do not use will to talk about what you have already decided or arranged to do (see Units 19-20):

* I'm going on holiday next Saturday. (not 'I'll go')

* Are you working tomorrow? (not 'will you work')

C. We often use will in these situations:

Offering to do something

* That bag looks heavy. I'll help you with it. (not 'I help')

Agreeing to do something

* A: You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you've finished with it?

B: Of course. I'll give it to you this afternoon. (not 'I give')

Promising to do something

* Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday. (not 'I pay')

* I won't tell anyone what happened. I promise.

Asking somebody to do something (Will you ...?)

* Will you please be quiet? I'm trying to concentrate.

* Will you shut the door, please?

You can use won't to say that somebody refuses to do something:

* I've tried to advise her but she won't listen. (= she refuses to listen)

* The car won't start. I wonder what's wrong with it. (= the car 'refuses' to start)

D. Shall I ...? Shall we ...?

Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I ...?/shall we ...?

We use shall I ...?/shall we ...? to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions):

* Shall I open the window? (= do you want me to open the window?)

* I've got no money. What shall I do? (= what do you suggest?)

* 'Shall we go?' 'Just a minute. I'm not ready yet.'

* Where shall we go this evening?

Compare shall I ...? and will you ...?:

* Shall I shut the door? (= do you want me to shut it?)

* Will you shut the door? (= I want you to shut it)

EXERCISES

21.1 Complete the sentences with I'll + a suitable verb.

1. I'm too tired to walk home. I think I'll get a taxi.

2. 'It's a bit cold in this room.' 'Is It? --- on the heating then.'

3. 'We haven't got any milk.' 'Oh, haven't we? --- and get some.'

4. 'Do you want me to do the washing-up?' 'No, it's all right. --- it.'

5. 'I don't know how to use this computer.' 'OK, --- you.'

6. 'Would you like tea or coffee? '--- coffee, please.'

7. 'Goodbye! Have a nice holiday.' 'Thanks. --- you a postcard.'

8. Thank you for lending me your camera. --- it back to you on Monday, OK?

9. 'Are you coming with us?' 'No, I think --- here.'

21.2 Read the situations and write sentences with I think I'll ... or I don't think I'll ...

1. It's a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think I'll close the window.

2. You are feeling tired and it's quite late. You decide to go to bed. You say: I think ---

3. A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk. You say: Thank you but ---

4. You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don't want to play. You say: I don't think ---

5. You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don't want to go. ---

21.3 Which is correct? (If necessary, study Units 19-20 first.)

1. 'Did you phone Ruth?' 'Oh no, I forgot. _I phone (X)/I'll phone (O)_ her now.' (I'll phone is correct)

2. I can't meet you tomorrow afternoon. _I'm playing (O)/I'll play (X)_ tennis. (I'm playing is correct)

3. _'I meet/I'll meet_ you outside the hotel in half an hour, OK?' 'Yes, that's fine.'

4. 'I need some money.' 'OK, _I'm lending/I'll lend_ you some. How much do you need?'

5. _I'm having/I'll have_ a party next Saturday. I hope you can come.

6. 'Remember to buy a newspaper when you go out.' 'OK. _I don't forget/I won't forget.'_

8. I asked Sue what happened but she _doesn't tell/won't tell_ me.

9. _'Are you doing/Will you do_ anything tomorrow evening?' 'No, I'm free. Why?'

10. I don't want to go out alone. _Do you come/Will you come_ with me?

11. It's a secret between us. I promise _I don't tell/I won't tell_ anybody.

21.4 What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with shall I ...? or shall we ...?

1. You and a friend want to do something this evening but you don't know what. You ask your friend. What shall we do this evening?

2. You try on a jacket in a shop. You are not sure whether to buy it or not. You ask a friend for advice. --- it?

3. It's Ann's birthday next week. You want to give her a present but you don't know what. You ask a friend for advice. What ---

4. You and a friend are going on holiday together but you haven't decided where. You ask him/her. ---

5. You and a friend are going out. You haven't decided whether to go by car or to walk. You ask him/her ---

6. Your friend wants you to phone later. You don't know what time to phone. You ask him/her ---

UNIT 22. Will/shall (2)

A. We do not use will to say what somebody has already arranged or decided to do in the future:

* Ann is working next week. (not 'Ann will work')

* Are you going to watch television this evening? (not 'will you watch')

For 'I'm working ...' and 'Are you going to ...?, see Units 19-20.

But often, when we talk about the future, we are not talking about what somebody has decided to do. For example:

CHRIS: Do you think Ann will pass the exam?

JOE: Yes, she'll pass easily.

'She'll pass' does not mean 'she has decided to pass'. Joe is saying what he knows or thinks will happen. He is predicting the future.

When we predict a future happening or situation, we use will/won't.

* Jill has been away a long time. When she returns, she'll find a lot of changes.

* 'Where will you be this time next year)' 'I'll be in Japan.'

* That plate is very hot. If you touch it, you'll burn yourself.

* Tom won't pass the examination. He hasn't worked hard enough for it.

* When will you know your exam results?

B. We often use will ('ll) with:

probably: I'll probably be home late this evening.

I expect: I haven't seen Carol today. I expect she'll phone this evening.

(I'm) sure: Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass.

(I) think: Do you think Sarah will like the present we bought her?

(I) don't think: I don't think the exam will be very difficult.

I wonder: I wonder what will happen.

After (I) hope, we generally use the present:

* I hope Carol phones this evening.

* I hope it doesn't rain tomorrow.

C. Generally we use will to talk about the future, but sometimes we use will to talk about now. For example:

* Don't phone Ann now. She'll be busy. (= I know she'll be busy now)

D. I shall .../we shall ...

Normally we use shall only with I and we.

You can say I shall or I will (I'll), we shall or we will (we'll):

* I shall be tired this evening. (or I will be ...)

* We shall probably go to Scotland for our holiday. (or We will probably go ...)

In spoken English we normally use I'll and we'll:

* We'll probably go to Scotland.

The negative of shall is shall not or shan't:

* I shan't be here tomorrow. (or I won't be ...)

Do not use shall with he/she/it/you/they:

* She will be very angry. (not 'she shall be')

EXERCISES

22.1 Which form of the verb is correct (or more natural) in these sentences? The verbs are underlined.

1. Ann isn't free on Saturday. _She'll work (X)/She's working (O)._ (She's working is correct)

2. _I'll go/I'm going_ to a party tomorrow night. Would you like to come too?

3. I think Jane _will get/is getting_ the job. She has a lot of experience.

4. I can't meet you this evening. A friend of mine _will come/is coming_ to see me.

5. A: Have you decided where to go for your holidays?

B: Yes, _we will go/we are going_ to Italy.

6. There's no need to be afraid of the dog. _It won't hurt/It isn't hurting_ you.

22.2 Complete the sentences with will ('ll) + one of these verbs:

be be come get like look meet pass

2. Why don't you try on this jacket? It --- nice on you.

3. You must meet George sometime. I think you --- him.

4. It's raining. Don't go out. You --- wet.

5. They've invited me to their house. They --- offended if I don't go.

6. Goodbye. I expect we --- again before long.

7. I've invited Sue to the party but I don't think she ---.

8. I wonder where I --- 20 years from now.

22.3 Put in will ('ll) or won't.

1. Can you wait for me? I won't be very long.

2. There's no need to take an umbrella with you. It --- rain.

3. If you don't eat anything now, you --- be hungry later.

4. I'm sorry about what happened yesterday. It --- happen again.

5. I've got some incredible news! You --- never believe what's happened.

6. Don't ask Margaret for advice. She --- know what to do.

22.4 Where will you be at these times? Write true sentences about yourself. Use one of these:

I'll be ... or I expect I'll be... or I'll probably be ... or I don't know where I'll be. or I'm not sure. I might be ... (For might see Unit 30.)

1. (next Monday evening at 7.45) I'll probably be at home.

or I'm not sure. I might be at the cinema.

or I don't know where I'll be. (etc.)

2. (at 5 o'clock tomorrow morning) ---

3. (at 10.30 tomorrow morning) ---

4. (next Saturday afternoon at 4.15) ---

5. (this time next year) ---

22.5 Write questions using do you think ... will ...? + one of these verbs:

be back cost finish get married happen like rain

1. I've bought Mary a present. Do you think she'll like it?

2. The weather doesn't look very good. Do you ---

3. The meeting is still going on. When do you ---

4. My car needs to be repaired. How much ---

5. Sally and David are in love. Do ---

6. 'I'm going out now.' 'OK. What time ---'

7. The future situation is uncertain. What ---

Date: 2015-02-03; view: 1988

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