World Trade Organization (WTO)
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION is the organization of global value. It is based in 1995. The purpose is streamlining of rules of international trade. For 2008 in the WTO totaled 153 countries-participants. The Headquarters is in Geneva (Switzerland). The WTO it is created on the basis of GATT (the general agreement under tariffs and trade). According to the charter, the WTO can settle only trade and economic questions.
The organization is attempting to complete negotiations on the Doha Development Round, which was launched in 2001 with an explicit focus on addressing the needs of developing countries. As of June 2012, the future of the Doha Round remains uncertain: the work programme lists 21 subjects in which the original deadline of 1 January 2005 was missed, and the round is still incomplete. The conflict between free trade on industrial goods and services but retention of protectionism on farm subsidies to domestic agricultural sector(requested by developed countries) and the substantiation of the international liberalization of fair trade on agricultural products (requested by developing countries) remain the major obstacles. These points of contention have hindered any progress to launch new WTO negotiations beyond the Doha Development Round. As a result of this impasse, there has been an increasing number of bilateral free trade agreements signed. As of July 2012, there are various negotiation groups in the WTO system for the current agricultural trade negotiation which is in the condition of stalemate.
WTO's current Director-General is Pascal Lamy, who leads a staff of over 600 people in Geneva, Switzerland.
17. Institutions of the European Union. Important treaties and events.
The Union has an institutional framework aimed at defending its values, objectives and interests, the interests of its citizens and those of its Member States. This framework also contributes to ensuring the coherency, effectiveness and continuity of Community policies and actions.
According to Article 13 of the Treaty on European Union, the institutional framework is composed of 7 institutions:
· the European Parliament; which represents the EU’s citizens and is directly elected by them;
· the European Council
· the Council of the European Union (simply called “the Council”); which represents the governments of the individual member countries. The Presidency of the Council is shared by the member states on a rotating basis.
· the European Commission; which represents the interests of the Union as a whole.
· the Court of Justice of the European Union;
· the European Central Bank;
· the Court of Auditors.
Each institution acts within the limits of their remit, granted in the Treaties in line with the procedures, conditions and purposes laid down therein.
The European Parliament, the Council and the Commission are assisted by an Economic and Social Committee and a Committee of the Regions performing advisory functions.
The main treaties are:
Date: 2015-01-29; view: 537