Content. Introduction..............................................................................................................3 Question 1. The Discovery Of America By Europeans...........................................4 Question 2. Colonization of America by Englishmen (1607-1775)........................5 Question 3. Thirteen colonies..................................................................................6 Question 4. Preconditions of war for independence................................................7 Question 5. The first continental Congress..............................................................8 Question 6. The establishment of institutions..........................................................9 Question 7. Civil war (1861-1865)..........................................................................10 Question 8. U.S. involvement in the First world war, 1917-1918 ..........................11 Question 9. The great depression............................................................................13 Conclusion ..............................................................................................................15 The list of reference.................................................................................................16
Introduction. Although the USA as an independent state was formed relatively recently, in the Declaration of independence. It is believed that aboriginals came from Asia for thousands of years, in the period from 15 to 50 thousand Years ago, when the place of the modern Bering Strait there was land connecting two continents. Reliable evidence of their presence in the U.S. obtained through the discoveries of artifacts, whose age is about 14 thousand Years. In 1492, the existence of America became known in medieval Europe after Christopher Columbus visited the Islands of the West Indies during his second voyage in 1493 Personally landed on the island of Puerto Rico, currently belonging to the United States. In 1498 voyage to the coast of modern New England made the first British Explorer John Cabot, and in 1513 the Spanish Explorer Juan Ponce de Leon reached the coast of Florida. With the arrival of Europeans began the colonial history of America. Immediately after the War of independence began the expansion of United States westward, supported by the American belief in manifest destiny, by which God predetermined the existence in America of their state on the territory from the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific. The main territory of the United States was formed by 1912, when continental was formed last state, Arizona. By this time the territory of Alaska and Hawaiithe already belonged to the US, but in the States they were accepted into the Union in 1959 The basis of the U.S. Constitution is the text, approved in 1788, which included the United States Declaration of independence. The highest body of authority supporting a constitutional right in the USA, is the Supreme court. Further to the basic law was adopted a number of amendments, which, in particular, was prohibited slavery(the thirteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution, 1865) And granted the right to vote to women (nineteenth amendment, 1920). The prohibition of slavery was a painful process that affected the interests of many citizens and vast regions of the American South, that provoked in 1861-1865.
Question 1. The Discovery Of America By Europeans. According to one theory, the first humans appeared in America 10-15 thousand years ago, once to Alaska across the frozen Bering Strait or shallow. The tribes of the mainland of North America were fragmented and were periodically at odds with each other. The famous Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson discovered America, calling it Vinland. The first visit of America by Europeans did not have an impact on the lives of indigenous people. After the Vikings, the first Europeans in the New World were the Spaniards. In October 1492, a Spanish expedition under the leadership of Admiral Christopher Columbus arrived on 3 ships: niña, Pinta and Santa Maria on the island of San Salvador. In the end of XV — beginning of XVI century there were several expeditions to the regions of the Western hemisphere. Standing in the service of the English king Henry VII Italian Giovanni Cabot reached the coast of Canada (1497-1498.), the Portuguese Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil (1500-1501.), the Spaniard Vasco núñez de Balboa founded the first city on the American continent and reached the Pacific ocean (1500-1513 years), consisting in the service of the Spanish king, Ferdinand Magellan in 1519-1521 he sailed around the America from the South. In Arlington 1507 geographer Martin valdzemyuller suggested to call the New world America in honor of Florentine Explorer Amerigo Vespucci. At the same time began the development of the continent. In 1513, Spanish Conquistador Juan Ponce de Leon discovered the Florida Peninsula, where in 1565 appeared the first permanent European colony was founded the city of St. Augustine. By the time when began the colonization of America the British and the French, the Spanish had already firmly established in Florida and the American southwest. The power and influence of Spaniards in the New World began to decline after the defeat in 1588 the Spanish Invincible Armada. During the XVI century, information had been gathered about the new lands, documentary sources have been translated into many European languages.
Question 2. Colonization of America by the English (1607-1775). The first English settlement in America was founded in 1607 in Virginia and was named Jamestown. Trading post, founded by members of the crews of three English ships under the command of captain Newport, at the same time served as an important Outpost on the path of the Spanish advance into the continent. Just a few years, Jamestown became a thriving settlement with its built there in 1609 the plantation of tobacco. By 1620 the population of the village was about 1000 people. European immigrants were attracted to America's rich natural resources faraway continent and its remoteness from European religious dogma and political bias. Exodus to the New world was financed primarily by private companies and persons who received income from transportation of goods and people. In 1606 in England were established the London and Plymouth companies, which engaged in the development of the North-East coast of America. Many immigrants moved to the New world with their families and communities at their own expense. Despite the attractiveness of new lands, in the colonies felt the constant lack of human resources. In late August 1619 in Virginia, arrived a Dutch ship that brought to America, black Africans, twenty of which were immediately bought by the colonists as slaves. In December 1620, on the Atlantic coast of Massachusetts arrived ship "Mayflower" with 102 puritans-Calvinists. This event is considered the beginning motivated the British colonization of the continent. They sign an agreement, called Mayflowers. It reflects in the most General form of the first American colonists on democracy, governance and civil liberties. Later concluded a similar agreement between the colonists of Connecticut, new Hampshire and Rhode island. After 1630 in Plymouth colony — the first colony of New England, later to become the colony of Massachusetts Bay, appeared no less than a dozen small towns, which are settled newly arrived English puritans. Immigration wave 1630-1643, delivered to New England about 20 thousand people, not less than 45 thousand settled in the colonies of the American South or on the Islands of Central America.
Question 3. Thirteen colonies. For 75 years after the appearance in 1607 the first English colony Virginia was founded by 12 colonies — new Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode island, Connecticut, new York, new Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The first colonists of North America did not differ neither uniform religious beliefs, nor the equal social status. For example, shortly before 1775 not less than one third of the population of Pennsylvania was already the Germans ,Mennonites and members of other religious faiths and sects. In Maryland settled by English Catholics in South Carolina settled by French Huguenots. The Swedes settled in Delaware, Polish, German, and Italian artisans chose Virginia. From the number of farmers recruited hired workers. The colonists were often vulnerable to Indian raids, one of which was in 1676 the impetus for the uprising in Virginia known as bacon's rebellion. The rebellion ended inconclusively after the unexpected death of bacon from malaria and penalty 14 of the most active of his associates. Starting from the mid-seventeenth century, great Britain tried to establish full control over economic transactions of the American colonies by implementing a scheme under which all industrial products were imported by the colonies from the mother country in exchange for raw materials and agricultural commodities. The English Parliament considered these successes are so threatening that in 1750 issued a law prohibiting the colonies to build mills and workshops ultrasaline. Foreign trade of the colonies also faced harassment. In 1763, have passed laws on navigation, on which the goods were allowed to import and export from the American colonies only in British courts. In addition, all destined for the colonies the goods were loaded in the UK, no matter where they were transported. Thus the mother country tried to put all foreign trade of the colonies under its control. And that's not counting the many taxes and tax collections on the goods that the colonists imported his own home.
Question 4. Preconditions of war for independence. The second half of the eighteenth century, the population of the American colonies increasingly acted as a community of people who were in confrontation with the mother country. A significant role was played by the development of the colonial press. The first American newspaper appeared in April 1704, and by 1765 there were already 25. Oil to fire was added by the Law about the stamp duty, hard hitting American publishers. Dissatisfaction was expressed and the American Industrialists and the merchants extremely dissatisfied with the colonial policy of the mother country. The presence of British troops (remaining there after the seven years ' war) on the territory of the colonies also caused discontent among colonists. That sounded more requirements on the granting of independence. Sensing the seriousness of the situation, both the Americans and the British bourgeoisie sought a solution that would satisfy the interests of both the metropolis and colonies. So in 1754 on the initiative of Benjamin Franklin was nominated the project for a Union of North American colonies with their own government, but headed by a President, appointed by the British king. Although the project did not provide for full independence of the colonies, in London, he caused a very negative reaction. The spark that kindled the American revolution was the Boston tea party 16 December 1773. Boston and the entire Massachusetts colony, have been considered in Britain "troublemakers". Therefore, the British government took drastic steps to pacify the rebels. The port was blocked until the payment of the municipal authorities compensation for destroyed goods. But punitive action against Boston, not only does not conciliate the rebels, but was all the American colonies urging them to unite together to fight for independence.
Question 5. The first continental Congress. September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia opened the First continental Congress with the participation of 55 representatives of all colonies except Georgia. One of the seven delegates of Virginia was George Washington. During the Congress, which lasted until 26 October, there were formulated the requirements to the metropolis. The Congress produced the "Declaration of rights" contained a statement of the rights of the American colonies to "life, liberty and property", and developed at the same Congress the document "Continental Association" (the Continental Association) authorized the resumption of the boycott of British goods in case of refusal of the British crown to make concessions in its financial and economic policy. The Declaration also expressed the intention to convene a new Continental Congress may 10, 1775 if London will remain steadfast in their intransigence. The response of the metropolis has not kept itself waiting — the king demanded full subordination of the colonies of the British crown, and the English fleet began to blockade the North-Eastern coast of the American continent. General gage received orders to suppress "open rebellion" and to enforce colonies of Repressive laws, resorting if necessary to the use of force. The first continental Congress and especially the reaction of London on his decision clearly demonstrated to the Americans that their strength lies in unity and what to count on the goodwill of the British crown and its condescending attitude to their demands of autonomy should not be. Prior to commencement of active hostilities of the War for independence was less than six months.
Question 6. The establishment of the institutions. Local governments were established in English America during the colonial period. The first common organ of self-government — the continental Congress was convened on the eve of the revolution as a meeting of representatives of separate colonies. During the revolution he was constituted as the legislative Assembly. To the Second Continental Congress convened may 10, 1775, representatives of the local colonial authorities discussed the situation in the result of harsh actions of the British government and British troops, is actually started by this time fighting against militias of colonists. The Congress declared itself the Central government of the colonies, uniting for joint defence against British aggression, and requested the colonial legislative assemblies to develop a local Constitution, providing for their independence from great Britain. General Washington, a charismatic political leader from Virginia, nominated in the period of the Franco-Indian war, was appointed commander of the combined Continental army. In each colony the proportion of the population remained loyal to the Royal government, but the loyalists never had enough influence to control the local authorities. Their actions became the subject of attention from the local security Committees established in accordance with the decisions of the first Continental Congress in 1774, who now fulfilled the functions of temporary Executive bodies of the Congress. The property of loyalists who opposed the revolution, was confiscated, and they fled under the protection of Royal troops. In July 1776 the Congress voted for the Declaration of independence and adopted the Declaration of independence that formed the basis of the Constitution of the new Federal state. After the revolution, other Federal agencies were created as a result of the constitutional reform 1786-1791.
Question 7. Civil war (1861-1865). Politicians unhappy with the law of Kansas-Nebraska, has called for the creation of a new party of northerners. She adopted the name Republican. From the outset within the Republican party there was disagreement about its programs. The conservative wing wanted only to return to the Missouri compromise, while the radicals demanded the cancellation of the fugitive slave act and slavery itself. After the victory of the candidate of the Republicans of Abraham Lincolniana election of 1860, eleven southern States declared secession from the United States, formed a new rebel government, the Confederate States of America. In April of 1861 South Carolina was the first battle in which the armed forces of the Confederacy took control of Fort Sumter, a military base of the Federal army. At first the war was waged with varying success and mainly in the territory of Virginia and Maryland. A fracture has occured in 1864, when Lincoln appointed commander-in-chief Ulysses Grant. The army of Northmen under the command of William Sherman conducted a successful offensive from Tennessee to Atlanta, Georgia, breaking the armies led by Confederate generals Johnston and Hood. During the famous "March to the sea" Sherman's army has destroyed about 20% of all farms in Georgia and reached the Atlantic ocean at Savannah in December 1864 the War ended with the surrender of the army of General Lee in Virginia April 9, 1865
Question 8. U.S. involvement in world war I, 1917-1918. The U.S. immediately expanded the scope of economic and naval assistance to the allies and began preparing the expeditionary force for entry into the fighting on the Western front. According to may 18, 1917 the law of limited military service, the army recruited 1 million men aged 21 to 31 years. Since the beginning of March 1918, the allies kept the Germans ' powerful attack. By the summer, with the support of the American reinforcements were able to deploy a counter-offensive. The U.S. army has successfully operated wedged against Saint-Mielismy force of the enemy and took part in the General offensive of the allied forces. For effective organization of logistics, Wilson took the unprecedented measures of state control over the economy. The law on the Federal control, adopted 21 March 1918, had all the railroads of the country under William McAdoo, and a special military railway administration had to end the competition and ensure strict coordination of their activities. The military industrial office was endowed with extended powers of control over enterprises to promote production and prevent unnecessary duplication. Guided by the law on the control of food and fuel (August 1917), Herbert Hoover, head of the Federal office for control of food, has fixed the price of wheat at a high level and to increase the food supply to the army introduced the so called "betmania" and "bestsennye" days. Harry Garfield, the head of Department for control over fuel, also took tough measures against the production and distribution of fuel resources. In addition to the solution of military problems, these measures have brought considerable benefits to the poor the social sectors particularly to farmers and industrial workers. In addition to large expenditures on the development of its own military machine, the US has made such large loans to the allies that in the period between December 1916 and June 1919 the total debt of the latter (together with interest) increased to 24 262 million. A serious flaw of internal policy of Wilson was his inability to reliably protect civil liberties: war hysteria in the country has resulted in the persecution of Americans of German descent, members of antiwar groups and other dissidents. In January of 1918 Wilson presented to Congress his "14 points" — a common Declaration of purpose of the USA in the war. The Declaration outlined the program of restoration of international stability and called for the creation of the League of Nations. This program is largely dispersed with military objectives, previously approved by the Entente and included in a number of secret treaties. In October 1918 the Central European countries were asked about the world directly to Wilson, over the heads of European opponents. After Germany agreed to make peace on the terms of the program Wilson, the President sent to Europe Colonel E. M. house, to obtain the consent of the allies. House successfully fulfilled his mission and on 11 November 1918 Germany signed an armistice agreement. Despite a preliminary agreement on his terms, variations in the positions of Europe and America pointed to the fact that during post-war negotiations there will be serious contradictions. Another problem was the virtual disintegration of old Europe that promised quick and easy recovery of economic life.
Question 9. The great depression and New deal. The great depression in the USA began with the market crash in late 1929 and continued until entry into world war II. Raskruchivaya deflation has made the production of goods unprofitable. As a result, the production decreased and at the same time sharply increased unemployment, from 3% in 1929 it rose to 25 % in 1933 In the rural areas of the Great Plains were hit by drought, which, coupled with the shortcomings in agricultural practice leading to extensive soil erosion that has caused an ecological disaster. The city for several years was filled in dust storms. The population, deprived of shelter and livelihood in a Dusty boiler, migrated further West, mostly to California, picking up any low-paying jobs and forcing down the level of wages, already low due to the economic crisis. Local authorities sought a way out of the situation in the deportation of illegal immigrants from Mexico. In the American South and the already fragile economy suffered the collapse. Residents of the rural masses migrated to the North in search of work in industrial centers, particularly Detroit. In the Great lakes region farmers, suffering from falling prices on its products, has overwhelmed the courts with cases concerning private bankruptcy. From the US the crisis spread to the rest of the capitalist world. Industrial production declined in the US 46 %, UK 24 %, Germany 41 %, France by 32 %. Stock prices of industrial companies dropped in the US at 87 %, UK 48 %, Germany 64 %, in France by 60 %. The enormous extent of unemployment. According to official statistics, in 1933 in 32 capitalist countries, there were 30 million unemployed, including in the U.S. 14 million. These circumstances demanded state intervention in the economy, the use of methods of state influence on natural processes in capitalist economy to avoid shocks that have accelerated the development of monopoly capitalism into state-monopoly capitalism. In 1933, to power in the U.S. came President Franklin Roosevelt, the democratic party candidate who offered the American people a "new deal", as was later called his policy. The Republicans, who were accused if not at the onset of the economic crisis, the inability to cope with him in the presidential election of 1932 suffered a crushing defeat and for many years have found it impossible to occupy the White house. The success of the New deal was that Roosevelt became the only U.S. President who was re-elected four times in a row, and he remained in power until his death in 1945, Although many of the measures of his administration were subsequently disputed, a number of innovations of this period, for example, the social insurance scheme, the Federal Corporation for Deposit insurance and the Commission on securities and stock exchanges act in the U.S. until now. The most successful initiative of President Roosevelt is considered assistance to the unemployed, which by order of the Federal government was involved grajdanskom the case of environmental protection and other governmental services. Although the measures taken by the Roosevelt administration, prevented a further collapse of production or, at least, eased the economic crisis for the broad masses of the population, eventually the Great depression ended in America only with the outbreak of the Second world war. The administration began financing military orders, while the production of products for civilian use was sharply reduced, and its consumption was quoted. This has enabled the economy to cope with difficulties. Between 1939 and 1944 the production has increased almost twice. Unemployment fell from 14% in 1940 to less than 2 % in 1943, although the workforce has grown by 10 million people.
For the first time in American history, inhabitants in cities became more than in rural areas, which has led to the emergence of urban agglomerations (so-called decline of the rural population in the decade of prosperity amounted to 6.3 million people). By the end of 1929 the USA produced 5.4 million cars annually. The US accounted for 48% of all industrial production of the capitalist world — 10% more than the UK, France, Germany, Italy and Japan combined. The lion's share of production accounted for by large corporations, which can be called the creators of prosperity. Production volume increased by 4.5 times, and total market value has tripled. The U.S. economy were not of a continuing nature: in 1924 and 1927 were minor, short-term decline. But each time the American economy has continued to grow with renewed vigor. However, in 1929 at the end of October began the Great depression and 4 years later the USA were in economic ruins. Life in the credit has not resulted in endless and unimpeded growth. In the banking sector in the 1920s, about 5,000 banks were closed. The level of industrial production fell by a third, unemployment rose by 20 %. The decline in agriculture emerged in 1921. There were problems in the international arena: the insistence from the European powers of debt repayment (in total the Entente countries owed about $ 20 billion), the Americans contributed to the rise of customs duties on European goods. At the same time, in the period of prosperity of such industries as coal, light (footwear, food and textile) industry, the shipbuilding industry is not developed properly. Coal production declined by 30 %. The economic boom led to the crisis of overproduction: by 1929, the market was Packed with a variety of goods, but these goods has not found demand.