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UNIT 6 FLORA AND FAUNA

 

INTRODUCTION

While thinking about animals we first of all remember domestic animals, that live with people. Many people keep pets and the most popular are: cats and dogs, but people also can keep canaries, parrots, mice, goldfish and hamsters. Farm animals include: rabbits, sheep, cows, pigs, horses, chicken, goats. In a zoo or in the wild we can find these wild animals: a tiger, lion, bear, leopard, camel, gorilla, elephant, monkey, zebra, giraffe, etc. Some common insects are: a bee, ant, mosquito, butterfly, fly, spider. And the most common birds are: an eagle, sparrow, hawk, goose, duck, swan. Some creatures swim (whales, sharks), some move along the ground (snakes, snails).

 

6.1 Choose the word which best matches the description.

1 Large white water bird with a long neck. a) duck / swan
2 Four legged animal with horns, good at climbing. b) goat / sheep
3 Sea animal with a shell and five pairs of legs. c) crab / frog
4 Insect with large beautifully coloured wings. d) butterfly / bee
5 Small reptile with four legs and a long tail. e) lizard / snake
6 Small flying insect which drinks blood from the skin. f) fly / mosquito
7 Animal with long legs and neck and orangey skin. g) camel / giraffe
8 Small long-eared animal that lives in a hole. h) mouse / rabbit
9 Eight-legged creature which catches insects. i) bat / spider
10 Young animal which barks, often a pet. j) kitten / puppy

 

6.2 Start each sentence with a suitable creature from Introduction.

1 …….. can fly at a great height.

2 …….. can swim very long distances.

3 …….. can understand lots of human commands.

4 …….. can run very fast.

5 …….. can travel through the desert for long distances without water.

6 …….. can be 30 metres in length.

7 …….. can eat leaves from tall trees.

8 …….. change their skin several times a year.

9 …….. can pick things up with their trunk.

10 …….. provide us with wool.

 

6.3 Match the creatures with their maximum speeds.

lion 64 kph

rabbit 56 kph

shark 270 kph

spider 0.05 kph

pig 40 kph

elephant 1.88 kph

snail 80 kph

golden eagle 18 kph

cheetah 300 kph

 

6.4 Read the definitions of the following animal groups carefully.

herbivores – animals eating plants

carnivores – animals eating meat

omnivores – animals eating both plants and meat

mammals – animals that give birth to live babies and feed their young on milk

reptiles – cold-blooded animals that have skin covered with scales

amphibians – animals that live both on land and water

► Match each animal group it belongs to. Some animals can be used more than once.

Groups: herbivores, insects, mammals, cats, reptiles, fish, birds, carnivores, omnivores, amphibians, predators

Creatures: crocodile, lion, tiger, bear, hawk, frog, goldfish, panther, wolf, monkey, snake, sparrow, wasp, whale, lizard, fly, jaguar, tortoise, pigeon, cow, fox, beetle, eagle, puma, squirrel, goat, sheep, salmon.



 

6.5 Fill in the appropriate word from the list below. Use a dictionary to help you.

habitat / species / fur / amphibians / prowled / captivity / fauna / flora

1 …….. is the natural home of a plant or animal.

2 A group of plants or animals of the same kind is called a …….. .

3 Moved around quietly, trying not to be seen means …….. .

4 Animals that are able to live both on land and in water are called …….. .

5 The hair that grows thickly over the bodies of some types of animal is ….. .

6 When wild animals live in …….. they are kept in a place such as a park or zoo.

7 All the animals living in a particular area are …….. .

8 All the plants growing in a particular area are …….. .

 

6.6 Match the two parts of the sentences.

1 Many zoos try to breed pandas so that a) the world’s largest living mammal.
2 Some animals like snakes and hedgehogs spend the winter months in a deep sleep, b) now whale-watching is the most popular attraction among tourists.
3 many mammals like monkeys are very good parents and c) the pandas born in the zoos can be returned to the wild.
4 The colours of bird’s eggs make them hard to see and d) in the Far East it is in danger of extinction.
5 Africa has lost 99% of its black rhinos in the past twenty years, e) help to protect them from predators.
6 In Africa, the most important species in danger is the elephant, f) they put a lot of effort into rearing their young.
7 In 1972 Mexico created the world’s first whale sanctuary on the west coast and g) in 1998 there were only 11 rhinos left in Kenya.
8 Poachers still hunt the tiger illegally and h) in which their body functions shut down to a minimum.

 

6.7 Find the odd word out.

1 cow bull donkey hippopotamus

2 penguin duck pike hawk

3 rat caterpillar rabbit squirrel

4 pike salmon mole whitefish

5 crocodile lizard iguana grasshopper

 

6.8 Match the creatures from the list below with the places they can live.

Europe Africa Western Siberia
     

 

bear / fox / wolf / lion / cheetah / leopard / tiger / zebra / giraffe / deer / goose / duck / goat / pig / sheep / donkey / bull / squirrel / seal / hare / jaguar / lynx / otter / sable / ladybird / rabbit / butterfly / ant / mosquito / bee / cockroach / fly / wasp

 

6.9 Match the animals with their young.

A B

sheep piglet

lion lamb

dog puppy

cow kitten

hen chick

duck goal

cat cub

horse calf

pig duckling

 

6.10 Choose the correct word.

BIODIVERSITY

Biodiversity is the variety of all life on earth; the plants and animals and the habitats where they eat / live. Biodiversity ranges in scale from bacteria to blue whales and is not just the rare or exotic but also the everyday and commonplace. It is the birds in our garden / yard as well as tigers in the tundra / rainforest. Biodiversity shortens / enriches our lives, we enjoy / dislike seeing wild flowers and animals.

Industrial / natural areas help to protect our environment from harm. Wetlands can cause / prevent flooding and filter pollutants while woodlands reduce / increase air pollution and global freezing / warming.

There are also moral arguments for /against protecting biodiversity. We should / must care about wild animals and plants because they have a value in themselves.

 

6.11 Choose the correct word from a box. Use a dictionary to help you.

bark / berry / blossom / branch / bud / leaf / root / stem / thorn / trunk

 

1 Sue managed to reach the …branch… of a tree and climb up to the window.

2 I felt ill after I ate a red …….. from a bush in the woods.

3 The wall was cracked by the …….. of a tree growing underneath it.

4 On the end of each …….. there are two or three yellow flowers.

5 In the autumn, every …….. on the tree turns yellow and then falls off.

6 Liz hurt herself on a …….. while she was picking some roses.

7 The …….. of this tree can be removed and used as a kind of paper.

8 In spring all the apple trees are covered in white …….. .

9 Before the flower opened it was a large green …….. .

10 An oak tree has a very broad …….., sometimes two metres thick.

 

6.12 Read the text “Coniferous and Deciduous Forests” and do the exercise after it.

CONIFEROUS AND DECIDUOUS FORESTS

Coniferous and deciduous forests are two of the tree major types of forest. Life in the two areas has developed very differently, due to the differences in climate.

Coniferous are so called because their seeds are produced in cones. Vast coniferous forests of spruce, cedar, larch, pine and fir are found where conditions are cold and harsh, with brief summers and low rainfall, i.e. northern parts of America, Europe and Asia and in the world’s mountainous areas. Further south, conifers exist alongside deciduous trees in mixed forests.

Most conifers have needles instead of leaves (their smaller surface area means less water is lost by evaporation) and the majority are evergreen (never bare of needles), so they can produce food all year round.

The word deciduous describes trees that shed their leaves once a year. They are flowering plants, mainly blooming once a year in the spring. Deciduous forests are found in areas with relatively mild temperatures and plenty of rainfall throughout the year. Most of Europe, Japan, eastern Asia and the eastern USA were once covered in forests of deciduous trees, like oak, beech, maple and ash.

Deciduous trees have large, broad leaves to make the most of the many months of sunshine for photosynthesis. They are lost before winter when strong winds and cold would damage them. Each tree provides homes and food for a large wildlife community. Rich soil and plenty of sunshine allow many different plants to flourish. These support still more animal life.

► Fill in the appropriate word from the text.

1 …….. forest 6 …….. plants

2 …….. forest 7 …….. temperatures

3 …….. rainfall 8 …….. of rainfall

4 …….. summer 9 …….. winds

5 …….. areas 10 …….. community

 

6.13 Which words in the text have the same meaning as:

main, adj blooming, adj

severe, adj destruct, v

territory, n big, adj

 

6.14 Answer the following questions.

1 What four types of forests can you name?

2 What is the basic difference between conifers and deciduous trees?

3 Where can we find coniferous / deciduous forests in the world?

4 Explain the word evergreens.

5 Why do deciduous trees lose their leaves?

6 How can you describe a mixed forest?

 

6.15 Match the two parts of the sentences.

1 In Southern Europe many deciduous trees have adapted to very hot, dry summers by taking coniferous features, a) the destruction of important natural habitats.
2 Urban expansion, intensive industry, agriculture and forestry are resulting in b) that is, able to keep their body temperature constant.
3 Some animals have adapted to live in the forest all year round, e.g. c) pure white in winter, browny-red in summer.
4 Polar bears survive the winter by hibernating d) now they are evergreen with small thick leaves to save water.
5 To survive the cold, all the large animals are warm-blooded, e) and are protected by their thick coats of fur.
6 Huskies curt into balls to conserve heat f) like hawks and falkons.
7 An arctic fox changes its colour to fit the season: g) bears and chipmunks hibernate in winter, living off summer fat.
8 Hot, dry deserts have short periods when life is plentiful, h) hollowed out under the ice.
9 Predators are animals that catch and eat other animals and i) with individuals playing specific role.
10 Other common predators are the birds of prey, j) for safety in numbers.
11 Many seabirds like penguins form colonies k) they play a vital role in every ecosystem.
12 Some creatures like ants and bees form complex colonies l) so desert plants are short-lived.

6.16 Match each plant from the list below with the type of forest it belongs to. Use a dictionary to help you.

Forests: deciduous, coniferous

Plants: Pine, fir, juniper, willow, cedar, birch, aspen, ash, larch, spruce, lime, maple, oak, poplar

● What trees are common in our region?

 

6.17 Read the text “Siberia’s Fauna Is Amazingly Rich” and decide whether the statements after the text correct or incorrect.

SIBERIA’S FAUNA IS AMAZINGLY RICH

There are many species of fauna in the vast expanses of tundra, taiga and water-meadows, the numerous rivers and lakes. Scientists have registered 74 species of mammals on the territory of the region, more than 320 species of birds, 4 species of reptiles, 5 species of amphibian and over 40 species of fish.

In the tundra are the reindeer, polar fox, lemming and many species of birds. On the islands and mainland one finds the polar bear, and in the coastal waters, the Bay of Ob and other bays the sea hare, the ringed seal and the white whale. Further south in the tundra the wolf and the wolverine are common.

The animal world of the taiga is even richer: the squirrel, white hare, chipmunk and letyaga, as well as the brown bear, fox, marten, sable, lynx, weasel, Siberian pole cat, badger, wolf and wolverine. The pride of the taiga is the moose. The mole and musk-rat are widespread and there are many colonies of the water rat and the Asiatic beaver, which have survived in Malaya Sosva and Demyanka. The zone is also being energetically settled with imported American mink.

The taiga is full of birds. Here you will find the wood-grouse, hazel-grouse, black grouse, nutcracker, osprey, great grey owl, Tengmalm’s owl and pygmy owl and in marshes the willow grouse, crane and great snipe. The old beds of rivers and lakes are densely populated with ducks, snipes and gulls. The trumpeter swan nests here, as do the red-throated and black-throated loon and the red-necked sheldrake.

The forest-steppe is the home of the stoat and fox, the mountain hare and Siberian polecat, the steppe polecat, the badger, the musk-rat, the black grouse, the quail, the hazel-grouse and various species of water-fowl. The wild goat and moose are found here, and also their constant companion – the wolf.

Many of the animals in the Tyumen Region are hunted for commercial purposes. There is also a great deal of commercial fishing here. There is world-wide demand for the Siberian sturgeon, white salmon, muksun, peled (syrok), Siberian whitefish. Ide, dace, roach, pike, perch and crucian are popular on the local market.

► 1 The vegetation and wildlife of Siberia is very rich.

2 There are 320 species of mammals.

3 Island and mainland have the same meaning.

4 The pride of taiga is the hare.

5 Malaya Sosva is being energetically settled with imported American marten.

6 The forest-steppe is the home of various species of water-fowl.

7 The wolf lives everywhere.

8 The commercial fishing is very developed.

9 You can buy herring on the local markets.

 

6.18 Find the odd word out.

a) bay coast lake river

b) salmon whitefish snipe pike

c) rat sable lynx marten

d) black grouse mountain hair brown bear red fox

e) wild goat water rat great snipe wood-grouse

f) tundra meadow steppe taiga

 

6.19 Answer the following questions:

1 Can you name 4 types of the grouse and 3 types of the owl?

2 Where do polar bears live?

3 How many species of fish are registered?

4 What birds nest here?

5 Who inhabits the old beds of rivers?

6 What is the difference between the tundra fox and steppe fox?

7 Where can we see seals and whales?

8 Have you ever seen squirrels and chipmunks in the environment?

 

6.20 Fill in the table with the words from the text “Siberia’s Fauna Is Amazingly Rich”.

Siberian mammals Siberian birds Siberian fish Siberian reptiles and amphibia
       

 

6.21 Read the text below and do the exercises after each part.

THE RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY OF RUSSIA’S NATURAL RESOURCES

■ Russian Arctic regions stretch from the North Pole to the border of the Eurasian continent. Ice is the major feature of the Arctic. Climatic conditions here are extremely harsh, even in summer air temperature approaches 0˚C. Snow is the only form of precipitation the year round. During the long winter months the Arctic is submerged in stark darkness, while in summer the sun never passes below the horizon.

In spite of the unfavourable environment life still exists in the Arctic. Mosses, lichens, creeping and dwarf shrubs are to be found growing on the shallow arctic soils of the islands scattered in the Arctic Ocean. The sea is habitat of about 200 species of algae and abounds in animal plankton.

Auks and gulls build their nests on the rocks, forming great colonies. Among the typical for this zone mammals mention should be made of walruses, seals, killer whales, whalebone whales, lemmings, and Arctic foxes. White bear has long been the symbol of the Arctic.

► 1 Which words in the passage have the same meaning as:

severe, adj common, adj create, v

area, n bush, n?

2 What do 200 species refer to?

3 How do you pronounce the following: algae, walrus, horizon?

4 What is the dominant feature of the Arctic landscape?

5 Which words in the passage have the opposite meaning to:

above, adv short, adj lose, v?

6 Are lemmings predators?

7 What is the symbol of the Arctic?

8 Explain the meaning of the words mosses and lichens.

9 How do you understand the meaning of the verb abound?

 

■ The tundra occupies a vast area. In the European part it only skirts the seashore, while in Siberia it extends as far as 500 km deep into the mainland.

Strong winds are characteristic of the tundra. Winter is long and cold; summer is short, with frequent and prolonged drizzles. Most of the tundra is in the permafrost zone. A typical tundra landscape features a waterlogged plain with numerous shallow ponds.

The tundra environment is monotonously unvaried. Plant life is represented essentially by mosses and lichens.

During the short period of vegetation the green land plants and algae in the innumerable ponds produce organic matter in quantities sufficient to feed thousands of migrating birds (geese, ducks, sandpipers, etc.), and endemic mammals (reindeer, Arctic foxes, lemmings, etc.). Water bodies in the tundra abound in fish (salmons are prevalent).

The people living in this zone are engaged in pasture reindeer-breeding and fur and feather production.

► 1 Which words in the passage have the same meaning as:

stretch, v water reservoir

vegetation, n dominant, adj?

2 What does 500 km refer to?

3 How do you pronounce the following: monotonously, unvaried, sufficient?

4 What characterizes the tundra?

5 Which words in the passage have the opposite meaning to:

shallow, adj seldom, adj

long, adj vegetation, n?

6 What are people engaged in?

7 Explain the meaning of the words permafrost and breeding.

 

■ The tundra is fringed in the south by a narrow strip of the forest-tundra, which is a kind of transitory zone between the tundra and the taiga.

The species composition of sparse growth varies in different parts of the forest-tundra: birch on the Kola Peninsula, spruce to the east as far as the Urals, and larch in Siberia.

The forest-tundra is populated by all typical for the tundra animals, but there are also animals common for the taiga (greater-spotted woodpecker, wood-grouse, hazel-grouse, brown bear, elk, etc.).

Reindeer-breeding, hunting and berry-picking make up this zone’s economy.

► 1 Which words in the passage have the same meaning as:

sort, n various, adj fauna, n?

2 Where is forest-taiga located?

3 What animals are the most popular?

4 What are people engaged in?

 

■ The taiga extends from the forest-tundra margin to the line Moscow-Ufa-Yekaterinburgh-Omsk-Krasnoyarsk in the south (taking in the Altai and the Sayan) all along Russia from its western borders to Kamchatka and Sakhalin. The taiga landscape is uniform and stern. The major tree species in the forests are larch, spruce, pine, Siberian cedar, and silver fir. In some places the gloomy colours of boreal coniferous forests are enlivened by the lighter spots of birch groves, in others the coniferous are mixed with aspen and alder. Pine forests grow on dry sand soils.

Life conditions in the taiga are rather hard – in summer air temperature may happen to be +35…+38˚C; in winter –50˚C. Fauna in the taiga is much more varied than in the tundra. There are voles, flying squirrel, greater-spotted and black woodpeckers, crossbill, common viper, etc. The taiga forests are the main source of fur (sable, beaver, squirrel, fox, mountain hare). The taiga is also the major supplier of timber.

At its south-western border the taiga gradually gives way to mixed coniferous-deciduous forest in which further to the west and south the conifers are replaced by broad-leaved species (oak, maple, lime, ash, elm). Here lie the vast expanses of mixed and broad-leaved forests of the European part of Russia. This area has sufficient moisture throughout the year, summer is rather warm and winter not too frigid. The following animals are typical for the European broad-leaved forests: marten, European mink, wild boar, roe deer, golden oriole, common nightingale, bear, badger, hedgehog, bats.

► 1 Which words in the passage have the same meaning as:

dark, adj main, adj slowly, adv

wet, adj wood, n cold, adj?

2 What do –50˚C refer to?

3 How do you pronounce the following: species, coniferous, deciduous, throughout?

4 Can you show on the map the extension of the taiga in Russia?

5 Do Siberian and European forests differ? Give examples.

 

■ The forest-steppe is a transitory zone featuring a whole complex of forest and steppe species. Along with marten, squirrel and elk there are ground squirrels and marmots; kestrels, wood larks and grey warblers build their nests in the thickness of trees and bushes, while the steppe is inhabited by steppe eagles, quails and skylarks.

The forest-steppe is highly fertile. In western areas 70-80% of land is under crop.

Today almost all steppe lands are turned into ploughland and are in fact a big cornfield interrupted only occasionally by small patches of wild nature.

The latter host such steppe birds as bustard, little bustard, steppe eagle, skylark, also ground squirrel and other animals.

A forestation and irrigation aimed at “softening” this zone’s climate bring in considerable changes in the natural conditions of the steppes, attracting forest animals and plants and generally improving life environment.

► 1 Which words in the passage have the same meaning as:

nowadays, adv sometimes, adv

factually, adv part, n?

2 What does 80% refer to?

3 Explain the meaning of the words ploughland, forestation.

4 What improves the environment of the forest-steppe and why?

 

■ Much space between the steppe zone and the Caspian Sea is under semi-desert. Winter is rather cold here (mean January air temperature is about

–10˚C), spring is short, and the long summer is hot and dry (mean July temperature is normally +22…+25˚C). The open spaces of sun-parched land, covered in places by a low growth of wormwood are spotted with bitter lakes and solonchaks.

Deserts are to be found only in the southern part of the Caspian Depression: to the east from the Volga delta is the sagebrush-fescue desert; to the west, the sandy desert.

► 1 Which words in the passage have the same meaning as:

territory, n severe, adj salty, adj?

2 What do –10˚C refer to?

3 Explain the word solonchak.


Date: 2014-12-22; view: 231


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