2. with nouns denoting military ranks & titles as “ academician, professor, doctor, count, lord” followed by names of persons: Doctor Ben
3. nouns expressing relationships followed by names of persons: Aunt Maria is in hospital now.
4. names of persons modified by the adjectives “old, young, poor, dear, honest, lazy, little”: Little Kitty was sitting on the sofa.
1. when a representative of the family is taken: She will never be a Jackson.
2. with names of persons used as common nouns: You are a real Othello.
3. in the structure “ a certain + names of persons”: A certain Mr. Johnson is waiting for you.
1. with the names of the whole family: The Blacks are sitting at the table.
2. names of persons modified by a particularizing attribute: You are not the Andrew Madison I married.
3. with common nouns denoting profession followed by names of persons: The painter Vasnetsov left many fine pictures.
4. names of persons modified by other adjectives except “old, young, poor, dear, honest, lazy, little”: The astonished Tom couldn’t say a word.
The Zero Article:
1)when the noun is used in a general sense: Knowledge is power. She teaches history at school.
2)when the noun is modified by an attribute in pre-position: English literature, Russian art, Soviet music.
BUT: The English literature of the XIX century.
1)in its specifying meaning, when the noun:
a)is made definite by the situation: Yesterday I heard Carmen and enjoyed the music.
b)is modified by a limiting attribute: We study the history of the Middle Ages.
1)when the noun is modified by a descriptive attribute, which makes the description more vivid (typical of literary style):
e.g. We are living a new life.
NOTE: when the attribute doesn’t bring out a special aspect of the notion, there’s no article at all. Such attributes may express degree (GREAT, ENDLESS, MAJOR); reference to time (MODERN, ETERNAL, DAILY, FINAL), nationality (ENGLISH), geography (MOSCOW, WORLD, LONDON), social characteristics (RELIGIOUS, BOURGEOIS), authenticity (REAL, GENUINE, SYMBOLIC).
2)It + is/was +pleasure, relief, comfort: It’s a pity
3)in exclamatory sentences: What a shame! (pity, disgrace)
4)when the noun denotes a certain kind of quality, feeling, state, etc.; usually preceded by an adjective: He received a very good education.
5)with the nouns “PERIOD, POPULATION, DISTANCE, HEIGHT, SALARY, etc.” followed by [of+numeral+noun]: He was out of the city for a period of 5 days.
NB: the following nouns never take the indefinite article:
The Beatles, the Roling Stones, the Spice Girls (if the noun is used in plural)
BUT! Queen, ABBA, Gorky Park
Parts of the world, continents, countries, regions, cities, towns, villages
1. if the name contains a proper noun: the Russian Federation
2. if the name contains the words “kingdom, republic, states”: the UK of Great Britain & Northern Ireland, The USA
3. names of countries in plural: the Netherlands, the Philippines
4. regions: the Crimea, the Far East, the Lake District