· nature is seen as a mechanism (is not longer operated by Gods) => emergence of deism – notion of a God as a watch-maker, belief that God has created this perfect mechanism (world), but doesn’t intervene into it and people’s lives
This principle is behind the Protestants’ work ethic – it is good to work hard
What connections, if any, are there between the Renaissance and the Reformation?
Culturalchange, theemergenceof a newwayofthinking, especiallyindividualism (describedabove), secularizationoftheChurchandgeographicaldiscoveries (thatshowedpeopleotherreligions) causedthebeginningoftheReformation
AstheproximatecauseoftheReformationwasthepapacy'sattempttofinancethebuldingSaintPeter'sBasilicabysellingindulgences (theremissionofpunishmentfor a sinafterguilthadbeensacramentallyforgiven), peopleoftheRenaissancewiththeirnewwayofthinking (individualism, especially) reactedwiththeemergenceoftheReformation
Plus, printingpress (a developmentbroughtintouseduringtheRenaissance) madethespreadofProtestantismeasier
How did the Catholic Church react to the spread of Protestantism?
At first, Martin Luther’s revolt was considered another “monk’s quarrel” and the response to it was long delayed.
After 3 years after the Ninety-Five Theses were posted, Luther received the papal bull to sumbit, and publicly burned it.
Then an imperial ban on Luther as a heretic was placed, yet Luther’s theological insurgency rapidly expanded (as it was empowered by German princes and knights)
In the end, the Counter-Reformation was started by the Catholic Church. With inquisitions and spiritual teachers (Jesuits) travelling all over the world, it attempted to fight against Protestant influence and to prevent people from becoming Protestants.
What ultimately were the political and economic consequences of the Reformation?
Brutalwarsthatlastedforyears (also called “wars of religion”)
The Catholic Church was very corrupted at that time and increased its selling of indulgences (theremissionofpunishmentfor a sinafterguilthadbeensacramentallyforgiven) to finance the building of St. Peter’s Basilica
This, of course, seemed immoral to people and in 1517 Martin Luther (an Augustinian monk) published the Ninety-five Theses (the disputationprotests) which were later spread all over the Europe