Task: read and translate into Russian in written form.
Sociology is one of the social sciences. It occupies a prime position among a group of these sciences or disciplines, which include also anthropology, economics and political sciences.
The subject-matter of sociology is behavior of people as social beings. Sociology is the study of human social life, groups and societies. The scope of sociology is extremely wide, ranging from the analysis of everyday happenings with people in the street up to the investigation of global social processes.
Among the aims of sociology there are such as: discovering the basic structure of human society, identifying the main forces that hold groups together or weaken them, learning what conditions transform social life.
And still in the world there are different approaches to sociology. For some people sociology is the scientific study of society and social behavior. For others it is a guide for ordinary people to understand what is happening to them and how their social world operates. Both approaches are to be considered actual and interdependent at the present historical moment. A common sense question so what? should be used by a sociologist who is taking part in a research.
Almost everyone has some specialized knowledge of a social situation: a family, a work setting or a life style. The sociologist is respectful of this common sense knowledge and often depends on it. However, in the majority of cases it can be fragmentary and uncritical. Sociological research is to be more critical and more systematic. It is quite evident that for this reason sociology must often go beyond the categories of everyday life and must invent new categories to interpret events and experiences in a fresh light.
In order to understand how people behave and how they change it is always necessary to see it as a part of a broader social process. That is why sociologists closely study social context which helps a lot in interpreting things.
Sociology studies men and groups in action. The acting person is a specific human being who pursues goals, interprets experience, responds to opportunities and confronts difficulties.
The sociological emphasis on context and action points out to the concreteness of human experience. There is no abstract being called man, there are only particular persons who live their own lives in historical time. Awareness of plurality is essential for sociology. It studies the general and the particular, the abstract and the concrete.
Human interaction is another focus of sociology. A human being always interacts with his social environment. From his setting he derives aspirations, satisfactions, anxieties and social identity.
1. A human being always interacts with his environment. 2. studies men and groups, in action. 3. study involves close analysis of the sources of change. 4. The aim of sociology is to discover the basic structure of human . 5. Sociology is one of the social .
Ex. 5. Mark the statements that are true.
1. To understand how people behave the social context must be closely observed. 2. Sociology never goes beyond the categories of everyday life. 3. Some aspects of society are well known to most people. 4. Sociology studies animals and plants in action. 5. Awareness of plurality is essential for sociology. 6. Sociology is a probing discipline.
Ex. 6. Answer the questions on the text.
1. What kind of science is sociology? 2. Who is respectful of common-sense knowledge of a social situation? 3. What can be said about an abstract man? 4. To understand how people behave and how they change, the social context must be closely observed, mustnt it?