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Words to be memorized

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF CHILDHOOD

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic bacteria or other microorganisms that multiply in the body and have a harmful effect on it. These organisms (germs and viruses) are capable of producing poisonous substances, or toxins, that poison the body.

The chief source of infection is direct or indirect contact with the patient himself, the disease being communicated to others either before it has been recognized and the individual isolated, or transmitted after quarantine has been removed.

According to the mode of infection contagious diseases may be classified as:

I. Infectious diseases in which the infecting organism penetrates
through an abrasion or wound of the skin or mucous membranes.
Such are, for example, pyogenic bacteria, causing septicemia,
gonococcus infection, toxemia.

II. Infections caused by the pathogenic microorganisms through
the respiratory tract are: a) diseases due to various types of
streptococci: rheumatic fever, quinzy, scarlet fever; b) diseases due
to filtrable viruses: measles, .mumps, smallpox, chicken-pox, polio­
myelitis.

III. Infections, generally bacterial, disseminated principally by the
intestinal discharges, such as typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera.

In order to identify the causative microorganism bacteriological studies are performed which help to detect such microorganisms by direct examination under the microscope of the patient's blood, urine, stools, sputum or of any pathological material withdrawn from the body. The examination of the exudate on the tonsils, for example, may reveal the presence of the diphtheria bacillus; examination of the sputum may show the tubercle bacillus.

The direct identification of the infecting agent being impossible, the serologic method is used. The latter depends upon the demonstration in the patient's serum of antibodies specific to the suspected disease. Special serologic tests have been -devised for


demonstrating the presence of these antibodies. Among these are hemagglutination (inhibition), complement fixation, antibody neutral­izing, hemadsorption inhibition, and precipitation test. The method of immunofluorescence consisting of detecting specific antigens in the material studied by means of luminescent microscopy has proved of great diagnostic value.

Exercises

I. Translate into Russian the underlined words:

I. The disease can be communicated to other people. 2. Scarlet
fever is a contagious disease. 3. The infecting organism penetrates
through a wound of the skin. 4. Some infections are spread by
the intestinal discharge. 5. The causative microorganisms are
detected by examination of pathological material withdrawn from
the body. 6. For demonstrating the presence of the antibodies
special serologic tests have been devised.

 

II. Check if you remember the meaning of the following words:

Poison; discharge; capable; to multiply; to recognize; to remove; to depend on; to reveal; to suspect; to prove.



 

III. Using the words given below fill in the gaps in the sentences:
1. Influenza is an ... .2. Influenza is .... 3. Children ... with

influenza get treatment at home. 4. The ... agent penetrates through the skin. 5. You may ... the wound if you do not dress it. 6. Pneumonia is an acute ... disease. 7. This ... is transmitted through the air.

Infect, infectious, infection, infecting, infected.

IV. Compare the sentences and say in which way they differ in their sense(translation) and grammatically:

a) Infections caused by the pathogenic microorganisms include
two types of diseases.

b) These infections are caused by the pathogenic microor­
ganisms.

c) Some infections may be caused by viruses.

d) Bacteriological studies performed to detect the causative
microorganism gave positive results.

e) Bacteriological studies were performed in order to detect
the causative microorganisms.

f) Bacteriological studies have been performed in order to
detect the causative microorganisms.

 

'V. Answer the questions on the text:

I. What pathogenicagents can cause an infection? 2. What is the classification î{ contagious diseases based on? 3. What are the ways in which the infecting organism penetrates into the human body? 4. What


methods are used to detect the causative microorganism? 5. What kinds of serologic tests are mentioned in the text?

II

The characteristic feature of acute infectious diseases is their cyclic course. There are clearly defined stages in the course of infectious diseases: incubation (latent period), prodromal period, invasion period, active period, period of decline, convalescence.

The maximum period of incubation (i.e., the time between the date of exposure to the disease and the beginning of clinical manifestations) of some communicable diseases, e.g., chicken-pox, measles, scarlet fever, small-pox, whooping cough, ranges between 7 to 21 days.

In some cases an increased resistance to certain infections can be observed. The capacity possessed by the body for resisting infection is spoken of as immunity.

Immunity may be natural and acquired. Natural immunity to certain infections may be transmitted from parent to offspring. A temporary passive immunity is transmitted from the mother to her infant both through the placental circulation and through the breast milk. Acquired immunity may follow a spontaneous attack of disease, the artificial inoculation of a modified virus, vaccine injections, injections of antitoxic and antibacterial sera.

The most significant primary preventive measure is immunization against contagious diseases. Prophylactic measures applied in early childhood and the preschool ages should be directed at combating acute childhood infections.

The medical science is now armed with reliable weapons for preventing infectious diseases. The treatment of infectious disease includes the methods directed against the causative agent and its toxins, as well as the microbes of the secondary complication (treatment with sera, sulfa drugs, antibiotics), and the methods which favourably influence the reactivity of the organism and the patient's emotional tone (blood transfusion, administration of blood plasma and serum, gamma globulin, physiotherapy, etc.). In addition, the complex of pathogenic therapy includes setting up a hygienic atmosphere for the patient, good care and a proper diet.

Exercises

I. Answer the questions on the text:

1. What are the stages in the course of infectious diseases? 2. What is immunity? 3. What are the kinds of immunity? 4. What is the most significant preventive measure against infectious diseases? 5. What does the treatment of infectious diseases include?


II. Check if you remember the meanings of the following words:

manifestation; inoculation; measure; resistance; to define; to transmit; to combat; to prevent; to acquire.

 

III. Translate the sentences paying attention to the underlined words:

a) A temporary passive immunity is transmitted from the mother
to her infant.

b) Children of the pre-school ages should also be protected
from infections.

c) Immunity may be transmitted from parent to offspring.

IV. Match the Latin words with their English equivalents and translate them into Russian:

L. Casus E. a course

Cursus a case

Causa a cause

V. Finish the sentences according to the following model:

First he looks for somebody and then he ... (to look, for, everybody). First he looks for somebody and then he is looked for by everybody.

1. First the chief nurse instructs the other nurses and then
she ... (to instruct, the doctor).

2. First the manager controls the workers and then he ... (to
control, the director). .

3. First the little boy feeds his dog and then he .. .(to feed,
his mother).

4. The mother looks after her children and when she is ill
she ... (to look after, they).

 

 

Part I

INFLUENZA

Influenza is an acute infectious disease. It is caused by a filtrable virus. The disease spreads very rapidly and affects the adult population and children. The incubation period is 1-3 days. The onset is sudden with a chill, high temperature, bad headache, pain in the eyes, back, joints and muscles. There is also a dry cough. There may be sore throat, sneezing and cold in the head.

The diagnosis is not difficult during an epidemic. With the onset of symptoms the patient must be put in bed. He should stay there until the temperature is normal for at least 3 days. The disease may have numerous and dangerous complications, such as: otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia and so on. In a mild case the recovery is the rule. But during epidemics death may occur.


As to treatment it depends on severity of the disease. Proper nursing, hygiene and diet are very important. The patient's room must be constantly aired. In warm weather the patient may be kept outdoors or in the room with windows wide open all day Patients should always be given plenty of fluid to drink. Such medication as “antigrippin” (a combined anti-influenza medicine), different anti-viral drugs (such as arbidol, remantadin) are used. Herbal and homeopathic remedies can greatly relieve the patient’s condition..

Words to be memorized

Nouns: disease, onset, chill, headache, pain, throat, sneezing, cold, cough, recovery, death, treatment, severity, remedy, case.

Verbs: to cause, to stay, to occur, to depend (on, upon), to air, to relieve, to affect.

Adjectives: acute, dangerous, numerous, mild, proper.

Other words and expressions: as to, at least, such as, and so on, constantly, daily.

Read correctly.

Muscle [m^sl], muscular ['rruskjuld]; influenza ['influ'enza]; homeopathic [‘homie’paeOic]

Exercises


Date: 2016-04-22; view: 267


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