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Which technological developments in 15th Century Europe made the Renaissance and Reformation possible?

 

Magneticcompass:

navigationacrosstheGlobemadepeoplequestiontheirowntraditionsandrevealtheerrorsoftheancientgeographers =>peoplenowhad a newsenseoftheirowncompetenceandevensuperiority

politicalandeconomicexpansion

 

Gunpowder:

demiseofthemedievalfeudalstructures

increaseofthestatepower

empowermentofsecularforcesagainsttheCatholicChurch

 

Mechanicalclock:

changedthehuman'srelationshipwithnaturerhythms, therefore, itsattitudetowork;

almosteverymechanism'sprototype;

aconceptofhowhumanbody, brainandnature work

nature is seen as a mechanism (is not longer operated by Gods) => emergence of deism notion of a God as a watch-maker, belief that God has created this perfect mechanism (world), but doesnt intervene into it and peoples lives

 

Printingpress:

democratizationofknowledge,

mindindependenceofpeople,

increaseofliteracy,

growthofindividualism (becauseoftheindividual, noncommunalformsofcommunicationandexperience)

 

2.What is Renaissance Humanism, and what is a Renaissance Man?

 

Humanism valuinghumanpotentialandcharacteristics (unlikethemedievalChristianidealinwhichpersonalidentitywaslargelyabsorbedinthecollectiveChristianbodyofsouls)

 

 

Emergenceof a newwayofthinking, outlook:

expansive, rebellious, energeticandcreative, individualistic, ambitiousandoftenunscrupulous, curious, self-condifent, commitedtothislifeandthisworld, open-eyedandskeptical, inspiredandinspirited

 

+ decompartmentalization nostrictdevisionsbetweendifferentrealmsofhumanknowledge; fullydevelopedmanwaspraised (example: LeonardodaVinci anartistand a scientist)

 

^thesearebasicallythecharacteristicsof a RenaissanceMan

 

 

3.What are the main principles of Protestantism put forward by Luther, and what do they suggest about the relationship of the individual to God?

 

Sola only

 

Sola Scriptura

the Bible contains all necessary knowledge for Christians, it is the only authority

therefore, the believes in purgatory, papal infallibility, transubstantiation and clerical celibacy are NOT held in Protestantism

 

Justification by faith alone (Only Faith)

God will reward you in the afterlife ONLY if you are a believer

Your deeds during life dont matter, you shoudnt do good things just to to go to the heaven

 

Priesthoodofallbelievers (OnlyGrace)

Youdontneed a priesttobe a middlemanbetweentheGodandyou

Directrelationshipwith God, no spiritual authority

Exampleof individualism

 

( , )

Vocation (Calling)

Everyday life and job are spiritually important

This principle is behind the Protestants work ethic it is good to work hard

 

What connections, if any, are there between the Renaissance and the Reformation?



 

Culturalchange, theemergenceof a newwayofthinking, especiallyindividualism (describedabove), secularizationoftheChurchandgeographicaldiscoveries (thatshowedpeopleotherreligions) causedthebeginningoftheReformation

 

AstheproximatecauseoftheReformationwasthepapacy'sattempttofinancethebuldingSaintPeter'sBasilicabysellingindulgences (theremissionofpunishmentfor a sinafterguilthadbeensacramentallyforgiven), peopleoftheRenaissancewiththeirnewwayofthinking (individualism, especially) reactedwiththeemergenceoftheReformation

 

Plus, printingpress (a developmentbroughtintouseduringtheRenaissance) madethespreadofProtestantismeasier

 

How did the Catholic Church react to the spread of Protestantism?

 

At first, Martin Luthers revolt was considered another monks quarrel and the response to it was long delayed.

After 3 years after the Ninety-Five Theses were posted, Luther received the papal bull to sumbit, and publicly burned it.

Then an imperial ban on Luther as a heretic was placed, yet Luthers theological insurgency rapidly expanded (as it was empowered by German princes and knights)

 

In the end, the Counter-Reformation was started by the Catholic Church. With inquisitions and spiritual teachers (Jesuits) travelling all over the world, it attempted to fight against Protestant influence and to prevent people from becoming Protestants.

 

What ultimately were the political and economic consequences of the Reformation?

 

Secularism, poweroftheChurchwentdown

Brutalwarsthatlastedforyears (also called wars of religion)

Arrangementoftolerationthatendedthewars

 

The Catholic Church was very corrupted at that time and increased its selling of indulgences (theremissionofpunishmentfor a sinafterguilthadbeensacramentallyforgiven) to finance the building of St. Peters Basilica

 

This, of course, seemed immoral to people and in 1517 Martin Luther (an Augustinian monk) published the Ninety-five Theses (the disputationprotests) which were later spread all over the Europe

 


Date: 2015-01-29; view: 115


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