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The group includes the nouns: breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper and tea.

· Names of meals are used without articles when you are talking in general about the standard meals of the day.

When did you have dinner?

I have finished breakfast.

· The definite article is used when the nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes them definite.

The supper was very different from the one of the evening before. The dinner was excellent, but Isabel noticed that John ate very little.

· The indefinite article is used if the name of a meal is modi­fied by a descriptive attribute.

I'll try to give you a decent lunch.

Walter wanted a very special dinner.

You can get a good supper here.

Occasionally, owing to a change of meaning, names of meals be­come countable nouns. This occurs in the following cases:

· when they denote a special formal occasion (dinner party, tea party) Both the definite and the indefinite articles may be found here.

Fleur said: "We had a dinner last night."

· when they denote a portion. In this case the noun is used with the indefinite article denoting one.

I have not enough money to buy a dinner at such an expensive restaurant.

 



 



Practice

Exercise1 Explain the use of articles with nouns denoting seasons. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. The year wore on and it was summer. 2. The winter was coming on. 3. It was a warm and glowing autumn, and she lay in the mellow sunshine. 4. I think the country in winter would be horrible, don't you? 5. The summer was here with its bright, short nights. 6. People realized that winter must come sooner or later, and were determined to make the most of the sun while it lasted. 7. "It has been a terrible summer," he said. 8. He cleaned the barn for the winter. 9. Through the autumn, a busy time for me, I was often uneasy. 10. It was late summer. 11. In March came the first break in the winter. 12. We had a short summer this year. 13. To walk in the garden and watch the spring returning was like rediscovering the world. 14. Later when it grew warmer and the sun seemed as hot as in summer, she would go out into the garden. 15. She went to Scotland for the summer.

 



Exercise 2 Insert articles where necessary.

1. It was _____ winter, and _____ night of bitter cold. 2. You see, ____ winter was _____ very bad time for me, and I really had no money at all to buy ____ bread. 3. It was _____very dark evening for _____ summer. 4. _____summer drew to _____ end and _____ early autumn. 5. "I wondered if_____ autumn would come upon us two months before her time. 6. It was _____ lovely evening in _____ spring time of _____ year; and in _____ soft stillness of _____ twilight, all _____ nature was very calm and beautiful. _____ day had been fine and warm; but at _____ coming on of _____ night, _____ air grew cool. 7. There was going to be _____ election soon, we all knew: this was _____ spring of 1955. 8. It was _____ fine day, early in _____ spring, and we were in _____ good humour.

 



Exercise 3 Explain the use of articles with nouns denoting parts of the day. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. It was almost noon. 2. "Lewis! What are you doing at this time of night?" I heard the well-known voice. 3. I sat all night reading. 4. In the evening of the departure the whole village turned out to give us the promised farewell dinner. 5. He used to spend the morning lying about the beach. 6. Toward midnight he saw the gleam of many lights. 7. It was high noon when I woke. 8. Twilight was falling when they came back to the great city. 9. At ten o'clock on a hot September evening he strolled idly down the street. 10. And in the afternoon I used to lie alone, and watch the sun get lower and lower. 11. He always slept late on Sunday morning. 12. It was not a warm afternoon. 13. I made my speech yesterday night. 14. The day was hot and muggy.

 



Exercise 4 Insert articles where necessary.

1. ____ morning was bright and sunny. 2. It all happened on ____ bright and sunny morning. 3. When ____ morning came we were already far out in the sea. 4. It was ____ early morning; the sun had just risen. 5. It was early in ____ morning that a loud knock at the door took me out of bed. 6. _____ day broke cold and windy. 7. The sun rose heralding the break of _____ day. 8. We returned late in ____ afternoon. 9. It was _____ late afternoon when we returned. .10. Now and then, a low roll of thunder broke _____ night. 11. _____ evening fell; lights began to appear in the windows. 12. It is pleas­ant to go for a stroll on such _____ evening. 13. The elevator was closed for _____ night and she slowly walked up the two flights of stairs. 14. We are expecting them towards _____ evening. 15. He spent _____ restless night, thinking of what could be done. 16. In ____ winter they used to plan what they would do on ____ warm day in _____ summer. 17. Have you got enough wood for _____winter? 18. It was _____ wild and snowy winter.

 



Exercise 5 Insert articles where necessary.

1. Outside it was _____ night. 2. It was _____ warm summer night. 3. _____ night outside seemed very quiet. 4. It was _____ foggy evening in November. 5. During _____ evening we played innumerable games. It was __ evening, and he was walking across the school grounds on his way home. 7. He wondered what hour it was. ____ sun seemed to indicate _____ late morning. 8. I think it's going to be _____ fine morning, after all. 9. _____ morning was cold and sharp and sunny. 10. It is _____ early morning. 11. We are going to have _____ ideal night. 12._____ night being sharp and frosty, we trembled with cold. 13. It was early in _____ afternoon. 14. _____ night was _____ windy one, with broken clouds drifting swiftly across _____ face of _____ three-quarter moon. 15. I was up at six in _____ morning. 16. She has had _____ bad night, probably _____ rather delirious night. 17. _____ fine September after­noon was dying fast. 18. I persuaded him to stay _____ night with me, and I put him into my own bed. 19. It was _____ morning after Roger had talked to me and Margaret and I were sitting at _____ breakfast. 20. I shall not forget _____ evening I spent with him. 21. It was as lovely _____ morning as one could desire. 22. It was _____ glorious night. _____ moon had sunk, and left _____ quiet earth alone with _____ stars. 23. Every day I was up at _____ dawn, clearing, planting, working on my house, and at _____ night when I threw myself on my bed it was to sleep like _____ log till _____ morning.

 



Exercise 6 Read the sentences and comment on the nouns in bold type. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. They ate supper together in the kitchen. It was a simple meal that Maggie had prepared quickly: scrambled eggs, English muffins, and coffee. 2. Supper is ready at last, everyone, sit to table! 3. They arrived at Sunlaws in time for lunch. 4. I asked Matilde to make a fairly simple lunch. 5. We'll be having a late lunch today. 6. Breakfast is served, sir. 7. And anyway, it's not often that you get a traditional English Sunday breakfast now, is it? 8. The breakfast was orange juice and cornflakes with milk. 9. He opens the mail immediately after breakfast. 10. We haven't had dinner yet. 11. They had a quiet dinner together. 12. After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile. 13. They had a dinner for six. 14. We'll have to have an early dinner today. 15. Every now and then I would go to the kitchen to have a look at the dinner. 16. — "I'm glad you've come for tea. I've made us a lovely tea.

 



Exercise 7 Insert articles where necessary.

1. We usually have ­­­____ dinner at four. 2. What shall we buy for ____ supper? 3. They had ____ breakfast of bread-and-butter and an omelette. 4. ____dinner is served. 5. After this splendid perfor­mance they sat down to ____ supper. 6. They had ____ filling but not-too-nourishing breakfast. 7. They decided upon ____ light supper. 8. ____ supper was fish and chips. 9. At last ____ dinner came to an end, but the three went on sitting for a while over their coffee. 10. I made his acquaintance at ____official dinner. 11. The consul gave ____ lun­cheon in honour of our delegation. 12. He invited me to a restau­rant and treated me to ____ expensive supper.

 



Exercise 8 Insert articles where necessary.

1. Mozart wrote music in _____late 1700's. 2. _____ Middle Ages began after the fall of the Roman Empire. 3. Do we now live in _____ Space Age or _____Computer Age? 4. All of the dinosaurs died at the end of _____Cretaceous Period. 5. _____Victorian Era was named after Queen Victoria. 6. _____1960's were a time of rapid change. 7. In _____ Bronze Age, people first mixed the copper with tin. 8. _____ Renaissance was a time of great learning. 9. Flowering plants first appeared in _____ Cretaceous Period. 10. In _____ early Cambrian Period, _____ beginning of _____ Paleozoic Era, there was not an extinction but an explosion of life.

 



Exercise 9 Translate the following sentences into English paying special attention to the use of articles with name of seasons.

1. Це трапилося восени минулого року. 2. Пізня осінь – це час, коли природа готується до зими. 3. Кажуть, буде рання весна. 4. Більшість людей надає перевагу відпочинку у літню пору. 5. Осінь була надзвичайно теплою. Погода стояла ясна та сонячна. 6. Літо 1941 року було надзвичайно спекотним. 7. Протягом літа я часто зустрічався зі своїми шкільними друзями. 8. Вони мали одружитися на самому початку весни. 9. Літо, яке Сьюзі провела з Ларрі, було найщасливішим періодом у її житті. 10. Я гадаю, ти знаєш, що Ларрі провів у Нью Йорку усю зиму. 11. Того року зима була дуже холодною. 12. Протягом зими середня температура була мінус 10˚. 13. Зима була вже на носі, а в неї ще не було теплого одягу. 14. Взимку 1985 року вона перемогла на змаганнях. 15. Наступної зими ми поїдемо в Карпати.

 



Exercise 10 Translate the following sentences into English paying special attention to the use of articles with names of parts of the day.

1. Ніч. Незабаром настане світанок. 2. Мій сусід – фотограф. Він зазвичай вночі виявляє плівку. 3. Ми прокинулися рано в ранці, щоб побачити схід сонця. 4. Діти обіцяли повернутися додому до вечора. 5. За моїм годинником північ. Ось день і закінчився. 6. Була морозна січнева ніч. 7. Яка казкова ніч! 8. Він працював день за вдень. 9. Ніч перед Різдвом – самий чарівний час. 10. Після заходу завжди холоднішає. 11. Він пише вірші з ранку до ночі. 12. Він переночував у приятеля. 13. І вдень і вночі вона думала лише про свою дитину. 14. Дуже приємно поїхати за місто у ясний літній день. 15. Він провів безсонну ніч і тому був блідим.

 



Exercise 11 Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Був ранок. Був ранній ранок. Був теплий літній ранок. Він народився раннім ранком. Мені важко прокидатися рано вранці. Ранок був прохолодний, але сонячний. Який гарний ранок! Ми дістанемося міста до ранку. 2. Настав день. Це був туманний день, день нашого від’їзду. День був дощовий. Що ти зазвичай робиш протягом дня? Ця подія трапилася якось одного похмурого вересневого дня. 3. Був полудень. Полудень – це 12 годин. Домогосподарки намагаються зробити усі покупки до полудня. Відвідувач з’явився лише опівдні. 4. Був після полуденний час. Ми любили пити чай після полудня. Маленькі діти зазвичай сплять після полудня. Ми присвятили після полуденний час читанню. 5. Був вечір. Був морозний водохресний вечір. Вечір був теплим. Був пізній вечір. Мені завжди хочеться спати по вечорах. Ти підеш на прогулянку ввечері? Ми закінчили все до вечора. 6. Настала ніч. Була ніч Була тиха зоряна ніч. Я люблю дивитися на зірки вночі. Ніч дула спокійною. Бура продовжувалася всю ніч. Ми вирушили туди у суботу вночі. Сьогодні в мене нічне чергування. Його охороняють вдень і вночі. Я цілий місяць не лягав спати рано. 7. Схід – це час, коли сходить сонце. Ми гуляли ,сміялися, розмовляли до світанку. 8. Весна – це пора року між зимою та літом. Навесні стає тепліше. Він поїхав навесні 1996 року. Була рання весна. Осінь – це пора весіль. Пізня осінь. Осінь була дощовою. Яка гарна осінь!

 



Exercise 12 Translate into English paying special attention to the use of articles with names of meals.

1. Це був грандіозний обід. Було запрошено багато знаменитостей. 2. Скільки ми маємо заплатити за обід? 3. Я ще не вирішила, що приготувати на обід. Боюся, в нас сьогодні буде пізній обід. 4. Обід готовий. Будьте ласкаві, сідайте всі за стіл. 5. Покоївка поставила сніданок на тацю і понесла його до спальні пані. 6. Він обговорює усі важливі питання після вечері. 7. Нажаль, у нас сьогодні буде дуже проста вечеря. 8. Зранку вона не снідає, але влаштовує собі поживний другий сніданок. 9. Посольство влаштовує званий сніданок с приводу свята. 10. Вечеря у китайському ресторані була дуже гострою. 11. – Скільки коштує комплексний обід? – Дуже дешево. 12. Який смачний обід! Ви чудовий кухар. 13. Не запізнюйся на обід! 14. Сніданок складався із хліба з маслом, сира та кави. 15. Наші знайомі запросили нас на обід. 16. Ми поснідали о восьмій годині. 17. Ми замовили обід із трьох страв. 18. У цій їдальні ви завжди можете скуштувати гарячий сніданок. 19. Зазвичай у неділю у нас гості до вечері. 20. Поспішайте! Вечеря холоне.

 



Exercise 13 Translate into English paying special attention to the use of articles with names of meals.

1. Раніше це був банкетний зал. Він і зараз використовується лише в окремих випадках, наприклад, під час святкових обідів та балів. 2. Під час обіду Мері не промовила а ні слова. Вона просто стояла і спостерігала за мною. 3. Джейн та Пітер були запрошені на обід. 4. Лише подивись, скільки ти з’їв на сніданок! 5. Ми повернулися до дому о дев’ятій година і з’їли легку вечерю. 6. Я пригощу вас тутешнім обідом. Моя дружина чудово готує. 7. За сніданком Джейн ледве доторкнулася до їжі. 8. Я помітив, що той обід чимось відрізнявся від звичайного. 9. Якщо в тебе буде вільний вечір, зателефонуй мені. Я приготую тобі вечерю. 10. – Ось нарешті і вони. Якраз вчасно до чаю. 11. Я пригощу вас найсмачнішою вечерею, яку ви можете скуштувати в цьому місті. 12. Вона почала одягатися до обіду, на який її запросив Джексон. 13. За сніданком я швидко поїв та пішов на роботу. 14. В нього було достатньо грошей купити вечерю в тому дорогому ресторані. 15. Коли всі посідали пити чай, місіс Марч сказала: „У мене є для вас приємний сюрприз після чаю”.

 



Exercise14 Translate the following sentences into English.

1. В нашому районі ЖЕК працює двічі на тиждень: у середу та п’ятницю. Додатково відвідувачі ще можуть звернутися кожну другу та четверту суботу. 2. Холодний травень – це не дуже природно для нашої місцевості. 3. Люди похилого віку часто згадують травень 1945 року. 4. Кажуть, що люди, які народилися у понеділок нещасливі. 5. В нашій групі заняття з англійської мови відбуваються тричі на тиждень: по понеділках, по середах, по четвергах. 6. Якось у п’ятницю Джек запропонував Мері піти в кіно. 7. У шестидесятих роках минулого століття поезія була дуже популярною. 8. Динозаври вимерли у кінці крейдового періоду. 9. Да Вінчі творив у період ренесансу. 10. Великдень завжди випадає на неділю. 11. Минуле завжди поєднує людей. 12. У кам’яному віці люди не знали, як використовувати метал.

 



Unit 12

The Use of Articles with Some Semantic Groups of Nouns (2)

Names of Diseases

This group includes a considerable number of uncountable nouns: pneumonia, influenza (flu in colloquial English), scarlet fever, cholera, diabetes, anaemia, cancer, diabetes, diphtheria, hepatitis, tuberculosis, mumps and measles (The latter are both used with a singular verb), etc.

· Names of diseases are generally found without any article, as in most cases they are used just to name the kind of disease.

The doctor said he had pneumonia and told him to keep warm.

· The definite article may be used with names of diseases in a clear case of back reference or if there is a particularizing attribute.

The family was sitting around watching TV, recovering from the flu.

After the diphtheria Jane felt very weak and depressed.

Note1 Remember to use the mumps, the measles, the flu

The boy Roger arrived home with the measles.

The mumps causes swelling of the glands.

Note 2 Certain nouns which are not special medical terms are, however, used to name diseases. They may be countable, such as “cold, chill, cough” or uncountable.

He had a (bad, splitting) headache.

He had a toothache.

He had a sore throat.

He had heart trouble.

I have a boil on my hand.

She had a bruise on her leg.

Words ending in “-ache” behave in different ways, in British English. They may be countable or uncountable, so you can say:

I’ve got earache.

I’ve got an earache.

However “headache” is a count noun, and so you can have “a headache” or regular “headaches”, but you cannot say “I’ve got headache”.

Next morning she complained of a headache.

In American English all “-ache” words are count nouns.

 



Names of musical instruments

· When you are talking about someone’s ability to play a musical instrument you use the definite article.

She already played the guitar.

I became interested in the piano again. (= interested in playing the piano)

· If you want to talk about roles in a musical group or in a piece of music you use no article.

I don’t think I know of any duets for piano and trumpet.

· There is also no article after “on”, meaning “playing”

I have bought a recording featuring Ray Brown on bass.

· If you talk about either the general class of instrument or any particular instrument you use the definite or indefinite article.

The guitar can have six or twelve strings. (entire class)

A guitar can have six or twelve strings. (any guitar)

Media and communications

Words in this category are:

(the) television (the) telly (the) TV the box (the) radio the news the telephone the phone the newspapers the press the paper the post (Br) the mail (Am)

· When systems of mass communication and the media are referred to these nouns are used with the definite article (or sometimes without an article). In this way they can be distinguished from actual objects; 'a radio' will always be a particular object, but 'the radio' could refer to a system, as in this example.

We gather facts and attitudes from the press, the television and the radio.

I just heard her speaking on the radio

A large part of Linda's day is spent on the telephone.

But ‘by telephone' and 'by phone'

One morning an amazing letter arrived through the post.

But ‘by post'

The papers are saying how unusual it is.

· When referring to television as a form of entertainment, there is no article. But the definite article is also used (which tends to be informal)

He isn't as serious as he is on television.

Note The abbreviations, ‘TV, ‘telly’ and 'the box' (always with the) can be used in the same way.

I don't want to be seen on the telly.

· When referring to radio as an art form or profession there is no article.

He had already become a climbing spokesman on radio.

Names of means of transport

· Names of means of transport are used with the definite article when you are referring to a whole transport system or naming the form of transport

Here is a list of words in this category.

Boat Train bus Hovercraft Underground (Br) Subway (Am) Plane Tube (Br) Ferry tram

How long does it take on the train?

She sent a cable to her husband and caught the plane back to New York.

I walked to the tube instead of spending money on a taxi

Note 1 With “underground”, “tube”, “subway”, you can use the definite article to refer not only to the form of transport, but also to the location.

I am alone in the underground waiting for a train.

Note 2taxi, car, bicycle, ship” are not used in this way, because they do not offer a systemic means of transport.

If you say “Take the car/taxi/ bicycle” you must be referring to a particular car, taxi, bicycle.

· When these nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute and when it is clear from the context what vehicle you are talking about.

Quick! Get on the train. It’s ready to leave.

· Names of means of transport are used with the indefinite article when we mean one of many vehicles which runs on roads.

I saw Jake this morning. He was on a bus which passed me.

· All these words can be used after “by” without an article to describe the form of transport used, for example: “by bus”, “by train”, “by plane”.

I don’t often travel by bus.

You can also use the following words after “by” without an article.

Air Bicycle road Bike Cab taxi Car Rail   Sea Ship  

 

Forms of entertainment

· When you are talking about someone going to enjoy a form of entertainment you use the definite article with the word for the form of entertainments. Words like these are: “cinema”, (Am “movies”), “theatre”, “opera”, “ballet

Let’s go to the movies.

You have seen things. You have been to the opera, the ballet, the theatre.

Here we are not thinking of a particular performance of an opera or ballet, or a particular theatre building, but just of the form of entertainment.

· Cinema, theatre, opera, ballet, as well as dance, film, and television, can be used as uncountable nouns without an article to refer to the art form.

They are supreme artists of dance and theatre

I’ve seen a very fine piece of cinema.

But if these nouns indicate a particular object, the articles are used with them in accordance with the general rules. But this case is not common.

We found that the film was on at a cinema across the river.

 



Names of institutions in society

· These nouns are used without any article when, as part of set phrases, they lose their concrete meaning and express the purpose which the objects denoted by these nouns serve.

Here is a list of words that can be used like this.

school college university hospital prison jail camp church court

Thus hospital comes to denote treatment, prison, jail—punishment, school, college, university—studies, church - worshipping.

· When these nouns denote concrete objects the articles are used according to the general principle. Compare the following examples.

After lunch Dr. Reily went off to the hospital.

"How long were you in hospital with that wound?" she asked.

They had a hospital in the town during the war.

The road to the prison was blocked by policemen.

He would be sent to prison if he were caught.

Perhaps he was in a German prison.

It should be noted that the use of a descriptive attribute or a particularizing attribute destroys the idiomatic meaning of the phrases in question.

He was sent to school.

He was sent to a secondary (good, public) school.

He was sent to the best school in the town.

Note. Americans say “the hospital” instead of “hospital” for institutional reference.

The words bed, table and occasionally market behave in a similar way; without an article they lose their concrete meanings.

He went to bed early, but lay awake for a long time.

I softly drew the chair to the bed and sat down.

I found a bed made up for me.

I asked her to tell me who all the people at table were.

Madame Duclerk sat at the table darning socks.

In the cafe we had a table to ourselves, but those around us were soon filled.

 



Parts of the body

Names of parts of the body, like hand, face, knee are usually count nouns used with the definite or the indefinite article according to the standard rules.

There is also a use where we are thinking of parts of the body touched by an outside object. For this you can use the definite article.

It bit her on the leg.

She had the urge to beat him over the head.

When the noun comes straight after a verb such as “grab” or after a verb and a preposition, for example step on, you have to use a possessive determiner.

I stepped on his foot (not I stepped on the foot).

Robert touched her cheek.

Geographical oppositions

· the definite article is used before a number of nouns to indicate geographical alternatives, for example the town - the country and the sea - the land.

There are compensations in the town, particularly for older children.

I'd gone to the country with some friends.

There are a lot of tourists who take their holidays in the mountains rather than at the seaside.

We are not referring to a particular place, for example a particular town or forest. We are talking about the types of landscape or geographical environments where people live, work, or go for holidays.

Here are some words which are used like this.

the city the country the countryside the desert the forest the jungle the land the mountains the plains the sea the seaside the town

He wasn’t used to life in the country because he spent twenty years in town.

'The country' in this context means areas where there are no towns or cities. You can sometimes use 'the countryside' with a similar meaning.

Note1 When the noun town is opposed to the noun country and when the nearest town or town somebody lives in is meant there is no article.

I have to go to town.

Note2 The noun sea is used in certain prepositional expressions without the.

My brother has gone to sea.

Names of shops and other businesses

Shops and other businesses that are regular features in towns or cities can be used with the definite article when you do not want to pick out a particular one.

He’s at the dentist’s.

Mother sent me to the butcher’s to get a nice joint of beef.

Some words like this are:

baker’s bank pub barber’s dentist’s doctor’s greengrocer’s hairdresser’s post office  

In these cases the activity is as important as the place. You go “to the post office” to get some stamps, “to the bank” to get some money.

If you want to have some drink you can say “Let’s go to the pub” without having a particular one in mind. But of course the difference is not always clear, or important.

When he tired of painting he went to the pub.

Names of languages and religions

· Names of languages and religions are used without any article unless the nouns language and religions are mentioned: English, French, Hinduism.

But: the English language, the Italian language, the Hindu religion.

Note. Notice the phrases: Translated from the German. and What is the French for "book"?

· Names of languages and religions are used with the definite article if they have been made definite.

The Spanish in the movie I saw last week was poorly pronounced.

 



Names of grammati­cal categories

· We find the definite article with names of some grammati­cal categories, such as names of tenses, moods, voices, cases and others: the Past Indefinite, the Passive Voice, the Conditional Mood, the Genitive Case.

· Use the indefinite article if you want to describe one particular instance: Singing is a Present Participle.

 



Practice

Exercise 1 In the sentences below, only one of the underlined noun groups is appropriate. Cross out the one that is wrong.

1. A train/The train would be best; it leaves every hour. 2. He was a supreme master of ballet/a ballet. 3. Both of them found work in hospital/the hospital. 4. Can you play a guitar/the guitar? 5. Lithuanian borders were set up in the spring/a spring. 6. Since they built the bridge no one uses a ferry/the ferry any more. 7. She has returned to a theatre/the theatre after an absence of five years. 8. She could not imagine people going to church/the church looking so dull and unhappy. 9. I once played a guitar/the guitar which had only five strings. 10. In a summer/summer it’s hot but in winter/a winter it’s very cold. 11. Next year you’ll be able to go by hovercraft; they’re starting a new service. It’ll be much quicker than a boat/the boat. 12. Our lives are dominated by televisions/a television. 13. The door was closed when I went to bed/the bed. 14. She started learning a piano/the piano at the age of five. 15. During a day/the day it was very hectic but at the night/night it was desolate.

 



Exercise 2 In the sentences below, only one of the underlined noun groups is appropriate. Cross out the one that is wrong.

1. You’ll have no trouble getting home; a bus/the bus doesn’t stop running till midnight. 2. This town is boring. What we need is a cinema/the cinema. 3. We drove to university/the university, opposite which was a temple. 4. I’ve always had a flute/the flute, ever since I was a child. 5. What are you doing after lunch on Tuesday/a Tuesday? 6. There are many ways for tourists to get around London. If you don’t mind travelling in tunnels, take an underground/the underground; if you like to see where you’re going, sit on the top deck of a bus/the bus; and if you’re in a hurry, take a taxi/the taxi. 7. “You’re dressed up.” – “Yes, we’re going to opera/the opera.” 8. Robert moved closer to the bed/bed. 9. I’m afraid a violin/the violin is an instrument I never mastered. 10. Past/The past is forgotten. 11. Film/The film is both a respected art form and a form of mass entertainment. 12. People get sent to the prison/prison for that sort of thing. 13. It was summer/a summer of intense heat. 14. “What can we do tonight?” – “Well, we could go to movies/the movies.” 15. How are we going to get from the church/church to the reception? 16. Air force relief flights continue in morning/the morning. 17. I wanted to go to university/the university but I wanted to be an actor more. 18. I did a lot of work in Hamburg in the eighties/eighties.

 



Exercise 3 Write the correct article where necessary.

The Piano and the Guitar

There are several reasons why I believe that ____ piano and ____ guitar are ____ best instruments that ____ person can learn to play. First of all, both are extremely popular and can be found nearly everywhere. This gives ____ player more opportunities to enjoy ____ instruments and to practice them. In addition, neither ____ guitar nor ____ piano will get in the way if you want to sing. Have you ever seen ____ tubist sing and play – or ____ trombone player? Whether you enjoy ____ classical music or ____ jazz is not important. All forms of music – rock, jazz, country or classical – can easily be played on either. Studying ____ piano is ____ especially good way to understand written music because of its logically arranged keys, and ____ knowledge of ____ guitar is ____ wonderful introduction to many orchestral instruments such as ____ violin, ____ cello, and ____ bass. Indeed, if I had to start again, I would certainly begin by becoming a serious student of ____ piano and ____ guitar.

 



Exercise 4 Write the correct article in the space.

1. There are viral and bacterial forms of ____ pneumonia. 2. ____ bubonic plague is spread by a kind of flea. 3. ____ diphtheria is a childhood disease. 4. ____ mumps is more uncomfortable for adults than for children. 5. ____ influenza is also called ____ flu. 6. ____ measles can be very serious. 7. ____ Lyme disease is spread by the bite of a tick. 8. ____ rabies is one of the most dreaded diseases. 9. ____ typhus has sometimes killed more soldiers in wars than those who died in battle. 10. Do you suffer from ____ malaria? 11. I get fed up when I have ____ cold because my nose goes bright red. 12. What is the best treatment for ____ flu? 13. I took some aspirin for ____ headache. 14. ____leukemia is ____ cancer of the blood. 15. Don’t sit in a draught or you’ll catch ____ chill. 16. She developed ____ stomach cancer a month after the marriage broke up. 17. I hope I haven’t caught ____ hepatitis.

 



Exercise 5 Complete the sentences using names of diseases and the ex­pressions "to have toothache, a headache, a cough, a cold, heart trouble", etc.

1. "What is the matter with Anne?" "She is in bed with ____". 2. "You look pale. What has happened?" "I have ____." 3. "I hear John is in hospital." "Yes, he has ____" 4. Jane has a high temperature. I'm sure it is ____. 5. George has a bad cough. I'm sure it is ____. 6. Mary doesn't feel well after ____. 7. I don't feel well. I'm afraid I've caught ____. 8. Henry was taken to hospital with acute ____. 9. I'm afraid Anthony has fallen ill. It must be ____. 10. Sam was suddenly taken ill last month. It was ____. 11. I must see a dentist, I have terrible ____. 12. "Why hasn't Tom come?" "He is down with ____".

 



Exercise 6 In the sentences below, only one of the underlined noun groups is appropriate. Cross out the one that is wrong.

1. After a while, Maria came in, her hair/the hair freshly combed. 2. Bess kissed her on her cheek/the cheek. 3. The Baron leaned forward and looked her in the face/her face. 4. He put his hand/the hand on the shoulder/her shoulder. 5. She leaned close to him, resting her cheek/the cheek against his. 6. She slipped her arm/the arm under his and gave him a nudge. 7. The General had a pistol in the hand/his hand. 8. I kicked him hard on the leg/his leg. 9. He could have shot me in the foot/my foot. 10. Wear a hamlet when you play baseball in case you get hit on your head/the head by the ball. 11. She left the room, the face/her face red with anger. 12. After the earthquake, our hearts/the hearts went out to the families of the victims. 13. I fell down and broke the arm/my arm when I was nine years old. 14. The doctor gave me an injection in my arm/the arm. 15. The outlaw shot the sheriff in his back/the back.

 



Exercise 7 Supply the required articles, paying special attention to the nouns bed, table.

1. They were discussing it after ____ supper, when ____ children were in ____ bed. 2. ____ room was in ____ darkness. I dimly perceived ____ bed in ­____corner. 3. ____ doctor shrugged his shoulders and sat down beside ____ bed. 4. He would pile ____ journals and ____ newspapers, ____ books and ____ pamphlets on ____ bed, ____ table and ____ spare chairs. 5. When he finished at ____ midnight, too exhausted to read any further, he went to ____ bed. 6. ____ bed itself was wide and high. 7. His aunt urged that he should be sent to ____ bed on the spot. 8. I turned toward my own room where I assumed ____ bed would have been made up for me. 9. He worked hard and often got out of ____ bed at ____ night to make sure that he had written ____ point down. 10. I swung my feet off ____ bed. 11. In ____ few minutes she went to ____ bed. 12. I pushed off ____bedclothes and sat on ____ side of ____ bed. 13. She sat down beside ____ table and began clipping ____ stalks of ____ flowers. 14. He would not argue with ____ guest at ____ table. 15. We sat at ____ kitchen table talking about ____ things. 16. Tom, who was reading at ____ small table near him, looked up. 17. There used to be ____ table near the window.

 



Exercise 8 Supply the required articles, paying special attention to the nouns school, hospital.

1. Mr Peck came in. He taught us ____ algebra and ____ geometry; he was ____ man about fifty-five who had spent his whole life at ____ school. 2. This talk went on throughout ____ drive back to ____ school. 3. Paula taught Greek and Latin at ____ local school. 4. In fact, though clever, he was idle at ____ school and far from bookish. 5. ____ fees at ____ secondary school were ____ three guineas ____ term. 6. In ____ morning I went as usual to ____ school. 7. He went to ____ school to speak to ____ head-master about his son. 8. He's in ____ hospital with ____ couple of ____ ribs. 9. He lives in one wing of ____ house, and has turned the rest into ____ hospital. 10. After ____ lunch Dr. Raily went off to ____ hospital. 11. She had met his father when he was captured and brought to ____ Austrian hospital where she was ____ nurse in ____ First World War. 12. She told me that for ____while she had worked in ____ hospital. 13. On ____day he was due to attend ____ hospital she secretly phoned his doctor. 14. They had ____ hospital in ____ town during ____ war. 15. Doctor Huger is ____ best man for you but he's at ____ hospital doing ____ emergency operation. 16. He is in ____ hospital and his condition is reported as being serious.

 



Exercise 9 Supply the required articles, paying special attention to the nouns church, town.

1. St. Peter's is ____ church often chosen by ____ fashionable people for ____ funerals and ____ weddings. 2. They stood for ____ moment, and then all together slowly moved towards ____ church. 3. "Do you go to ____ church?" "Occasionally." 4. I could see from ____ car ____ church on ____ sharply rising slope. 5. About half past ten ____cracked bell of ____ small church began to ring. 6. They rode in ____ silence for ____ moment, ____ church disappearing behind them. 7. "Bertie," she said to my father, "I shall go to ____ church this morning." 8. She was dressed for ____ church. 9. I'll drive you to ____ town this morning. 10. We decided to spend ____ summer in ____ sea-side town. 11. They lived in ____ same part of ____ town. 12. ____ town was not large enough for one to stay anonymous. 13. When will you drive back to ____ town? 14. Blairhill was ____ ancient town with ____winding alleys and ____ old marketplace. 15. I walked with him through ____ town. 16. I'm afraid you can't see Father today; he's out of ____ town. 17. My Aunt Milly was well known all over ____ town.

 



Exercise 10 Insert the right article.

1. He is ____ local priest in ____ Anglican church. 2. ____ church has a wonderful porch at the front. 3. His parents go to ____ church now and then. 4. Bruce was in ____ town with his wife to promote the film. 5. The market is an exciting and colourful part of ____ town, full of noise and bustle. 6. This is ____ small town, everybody knows everybody. 7. She went to ____ town where her aunt lived. 8.____ school was a very happy time. 9. I left ____ school exactly ten years ago. 10. We met every day after ____ school. 11. This is ____ school with more than one thousand pupils. 12.____ school was built in 1909. 13. Criminals are kept in ____ prison. 14. ____ prison was surrounded by a brick wall. 15. ____ prison is not the answer to many social problems. 16. Ben was taken to ____ hospital with appendicitis. 17. There is a well-equipped laboratory at ____ hospital. 18. Melanie went to ____ bed but couldn't fall asleep. 19. Why do you always put your shoes under ____bed? 20. Doctors advise me to sleep on ____ hard bed. 21. He went to ____ University to get education. 22. There is ____ university in this small town. 23. There is no place like ____ home.

 



Exercise 11 Insert the definite article or a possessive pronoun.

1. She waved ____ hand in a farewell gesture. 2. The author took the actress by ____ hand and led her across the stage to the foot-lights. 3. With ____ hair hanging in plaits down ____ back she could pass for a girl of sixteen. 4. His friend pulled him, out of the water by ____ hair. 5. The man was shaking the boy by ____ shoulder as if he was trying to shake ____ life out of him. 6. He crossed the street with ____ little brother on ____ shoulders. 7. Bill grabbed ____ shoulder and was steering her out of the room. 8. Hearing these words, the angry man became red in ____ face. 9. Doris walked over to ____ father, turned ____ face and let him kiss her on ____ cheek. 10. The teacher took Tom by ____ ear and bore him across the classroom to ____ former seat. 11. Approaching the sick boy, the doctor put ____ hand on the child's head, then felt ____ pulse and gravely shook ____ head. 12. She felt ridiculous to be patted on ____ head like a little girl. 13. He felt the hot pavement through ____ soles of ____ thin summer shoes. 14. He patted ____ pockets to see if he had cigarettes, then he remembered that Pat had taken ____ cigarettes. 15. He was wounded in ____ knee.

 



Exercise 12 Complete these statements about English grammar.

1. The word “the” is called _____.

2. “ Children” is _____ of “child”

3. “Can” is _____ in “I can do it”, but in “I hate drinking lemonade from a can” it is _____.

4. “A” and “an” are the two forms of _____.

5. After “news” you should use a verb in _____; for example, “the news is interesting”.

6. “Sang”is _____ of “sing and “sang” is _____.

 



Exercise 13 Complete the sentences below using these words with appropriate article if necessary. You will need to use some of the words more than once.

newspaper papers phone post radio telephone television

 



1. If you go sailing you should listen to weather reports on _____. 2. Children spend too much time watching _____. 3. The Times is _____ with a long tradition. 4. Before the days of television, people used to listen to _____. 5. Nowadays it’s possible to buy _____ which you can speak into without lifting the receiver. 6. We bought _____ with a 21-inch screen. 7. This letter is for you; it came in _____ this morning. 8. I’ll send you a letter; it’s best not to talk about such things on _____. 9. Don’t believe everything you read in _____.

 



 



Exercise 14 Insert articles where necessary, paying attention to the names of languages and religions.

1. _____ Buddhism is practices by millions of people. 2. _____ English spoken in America is only a little different from _____ British English. 3. _____ Urdu is the official language of Pakistan. 4. _____ Spanish in the movie I saw last week was poorly pronounced. 5. Many wonderful works of literature are written in _____ Spanish language. 6. _____ Hindu religion is one of the world’s oldest. 7. _____ English of Shakespeare’s time was quite different from _____ English of today. 8. _____ English is the most widespread language. 9. _____ Shinto religion is a native religion of Japan. 10. _____ Spanish is a very popular language for American college students. 11. _____ French that Canadians speak is somewhat different from _____ French used in France. 12. _____ Filipino is the native language of _____ Philippines. 13. What is _____ Chinese for “weather”?

 



Exercise 15 Fill in the gaps with one of the words from the list adding articles where necessary.

 



prison, country, jungle, desert, seaside, school, mountains, bed, seaside, hospital, plains

 

1. The minute we reached the beach, the children ran into ____ to swim. 2. My brother is in the navy. He is at ____ for months sometimes. 3. I usually go to ____ at about 11 pm to get a good night's sleep. 4. The cat is sitting on ____. 5. The Prime Minister visited ____ yesterday and talked to the prisoners. 6. The men who robbed the bank are in____ now. 7. The ambulance took the injured people to____. 8. I must go to ____ to visit my aunt. She's had an operation. 9. We saw the children in their classrooms as we walked past ____. 10. I want to go to university when I leave ____. 11. Gorillas can only be found deep inside ____. 12. Finland is ____ that is famous for its lakes. 13. Lions are often called 'kings of ____' although in fact they live on ____. 14. Camels have been called 'ships of ____'. 15. I prefer living in ____; it's quieter than the town. 16. When we were kids we loved the beach so we used to spend all our holidays at ____ but now we prefer ____ especially the Alps.

 



Exercise 16 Translate into English.

1. Де мати? – Вона пішла на ринок купувати овочі. 2. Я не знав, що неподалік від нашого будинку знаходиться ринок. 3. Ринок був зачинений, тому ми пішли до магазину. 4. Вправу №5 ми зробимо в класі, а цю вправу ви зробите вдома. 5. Клас був великою світлою кімнатою з трьома вікнами. 6. Цього року я вперше був у таборі. 7. Табір розташовувався у лісі. 8. Пораненого відправили у шпиталь. 9. Моя сестра закінчила медичний університет і зараз працює і шпиталі. 10. Ми вирішили зустрітися після школи. – Де? – Біля входу до школи. 11. Значна частина території Голландії – це земля, яку люди відвоювали біля моря. 12. Щодня після школи Біллі ходить до гаражу допомагати брату. 13. Пружини ліжка були зроблені з важкого металу. 14. Дитина виросла. Їй треба купити нове ліжко. 15. Вона працює в англійській спеціалізованій школі. 16. Я не можу дочекатися моменту, коли я закінчу школу. 17. Граф Монтекристо провів у в’язниці багато років. 18. Він прорив підземний хід під тюрмою та втік. 19. Усі мають піти до лікарні на медичний огляд. (check-up). 20. За шпиталем є невеликий садок.

 



Exercise 17 Translate into English.

1. Вона лягла спати о 3 годині ранку і тому прокинулася з головним болем. 2. Чому ви так пізно повернулися з міста? 3. Жінка підійшла до ліжка і накрила дитину ковдрою. 4. Вона почувала себе погано, тому весь день провела у ліжку. Вона не хотіла лягати у лікарню. 5. Сьогодні мені треба піти до школи на батьківські збори. 6. Я провела усе літо в місті, тому, що ми не маємо власного будинку за містом. 7. Коли моя сестра закінчила школу, вона вступила до університету. 8. Ми провели декілька днів у маленькому містечку в Карпатах. 9. Ми живемо на дачі, але часто приїжджаємо до міста. 10. Хоча Джек був невинний, його кинули за грати. Він просидів у тюрмі три роки. 11. Ми випадково зустрілися в місті. 12. Мій син хоче поступити в коледж. 13. Містечко дедалі стає все більше і людям необхідна нова церква. 14. У неділю моя бабуся ходить до церкви. 15. Навчання починається через тиждень. Літо так швидко промайнуло. 16. Вони обвінчалися у церкві. 17. Церква стояла на пагорбі.

 



Exercise 18 Translate into English.

1. Лікар сказав, що в неї апендицит і що її треба оперувати. 2. Біллі, який виглядав хворим, поскаржився на головний біль, пішов у ліжко. 3. Насправді Дік був хворий на гепатит 4. Я дуже втомився, в мене болить вухо. 5. Був початок літа, коли Джулія вирішила поїхати за місто, але у Роджера боліло горло, тому поїздку довелося відкласти. 6. Після вечері Джорж взяв банджо і хотів зіграти на ньому, але Харрис запротестував.

Він сказав, що в нього болить голова. 7. Вона зараз дуже хвора. В неї висока температура і болить горло. В неї ангіна. 8. Я зателефонувала лікарю, який відразу й прийшов і поставив діагноз. В мого брата був звичайний грип. 9. Якось в мене була простуда, але я цього не знала і продовжувала купатися в річці. 10. Три дні тому в нього був серцевий напад. 11. Він помер сьогодні у лікарні від пневмонії. 12. Я застудилася у літаку, тому коли ми приземлилися, я чихала, кашляла та відчувала озноб. 13. Після дифтериту він сильно схуд і відчував слабкість. 14. Після того як він на вулиці впав, він відчував страшний біль у спині. 15. Не пригощайте його тістечками. В нього діабет. Йому не можна солодкого. 16. Свинка – це дитяча хвороба, яка є дуже неприємною ля дорослих.

 



Exercise 19 Translate into English.

1. Вчора Мартін пішов у театр. Вистава йому дуже сподобалась, але у театрі було так холодно, що він застудився. 2. Анастасія Волочкова - одна з найяскравіших зірок сучасного балету. 3. Навіть найбільш віддані прихильники її творчості не назвали б її постанову великим витвором оперного мистецтва. 4. Коли я у Лондоні, я завжди намагаюсь відвідати театр, оперу та балет. 5. Не всі діти можуть оцінити оперу та балет. Їм більше подобається театр, особливо дитячий. 6. Мій брат намагається ходити у кіно хоча б раз на тиждень. Зазвичай він відвідує кінотеатр, що знаходиться неподалік його школи. 7. Моя подруга працює на радіо. 8. Я завжди слухаю радіо, коли за кермом. 9. Що сьогодні по телевізору? 10. В наш час багато драматургів пишуть вистави для телебачення, а не для театрів, тому що телебачення має здатність зібрати набагато більшу аудиторію глядачів. 11. Сучасна молодь надає перевагу кіно а не театру. 12. В пресі завжди можна знайти цікаву інформацію. 13. Що повідомляють газети? 14. Я чув, як вона виступала по радіо. 15. Ми спробували зв’язатися з ним по телефону. 16. Його сестра весь час сидить на телефоні (розмовляє по телефону). 17. Я надішлю вам ці книжки поштою. 18. Пошта – це дуже важливий засіб зв’язку. 19. Мама попросила мене купити газети.

 



Exercise 20 Translate into English.

1. Це іменник, а не означений артикль. Це дієслово. Це перехідне дієслово. Перехідне дієслово „to translate” у цьому реченні уживано у не означуваному майбутньому часі в активному стані. Це дієслово виконує в реченні синтаксичну функцію присудка. Прикметник як правило виконує функцію означення, або предикативу. 2. Містер Сміт дуже добре грає на фортепіано. Колись у дитинстві він ще вчився грати на скрипці. Зараз містер Сміт знов дуже зацікавився скрипкою. Він збирається брати уроки музики і навіть придбав дуже дорогу скрипку. Крім того, він купляє записи різних музичних творів для скрипки і постійно слухає їх. 3. Мій батько тяжко захворів, тому зараз він лежить у лікарні. Щодня мама та я ходимо у лікарню провідувати його. Доречи, я познайомився з дівчиною, яка працює в цій лікарні рентгенологом. Три роки тому вона закінчила університет. У лікарні в неї багато роботи. Вона починає роботу о 9 годині ранку і закінчує лише о 4 годині пополудні. Зазвичай після роботи вона йде до дому. По дорозі до дому вона робить покупки у найближчому супермаркеті, що знаходиться у п’яти хвилинах ходи від її будинку.

 



Exercise 21 Translate into English.

1. Як сказати французькою „мама”. 2. Я збираюся піти на пошту відправити листа та посилку. 3. Повітря у селі набагато чистіше ніж у місті. 4. Він займається перекладами з німецької. 5. Ви прослухали концерт для фортепіано з оркестром. 6. Мені не вистачає часу, щоб доїхати до лікарні на автобусі. – Візьми таксі. 7. Неозначуваний артикль має дві форми. 8. Не забудь. Ти маєш піти до банку і взяти гроші. 9. Я хочу навчитися грати на саксофоні. 10. Швидше сідай в автобус! Він зараз поїде. 11. Моя бабуся намагається не їздити в метро. Вона надає перевагу автобусам та тролейбусам, бо в метро в неї дуже болить голова. 12. Я не дуже розумію англійську, якою він розмовляє. Напевно в нього проблеми з вимовою. 13. ЇЇ брат вчора впав та пошкодив руку. 14. Він взяв її за руку і вони пішли гуляти. 15. Наш батько більш за все любить відпочивати у горах, а мама – на морі. 16. Ми були дуже задоволені, коли після виснажливої подорожі у відкритому морі ми нарешті побачили землю. 17. Соня пішла до перукарні зробити гарну зачіску. 18. Мати лагідно доторкнулася до мого плеча і сказала: „Не хвилюйся”. 19. Індуїзм дуже широко поширений в Індії. 20. Латинь – основа багатьох мов. 21. Він перекладач з голландської на англійську. 22. Вона викладає українську літературу, точніше, українську літературу XIX століття.

 



 



Unit 13


Date: 2015-01-11; view: 427


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