Control measures: safety procedures/work instructions, adequate training, effective communications, good housekeeping, guards/safety devices/warning signs, adequate working environment, regular safety inspections, risk assessment
Information should be kept for all injuries, and preferably for near misses. The safety practitioner needs to design a suitable form to ensure that he gets the information that he needs for investigations: internal report form, HSE RIDDOR report, injury claim requirement
Accident Investigation Records: Name & personal details of victim, Date, day and time of accident, Location of accident, Occupation of victim, Job being done at time, Nature of injury or damage, What inflicted the injury or damage, Who had control of the cause of the injury or damage, What actually happened, Basic and immediate causes, Immediate remedial action taken, Recommendations to prevent recurrence
Accident records are useless if they are used only to count accidents. Detailed and thorough study of the records as part of the normal ongoing accident prevention programme should yield the following useful information:
• Relative importance of the various injury & damage sources
• Conditions, processes, machines and activities which cause the injuries/damage
• The extent of repetition of each type of injury or accident in each operation
• Accident repeaters, I.e. those workers who tend to be repeatedly injured or are involved in more accidents
• How to prevent similar accidents in future
Could be carried out by: Safety Practitioner, Management or Supervisor, Safety Representative, Inspector. A joint investigation by company/safety rep is often a good idea . An investigation which does not discover what went wrong, and produce some useful information and recommendations for corrective action, is just a waste of time
Investigation techniques: attend promptly, ensure medical attention, leave scene undisturbed, take photographs/sketches, take measurements, take samples, gather documentation, interview witnesses
4. What is BBS?
What is Behavior-Based Safety? Focuses on at-risk behaviors that can lead to injury, Focuses on safe behaviors that can contribute to injury prevention, BBS is an injury prevention process
The BBS Process
• Advanced Safety Awareness Training: SafeStart
• Job Task Analysis /Job Safety Analysis (JSA): Job task sequence/hazards for each step/how to eliminate each hazard.
• Behavioral Observations: Observe job task looking at safe and at-risk actions, Entered into data base/reports reviewed and action plans developed.
There are 3 types of at-risk behavior:
• conscious behavior
• habitual behavior
• unintentional behavior
BBS is about unintentional behavior and habitual behavior. To be more specific, it's about how to prevent mistakes or errors you never wanted to make in the first place.
BBS reflects a proactive approach to safety and health management , reflects a proactive approach to injury prevention
Behavior-based safety (BBS) is the "application of science of behavior change to real world problems". BBS "focuses on what people do, analyzes why they do it, and then applies a research-supported intervention strategy to improve what people do". At its very core BBS is based on a larger scientific field called Organizational Behavior Analysis.
To be successful a BBS program must include all employees, from the CEO to the floor associates. To achieve changes in behavior, a change in policy, procedures and/or systems most assuredly will also need some change. Those changes cannot be done without buy-in and support from all involved in making those decisions.
BBS is not based on assumptions, personal feeling, and/or common knowledge. To be successful, the BBS program used must be based on scientific knowledge.
A good BBS program will consist of:
· Common goals – Both employee and managerial involvement in the process
· Definition of what is expected – Specifications of target behaviors derived form safety assessments
· Observational data collection
· Decisions about how best to proceed based on those data
· Feedback to associates being observed
All of the BBS programs reviewed included multilevel teams. Some programs use them in the assessment phase, some in observation and some in review. Some had all three areas using multilevel teams.
Some argue that behavior-based safety must also have attitude adjustment to be sustaining as it has been proven that "behavior influences attitude and attitude influences behavior". The goal should be small gains over and over again; continuous growth. BBS is not a quick fix. It is a commitment.
There are numerous programs on how to implement behavior-based safety programs. They vary in price, detail and commitment. But the goal is always the same: eliminate injury. A review of all scientific publications on behavior-based safety since the mid 1970s to date shows that different approaches exert different effects. Focusing on workgroups, in static settings was demonstrated to be the most efficient at behavior change and injury reduction. Different configurations of the design elements also affects the Return on Investment, with one producing $1.7 million, per 200,000 hours worked, while another loses $2 million per 200,000 hours worked