Main Cases of the use of the Indefinite Article
The Indefinite Article has the following meanings:
1. nominating meaning (we give a name to the object we have in mind):
eg. It’s a bus (not a car).
2. numeral meaning (= the meaning of oneness):
eg. I have a son and a daughter.
3. generalizing meaning (when the noun is used in a general sense and denotes a typical member of class. The article has the meaning of “every”):
eg. A hungry man is an angry man.
4. in the plural no article is used:
eg. Cats are domestic animals.
The Indefinite Article is used:
1) to denote something which has not been mentioned before:
e.g. I’ve just seen a car coming up a driver. There’s a spider in the bus.
2) denotes a noun belonging to a class. It has the meaning of “êàêîé-òî”, “îäèí”, “íåêèé”:
eg. It’s a teenager novel (not for grown-ups).
3) in apposition (ïðèëîæåíèå):
eg. His aunt, an old woman of 56, was also present there.
4) in exclamatory sentences after WHAT, SUCH, RATHER, QUITE:
eg. What a nice girl!
Plural nouns take zero article: eg. What nice girls!
5) with nouns denoting time, measure, weight and with numerals: hundred, thousand, million, dozen, score:
e.g. A week has passed. The case weighs a hundred pounds. We go there twice a fortnight.
6) in the construction “there is / was” and after “It is… This is….” with a singular countable nouns:
eg. There is a book on the table.
7) with professions, trades, occupations: eg. He is a lawyer.
8) in expressions of frequency: e.g. twice a week; fifty pounds a day.
9) to denote two things that are often mentioned together as though they are one thing: e.g. a knife and fork; a cup and saucer.
10) to denote somebody’s name when we don’t know the person:
e.g. There is a Mr. Wilkins to see you.
11) with ordinal numerals in the meaning of «åù¸ îäèí»: e.g. a second cup of coffee.
The Indefinite Article is used in some set expressions:
| a lot of
|| a great deal of,
|| at a speed of
|| at a distance
| a great number of
|| in a loud/low voice
|| at a time when
|| a good deal
| it’s a pity
|| to be in a hurry
|| to have a mind
|| as a rule
| a few/ a little
|| to fly into passion
|| to have a cold
|| at a flash
| all of a sudden
|| as a result of
|| to have a seat
|| in a whisper
| as a matter of fact
|| at a time/ at a glance
|| to take a seat
|| to keep a secret
| for a short/long time
|| to get in a fury/in a rage
|| to have a headache
|| to tell a lie
| it’s a shame
|| to be at a loss
|| to go for a walk
|| to put an end to
| to give a permission
|| to have a good time
|| to have a smoke
|| to give smb a hand
Date: 2015-01-11; view: 262