Day care facilities for children under five are provided by local authorities, by voluntary agencies and privately. In allocating places in the day nurseries and other facilities they themselves provide, local authorities give priority to children with special social or health needs for day care. They also register, and provide support and advice services for child-minders, private day nurseries and playgrounds operating in their areas.
The authorities are empowered to offer advice, guidance and assistance to families in difficulties to promote the welfare of children. The aim is to intervene at an early stage to reduce the need to receive children into care or bring them before a court.
The recognition, prevention and management of cases of child abuse are the joint concern of many authorities, agencies, and professions, and local review committees provide a forum for discussion and co-ordination and draw up policies and procedures for handling these cases. Under the provisions of the Criminal Justice Act 1988 and the Police and Criminal Evidence Order 1989, children under the age of 14 in child abuse cases are able to give evidence to courts though live television links, thus sparing them ordeal of giving evidence in open court.
Authorities must receive into their care any child under the age of 17 who has no parent or guardian, who has been abandoned, or whose parents are unable to provide for him or her, if they are satisfied that such intervention is in the best interests of the child. The child remains in care until the age of 18 unless discharged to the care of parents, other relatives or friends. The local authority may find it necessary to assume the rights and duties of one or both parents. The parents must be notified and if they object the matter is decided in a court of law. When taking a decision concerning a child in care, the authorities have to give first consideration to the need to safeguard and promote the welfare of the child. Where children are in care, every effort is made to work with their families in order, where appropriate, to enable the children to return home.
Children in England and Wales may be brought before a juvenile court if they are neglected or ill-treated, exposed to moral danger, are beyond the control of parents, not attending school or ( if 10 years or over ) have committed an offence other than homicide. At the same time it must be shown that the children need care or control which they are unlikely to receive unless a care order or other relevant order is made by the court. Local authorities are responsible for undertaking inquiries through social workers and consultation with parents, schools and the police. Children may be committed to the care of a local authority under a care order if the court considers this appropriate. As an alternative the court may order supervision by a social worker or a probation officer for up to three years.
A person who has cared for a child for some time may apply to a court for a custodianship order giving him or her legal custody of the child. On the making of such an order the custodian will have most of the parental rights and duties of a natural parent and will be able to make decisions about a child’s day-to-day care and upbringing, in the same way as a parent. Unlike an adoption order, a custodianship order may be revoked. The custodianship provisions do not extend to Northern Ireland.
10.to assume j. the need to receive children into care
k. the recognition,prevention and management
Find in the text the English equivalents for the following phrases.
Translate the sentences into English.
Answer the following questions.
a) What organizations provide day care facilities for children under 5?
b) What can you say about functions of local authorities?
c) What categories of children and at what age must the authorities receive into their care?
d) Till what age does the child remain in care?
e) When does the local authority assume the rights and duties of one or both parents? Must the parents be notified ?
f) In what cases is the matter of care decided in a court of law?
g) Why do the authorities work with the families whose children are in care?
h) Who is undertaking inquiries concerning children in need of care or control?
i) What is the difference between an adoption order and a custodianship order?
CHILD CARE. PART II.
Government proposals to reform the law on child care and family services in England and Wales have been implemented by Parliament. At present the legislation helps local authorities provide better help to children in need, including those with disabilities, strengthens the powers available to the courts for protecting children from abuse or neglect, and provides a better balance between parents and children’s rights.
Increasing use is being made of intermediate treatment, especially for young offenders. This is a community-based service which provides supervised activities, groupwork and individual counseling, a short, residential period may sometimes be included. A requirement to attend a programme of intermediate treatment may be added to a supervision order by the court.
In Northern Ireland the court may send children in need or in trouble to a training school, commit them to the care of a fit person, or make a supervision order. Children in trouble may be required to attend an attendance centre or may be committed to custody in a remand home. There is no provision for intermediate treatment to be included as a requirement of a supervision order in criminal cases. New child care legislation has been prepared in Northern Ireland: it reflects the changes proposed in England and Wales and makes a distinction between the treatment of children in need of care and young offenders.
In Scotland children in trouble or in need may be brought before a children’s hearing, which can impose a supervision requirement on a child if it thinks that compulsory measures of care are appropriate. Under these requirements most children are allowed to remain at home under the supervision of a social worker but some way live with foster parents or in a residential establishment while under supervision. Supervision requirements are reviewed at intervals of not more than one year until terminated by a children’s hearing or by the Secretary of State.
When appropriate, children in care are boarded out with foster parents, who receive an allowance to cover the cost of maintenance. If a foster home is not considered appropriate or cannot be found, the child may be placed in a children’s home, voluntary home or other suitable residential accommodation. Community homes for children in care in England and Wales comprise local authority and some voluntary children’s homes, and include community homes with education on the premises which provide long-term care, usually for more difficult children. In Scotland local authorities are responsible for placing children in their care in foster homes, in local authority or voluntary homes, or in residential schools. In Northern Ireland there are residential homes for children in the care of the health and social services boards; training schools and remand homes are administered separately. Regulations concerning registered voluntary homes and the boarding out of children in care are made by central government.
Read the following words and define their meanings.