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Why mobile phones are necessary

1 3 You might need to phone home 4 if you miss the bus or something.

Some parents 5 can get really worried if 6 you’re not at home on time.

2 7 Your parents might need to 8 get in touch with you 9 in a hurry.

10 Your uncle or someone like that might have been taken to

hospital or 11 something else might have happened.

Recommendations

Everyone agrees that mobile phones can 12 get on your nerves but they

can come in handy sometimes. We recommend that students should

check the phones are switched off before classes start. 14 Still, 15we

think you should let us bring them to school.

Exercise 6. Look at the following list of tasks. Choose one and write a report. Do not forget to follow all the steps to produce a well-written report.

1) Private educational institutions give more chance for the students.

2) Post-graduated courses will give you much more opportunity to find a job.

3) A repeated change of one’s job broadens one’s outlook.

TIPS FOR SUCCESSFUL WRITING:

1.Reports can serve a wide variety of purposes and so have a number of different formats. Most written reports, however, follow the same basic pattern, regardless of the subject or aim. This pattern is:

1) the preliminary page;

2) the introduction;

3) the body of the report;

4) the conclusion, recommendations or main findings;

5) acknowledgements;

6) appendix.

2. Use a formal style.

3. Plan and organize your information into different aspects using separate paragraphs and corresponding headings.

4. Use appropriate transitional words/ phrases.

5. Beginning reports:

The purpose/ intention/ aim of this report is to … … .

This report contains/ examines/ assesses/ evaluates/ discusses/ presents … … .

This is a report concerning/ regarding the topic/ subject of … … .

As requested, this report … … .

6. Ending reports:

To conclude/ To sum up … … .

In conclusion … … .

I/ We conclude/ recommend/ suggest/ … … .

On the whole … … .

TOPIC 2: SCIENTIFIC PAPER

Exercise 1. Make a list of the words and word combinations you do not know, translate and learn them.

Nouns: scientific paper, format, research, researcher, statement, conclusion, summary, topic, thesis, reference, issue, approach, design, execution, motivation, short-cuts , deviations, plagiarism, argument Verbs: analyze, document, investigate, explain, notice, include, refer, restate, cite Adjectives and Adverbs: valid, particular, concise

Exercise 2. Read and translate the text.

SCIENTIFIC PAPER

A scientific paper is a written and published report describing original research results. In many ways it is an effort to answer a question or a series of questions. From this the researcher forms a main idea (that is, a thesis) on which to base the writing of the paper. So a scientific paper is a form of writing based upon a thesis supported by facts, figures, statistics, and other writers’ carefully documented ideas. Its purpose is to analyze and interpret information while making valid conclusions based upon the research and to inform an audience of other scientists about an important issue and to document the particular approach which was used to investigate that issue.



A well-written scientific paper explains the scientist's motivation for doing an experiment, the experimental design and execution, and the meaning of the results. Scientific papers are written in a style that is clear and concise. Remember that to write a scientific paper you must: 1) Rely on more than your own personal opinions and experiences. 2) Choose a topic and explore it. 3) Make an argument. Select the supporting details, facts and statistics. 4) Bring a conclusion. 5) Always ask you instructor for make sure of the direction of your paper before proceeding with the research.

If you have read scientific papers, you will have noticed that a standard format is frequently used. This format allows a researcher to present information clearly and concisely. For this class, you should prepare your paper in the accepted standard fashion. You will learn short-cuts and various deviations from this format with experience.

The following sections should be included in your paper: (1) Introduction; (2) Methods; (3) Discussion; (4) Results; (5) Reference. Other sections can be included as necessary. It is important to understand the differences between sections and to put information in the appropriate location.

Remember to pay attention to issues of plagiarism. When writing a scientific paper you must communicate your own ideas, but you must also include other writers’ and speakers’ ideas. In addition, you will need to refer to facts, figures, statistics, and other information from other sources. Therefore, it is your responsibility to document your writing by making clear which ideas are your own and which ideas belong to others. One useful way to avoid making errors in this regard is to read a section from your source, then restate in writing what you remember of the main points. You would then cite the source of that information in the text.


Date: 2016-04-22; view: 290


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