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VOCABULARY PRACTICE

Exercise 1.

 

Make up words with the help of “derivational trees”. Point out classes to which they belong (N, V, Adj, Adv). Translate into Russian in writing the following sentences containing parts of the “derivational trees.” Consult a dictionary if necessary.

 

manage promote

       
 
   
 


-er -able -ment -er -tion

       
   
 


-ess -al -ibility -al

 

1 The company’s failure last year was due to ineffective management.

2 The union has agreed to talks with senior management.

3 One classic study of managers identified three important types of managerial skills: technical, interpersonal and conceptional.

4 The manageress of the hotel was very young and inexperienced.

5 The rate of inflation has been brought down to a more manageable level.

6 There are good chances of promotion in this firm.

7 They launched a big advertising campaign to promote their new toothpaste.

8 Because of her tremendous success she was then promoted to the position of the top financial manager.

 

GRAMMAR GUIDE 1

 

There are a few instances of the Subjunctive Mood in TEXT A. For example, in the sentence “The company usually requires that a middle manager (should) implement the policies and plans developed by top management” the forms “should implement” or “implement” are the Subjunctive Mood

The Subjunctive in English is the name of a group of verb-forms (most of them are homonymous to those of the Indicative Mood) which are used after certain verbs (or after impersonal expressions with the same meaning) in subordinate clauses (usually after “that”) to express hypothetical situations that are supposed, recommended, required, insisted upon and the like.

e.g. I suggest that we send/ should send a consultant to investigate their marketing problems

e.g. The University requires that every student take/ should take this course

What we understand by the Subjunctive includes two kinds of forms some of which are used differently in British and American English (“should send”, “should take” might be regarded as normal in British English, while “send”, “take” are formal in British English and normal in American English.)

 

1. Synthetical forms

 

a) the Present Subjunctive

 
 
be, have, do, know ...


I, he, she, we, you, they

 

e.g. The committee has recommended that the training programme be improved.

 

b) the Past Subjunctive

 
 
were, had, did, knew ...


I, he, she, we, you, they

 

e.g. I wish I were 16.

e.g. I wish I knew how to do it. Reference

to the present.

 

c) the Past Perfect Subjunctive

 
 
had been, had had, had done, had known...




I, he, she, we, you, they

 

e.g. I wish I had known about their transaction yesterday. ( e.g. I wish he had done business with me last year. Reference to the past.

 

2. Analytical forms

 

should + be/ have/ do/ know ...
I, he, she, we, you, they

 

e.g. The committee has recommended that the training programme should be improved.

e.g. I suggested that the marketing problems should be investigated immediately.

 

Note 1

 

The Present Subjunctive forms and the analytical forms of the Subjunctive are used:

 

a) after the verbs demand (suggest (), propose (), recommend, require (), urge (), insist (), move () and other verbs with similar meanings followed by THAT-CLAUSE.

b) after impersonal expressions:

       
   

 


It is (was)

necessary important obligatory advisable desirable     that the training programme (should) be improved
  It is (was) suggested demanded requested recommende d decided     that the training programme (s hould) be improved

 

Note 2

 

After the verb “wish” the conjunction “that” is omitted:

e.g. I wish I had read this book. (But I had no time to read it.)

 

Note 3

 

The Subjunctive Mood forms are used in subordinate clauses of purpose after the conjunctions “so that”, “in order that”, “lest”, usually in formal style.

e.g. In order that there should be no misunderstanding, we propose to issue these instructions to every employee in writinge.g. Lest anyone (should) worry that this will lead to price increases, let me reassure them that it will not.

Note 4

 

If subordinate clauses are not used after verbs and expressions conveying hypothetical meaning, they should be followed by the Infinitive or a Noun (or a Gerund).

e.g. The speaker urged us to give our financial support.

e.g. The speaker urged immediate action against the illegal transaction.

e.g. He insisted on immediate repayment.

e.g. She demanded to speak to the manager.

 

Exercise 10

 

Use the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Translate the sentences into Russian, in writing.

 

1 I wish I (to be) an employee of the bank.

2 The party was awful, and we all wished we never (to go ) to it.

3 They strongly recommend that the new company (to be modelled) on the existing structure.

4 I wish she (to be) punctual and careful at work. Otherwise she wouldn’t have lost her job with this company.

5 Mr. Chairman, I move that the meeting (to be continued) after dinner.

6 The shareholders have demanded that all the facts concerning the company’s insolvency (to be made) public.

7 I suggested that we (to go) on holiday and she agreed at once.

8 It was advisable that they (to speak) to the bank’s president immediately.

9 It was advised that my answers during the job interview (to be) brief, polite and businesslike.

10 It is necessary that he (to find ) the books on financial management.

11 It is important that you (to learn) how to operate a computer.

 


Date: 2015-01-12; view: 111


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