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USE OF ARTICLES WITH NAMES OF PERSONS

 

NO ARTICLE

1. with names of persons: Mary is nice.

2. with nouns denoting military ranks & titles as “ academician, professor, doctor, count, lord” followed by names of persons: Doctor Ben

3. nouns expressing relationships followed by names of persons: Aunt Maria is in hospital now.

4. names of persons modified by the adjectives “old, young, poor, dear, honest, lazy, little”: Little Kitty was sitting on the sofa.

A/AN

1. when a representative of the family is taken: She will never be a Jackson.

2. with names of persons used as common nouns: You are a real Othello.

3. in the structure “ a certain + names of persons”: A certain Mr. Johnson is waiting for you.

 

THE

1. with the names of the whole family: The Blacks are sitting at the table.

2. names of persons modified by a particularizing attribute: You are not the Andrew Madison I married.

3. with common nouns denoting profession followed by names of persons: The painter Vasnetsov left many fine pictures.

4. names of persons modified by other adjectives except “old, young, poor, dear, honest, lazy, little”: The astonished Tom couldn’t say a word.

ABSTRACT NOUNS

The Zero Article:

1)when the noun is used in a general sense: Knowledge is power. She teaches history at school.

2)when the noun is modified by an attribute in pre-position: English literature, Russian art, Soviet music.

BUT: The English literature of the XIX century.

The:

1)in its specifying meaning, when the noun:

a)is made definite by the situation: Yesterday I heard Carmen and enjoyed the music.

b)is modified by a limiting attribute: We study the history of the Middle Ages.

 

A/an:

1)when the noun is modified by a descriptive attribute, which makes the description more vivid (typical of literary style):

e.g. We are living a new life.

NOTE: when the attribute doesn’t bring out a special aspect of the notion, there’s no article at all. Such attributes may express degree (GREAT, ENDLESS, MAJOR); reference to time (MODERN, ETERNAL, DAILY, FINAL), nationality (ENGLISH), geography (MOSCOW, WORLD, LONDON), social characteristics (RELIGIOUS, BOURGEOIS), authenticity (REAL, GENUINE, SYMBOLIC).

2)It + is/was +pleasure, relief, comfort: It’s a pity

3)in exclamatory sentences: What a shame! (pity, disgrace)

4)when the noun denotes a certain kind of quality, feeling, state, etc.; usually preceded by an adjective: He received a very good education.

5)with the nouns “PERIOD, POPULATION, DISTANCE, HEIGHT, SALARY, etc.” followed by [of+numeral+noun]: He was out of the city for a period of 5 days.

NB: the following nouns never take the indefinite article:

● ADVICE, ADMIRATION, APPROVAL, APPLAUSE, PROGRESS, BREEDING, PERMISSION+ CHANGE, FUN, HEALTH, LUCK, MONEY, NATURE, NEWS, SPACE (OUTER), WEATHER

6). with “CERTAIN” and “PECULIAR”: The girl interrupted him with a certain impatience in her voice.

NB: some nouns may function as both countable and uncountable and there’s always difference in meaning: It was hard work. – It was a work of art.



Such nouns are:


THE USE OF ARTICLES WITH GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES

CITY GEOGRAPHY

names the --
Streets, squares, parks BUT! The Mail, the Strand, the High Street Tverskaya Street, Regent Street, Fifth Avenue, Manezh square, Gorky Park
Theatres, concert halls, galleries, cinemas, hotels, palaces, restaurants, cafes, bars The Bolshoi Theatre, the Art Theater, the Hermitage, the National Gallery, the Kodak, the Continental, the Winter Palace BUT! Covent Garden, Grand Opera, Buckingham Palace
Famous works of art, unique books The Great Pyramid, the Mona Liza, the Koran, the Bible ----------------------------------------------------------
Airports, stations, bridges BUT! The Brooklyn Bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge, the Bridge of Sighs Heathrow Airport, Vnukovo, Victoria station, Taganskaya station, Tower bridge
Schools, colleges, universities BUT! The Sorbonne Richmond Grammar school, Carnegie College, Oxford University, Moscow University
Compare: London University — the University of London ( the official name)
Churches, cathedrals --------------------------------------------------------- Trinity Church, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Westminster Abbey
Ships, yachts, famous trains The Magnolia, The Victoria, the Titanic ----------------------------------------------------------
Political & state institutions, organizations, parties, historical events The senate, the State Duma, The Supreme Court, the Democratic Party, The Gulf War BUT! Parliament, Congress, Whitehall
Newspapers, magazines, press The Times, The Observer, the Financial Times ----------------------------------------------------------
Sport events The Olympic Games, the World Cup BUT! Wimbledon
Music bands The Beatles, the Roling Stones, the Spice Girls (if the noun is used in plural) BUT! Queen, ABBA, Gorky Park

 

WORLD GEOGRAPHY

names the --
Parts of the world, continents, countries, regions, cities, towns, villages 1. if the name contains a proper noun: the Russian Federation 2. if the name contains the words “kingdom, republic, states”: the UK of Great Britain & Northern Ireland, The USA 3. names of countries in plural: the Netherlands, the Philippines 4. regions: the Crimea, the Far East, the Lake District Europe, Asia………………… Russia, Italy, England……………. East Asia, Northern Africa……….. Moscow, Rome London………….
Oceans, seas, channels, peninsulas, gulfs, rivers, lakes, waterfalls, cardinal points The Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the White Sea, the Gulf Stream, the Volga, the Baikal, the Niagara Falls, the north, the south, the east, the west BUT! Lake Baikal (if the name contains the word “lake”) Names of peninsulas & bays: Kola Compare: the Kola Peninsula
Mountain chains, mountain passes, the groups of islands The Urals, the Alps, the British Isles, the Kurilas BUT! Mountain picks & separate islands: Cuba, Elbrus
Deserts The Gobi, the Sahara Desert, the Karakum ------------------------------------------------

SPECIAL DIFFICULTIES IN THE USE OF ARICLES

 

DAY, NIGHT, MORNING, EVENING

-- THE
In set-expressions: by day, at night, from morning till night In the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening
With the words “early, late, broad”: early morning  

 

NAMES OF SEASONS

-- A
When a season shows a certain time of the year: It was spring. When the name of the season modified by a descriptive attribute: It was a cold spring.
With the words “early, late, broad”: early autumn

 

COLLEGE, SCHOOL, BED, PRISON, JAIL, HOSPITAL, CHURCH

-- THE
You can get a proper course of treatment in hospital. When the building or the place is meant: People can visit their relatives in the hospital.

 

TOWN

-- THE/A
When the nearest town is meant or the town we live in is meant: You can’t go to town. In other cases
When the noun town is opposed to the word country: He was not used to country life, he used to live in town.

 

NAMES OF MEALS

-- THE A
In other cases When the definite meal is understood from the context: The dinner we had today was very nice. If there is a descriptive adjective before the meal: We had a heavy breakfast.

 

NAMES OF LANGUAGES

-- THE
If the name does not contain the word “language”: English, German If the name contains the word “language”: the English language

 

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Date: 2015-01-11; view: 98


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