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UNIT 17. Have and have got

A. Have and have got (= possess, own etc.)

We often use have got rather than have alone. So you can say:

* We've got a new car. or We have a new car.

* Ann has got two sisters. or Ann has two sisters.

We use have got or have for illnesses, pains etc.:

* I've got a headache. or I have a headache.

In questions and negative sentences there are three possible forms:

Have you got any money? I haven't got any money.

Do you have any money? I don't have any money.

Have you any money? (less usual) I haven't any money. (less usual)

Has she got a car? She hasn't got a car.

Does she have a car? She doesn't have a car.

Has she a car? (less usual) She hasn't a car. (less usual)

When have means 'possess' etc., you cannot use continuous forms (is having/are having etc.):

* I have/I've got a headache. (not 'I'm having')

For the past we use had (usually without 'got'):

* Ann had long fair hair when she was a child. (not 'Ann had got')

In past questions and negative sentences we normally use did/didn't:

* Did they have a car when they were living in London?

* I didn't have a watch, so I didn't know the time.

* Ann had long fair hair, didn't she?

 

B. Have breakfast/have a bath/have a good time etc.

Have (but not 'have got') is also used for many actions and experiences. For example:

have breakfast/dinner/a cup of coffee/a cigarette etc.

have a bath/a shower/a swim/a rest/a party/a holiday/a nice time etc.

have an accident/an experience/a dream etc.

have a look (at something)/a chat (with somebody)

have a baby (= give birth to a baby)

have difficulty/trouble/fun

* Goodbye! I hope you have a nice time.

* Mary had a baby recently.

'Have got' is not possible in these expressions. Compare:

* I usually have a sandwich for my lunch. (have = 'eat' - not 'have got')

but * I've got some sandwiches. Would you like one?

In these expressions, have is like other verbs. You can use continuous forms (is having are having etc.) where suitable:

* I had a postcard from Fred this morning. He's on holiday. He says he's having a

wonderful time. (not 'he has a wonderful time')

* The phone rang while we were having dinner. (not 'while we had')

In questions and negative sentences we normally use do/does/did:

* I don't usually have a big breakfast. (not 'I usually haven't')

* What time does Ann have lunch? (not 'has Ann lunch')

* Did you have any difficulty finding somewhere to live?

EXERCISES

17.1 Write negative sentences with have. Some are present (can't) and some are past (couldn't).

1. I can't make a phone call. (any change)

I haven't got any change.

2. I couldn't read the notice. (my glasses)

I didn't have my glasses.

3. I can't climb up onto the roof. (a ladder)

I ---

4. We couldn't visit the museum. (enough time)

We ---

5. He couldn't find his way to our house. (a map)

6. She can't pay her bills. (any money)

7. They can't get into the house. (a key)

8. I couldn't take any photographs. (a camera)



 

17.2 Complete these questions with have. Some are present and some are past.

1. Excuse me, have you got a pen I could borrow?

2. Why are you holding your face like that? --- a toothache?

3. --- a bicycle when you were a child?

4. '--- the time, please?' 'Yes, it's ten past seven.'

5. When you did the exam, --- time to answer all the questions?

6. I need a stamp for this letter. --- one?

7. 'It started to rain while I was walking home.' 'Did it? --- an umbrella?'

 

17.3 In this exercise you have to write sentences about yourself. Choose four of the following things (or you can choose something else):

a car a bicycle a moped a guitar a computer a camera a driving licence a job a dog/a cat (or another animal)

Have you got these things now? Did you have them ten years ago? Write two sentences each time using I've got/I haven't got and I had/I didn't have.

now ten years ago (or five if you're too young)

1. I've got a car. I didn't have a car.

2. --- ---

3. --- ---

4. --- ---

 

17.4 Complete these sentences. Use an expression from the list and put the verb into the correct form where necessary.

have lunch have a swim have a nice time have a chat have a cigarette have a rest have a good flight have a baby have a shower have a party have a look

1. I don't eat much during the day. I never _have lunch._

2. David likes to keep fit, so he --- every day.

3. We --- last Saturday. It was great - we invited lots of people.

4. Excuse me, can I --- at your newspaper, please?

5. 'Where's Jim?' 'He --- in his room. He's very tired.'

6. I met Ann in the supermarket yesterday. We stopped and ---.

7. I haven't seen you since you came back from holiday ---?

8. Suzanne --- a few weeks ago. It's her second child.

9. I don't usually smoke but I was feeling very nervous, so I ---.

10. The phone rang but I couldn't answer it because I ---.

11. You meet Tom at the airport. He has just arrived. You say:

Hello, Tom. ---?

UNIT 18. Used to (do)

A. Study this example situation:

Dennis stopped smoking two years ago. He doesn't smoke any more.

But he used to smoke.

He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day.

'He used to smoke' = he smoked regularly for some time in the past, but he doesn't smoke now. He was a smoker, but now he isn't

 

B. 'Something used to happen' = something happened regularly in the past but no longer happens:

* I used to play tennis a lot but I don't play very often now.

* Diane used to travel a lot. These days she doesn't go away so often.

* 'Do you go to the cinema very often?' 'Not now, but I used to.' (= I used to go ...)

We also use used to... for something that was true but is not true any more:

* This building is now a furniture shop. It used to be a cinema.

* I used to think he was unfriendly but now I realise he's a very nice person.

* I've started drinking coffee recently. I never used to like it before.

* Janet used to have very long hair when she was a child.

 

C. 'I used to do something' is past. There is no present form. You cannot say 'I use to do'. To talk about the present, use the present simple (I do).

Compare:

past: he used to smoke we used to live there used to be

present: he smokes we live there is

* We used to live in a small village but now we live in London.

* There used to be four cinemas in the town. Now there is only one.

 

D. The normal question form is did (you) use to ...?:

* Did you use to eat a lot of sweets when you were a child?

The negative form is didn't use to ... (used not to ... is also possible)

* I didn't use to like him. (or I used not to like him.)

 

E. Compare I used to do and I was doing (see Unit 6):

* I used to watch TV a lot. (= I watched TV regularly in the past, but I no longer do this)

* I was watching TV when the phone rang. (= I was in the middle of watching TV)

 

F. Do not confuse I used to do and I am used to doing (see Unit 60). The structures and meanings are different:

* I used to live alone. (= I lived alone in the past but I no longer live alone)

* I am used to living alone. (= I live alone and I don't find it strange or new because I've been living alone for some time)

EXERCISES

18.1 Complete these sentences with use(d) to ... + a suitable verb.

1. Dennis gave up smoking two years ago. He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day.

2. Liz --- a motorbike, but last year she sold it and bought a car.

3. We came to live in Manchester a few years ago. We --- in Nottingham.

4. I rarely cat ice cream now but I --- it when I was a child.

5. Jim --- my best friend but we aren't friends any longer.

6. It only takes me about 40 minutes to get to work since the new road was opened. It --- more than an hour.

7. There --- a hotel opposite the station but it closed a long time ago

8. When you lived in London, --- to the theatre very often?

18.2 Brian changed his lifestyle. He stopped doing some things and started doing other things:

He stopped studying hard/going to bed early/running three miles e3very morning

He started smoking/going out in the evening/spending a lot of money

Write sentences about Brian with used to and didn't use to.

1. He used to smoke.

2. He didn't use to smoke.

3. ---

4. ---

5. ---

6. ---

18.3 Compare what Carol said five years ago and what she says today:

FIVE YEARS A GO

I travel a lot,

I play the piano.

I'm very lazy.

I don't like cheese.

I've got a dog.

I'm a hotel receptionist.

I've got lots of friends.

I never read newspapers.

I don't drink tea.

I go to a lot of parties.

TODAY

I eat lots of cheese now.

I work very hard these days.

I don't know in people these days.

I work in a bookshop now.

I don't go away much these days.

My dog died two years ago.

I read a newspaper every day now.

I haven't been to a party for ages.

I haven't played piano for years.

Tea's great! I like it now.

Now write sentences about bow Carol has changed. Use used to/didn't use to/never used to in the first part of your sentence.

1 She used to travel a lot but she doesn't go away much these days.

2. She used --- but ---

3. --- but ---

4. --- but ---

5. --- but ---

6. --- but ---

7. --- but ---

8. --- but ---

9. --- but ---

10. --- but ---


Date: 2015-02-03; view: 586


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