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UNIT 1 ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Adobe Systems 2000 (2001), "The year of the e-book", www.adobe.com/epaper/features/newleaf/main.html, .

[Manual request] [Infotrieve

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Ballard, T. (2000), "Adding a new dimension: e-books", Information Today, Vol. 17 No.4, pp.48.

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Bartlett, M. (2000), "E-book market set for explosion – IDC study", www.newsbytes.com/news/00/159594.html, .

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Brooker, A.M. (2000), "All about e-books", http://nzwriters.com.nz/help/e-books.htm, .

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Butterfield, K. (2000), "The e-book revolution: when will it happen", www.electronic-publisher.com/e-book/e-book_articles.htm, .

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(2002), "Hi-Tech Dictionary", Computer User, www.computeruser.com/resources/dictionary/, .

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Cox, A., Mohammed, H. (2001), "E-books", www.freeprint.co.uk/issues/010201.htm#feature, .

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Crawford, W. (2000), "Nine models, one name: untangling the e-book muddle", American Libraries, Vol. 31 No.8, pp.56-9.

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DiNucci, D. (1999), "Palm readers", Print, Vol. 53 No.5, pp.58+.

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DiNucci, D. (1999), "Electronic books: the future of publishing?", www.publish.com/features/9908/e-books/e-books.html, .

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Flash, C. (2000), "Will E-books ever really catch on?", www.techweb.com/wire/story/TWB20001214S0000, .

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Hawkins, D.T. (2000), "Electronic books: a major publishing revolution (part 1)", Online, Vol. 24 No.4, pp.14-28.

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Hayes, R.M. (2000), "The economics of digital libraries", www.usp.br/sibi/economics.html, .

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NetRead (2000), "The e-book", www.netread.com/howto/e-books/index.htm, .

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Neylon, E. (2001), "First steps in an information commerce economy: digital rights management in the emerging e-book environment", www.dlib.org/dlib/january01/neylon/01neylon.html, .

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Perlin, N. (1999), "Beyond the bleeding edge: e-books", www.stcsig.org/oi/hyperviews/archive/99Fall/994cedge.htm, .

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Pimm, B. (2002), "Author’s rights in the e-book revolution", www.gigalaw.com/articles/pimm-2000-10-p1.html, .

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Sottong, S. (1999), "Don’t power that e-book just yet (electronic books)", American Libraries, Vol. 30 No.5, pp.50-3.

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Unicorn (2000), "New models for book publishing", ww.it-director.com/articles.asp?id=122611, .

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UNIT 1 ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

 

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY Study the information about ecology and the environment and answer the questions after.



Speaking of the natural environment, we use the term ‘ecology’. This word was introduced in 1869 by German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) for the science studying the relationship of organisms with their environment. This word came from Greek ‘oikoş’ which means ‘home’. The idea of home includes our whole planet, its population, nature, animals, birds, fish, insects and all other living beings and even the atmosphere around our planet. For a long time ecological problems were considered only in the context of biology. But from the mid-20th century the ecological approach invaded all disciplines.

When we study ecology we study the environment and the way plants, animals and humans live together and affect each other. We can say that the environment includes the air, water and land in which people, animals and plants live, but we can also say that it is everything around us. In our everyday life we live in various environments, e.g. in the countryside, in the streets, at home, in the cinema, on a beach, at a swimming pool etc. These different environments may not seem to be connected, but in fact they are.

Ecology is the study of living things in their natural surroundings, or environment. This is everything, living and non-living, that is around them. Its basic features stay very much the same, e.g. the air that you breathe, but the details are constantly changing.

Ecology investigates how plants and animals, including people, live with and affect each other and their environment. A good starting point is yourself. Notice how you affect your own environment. Anything you do to your environment will have an effect back on you, as well as on every other living thing sharing the environment with you. The connections between all living things stretch into a vast web.

If we compare ecology and environment we understand that these words are sometimes used in the same way although they have different meanings. What’s the difference? Ecology is the natural relationship, environment refers to the places or situations. But ‘ecological’ and ‘environmental’ are sometimes used with the same nouns, e.g. an ecological disaster = an environmental disaster. Eco-friendly and environmentally friendly are also used as synonyms for products and methods which do not damage the environment.

People who are concerned about the environment are called eco-warriors (environmental activists). They are often referred to as ‘greens’, e.g. “Greenpeace” and “Friends of the Earth”.

1 What does ecology study?

2 What is the environment?

3 Why will people’s activity have an effect back on them?

4 Whose aim is to protect natural things?

 


Date: 2014-12-22; view: 594


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