The adverbial modifier is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies another part of the sentence expressed by a verbal form (finite or non-finite), an adjective or another adverb.
Types of adverbials
1. time and frequency:
It very often rains here in April.
She is to come at 5.30.
2. place and direction:
I found them in the garden.
We went south.
Slowly the great gate descended.
I sat quite silent, watching his face.
We had to come back because of the rain.
I’ve opened the door to let her in.
It was too dark to see anything.
He turned to Margo to find her in conversation with Carol Goldsmit.
I was a little embarrassed by her question.
The job is almost finished.
In spite of all his efforts he failed.
We’ll come earlier if necessary.
But for you I wouldn’t be here at all.
Ex.1. Point out adverbial modifiers in the following sentences. State their types. Translate into Russian:
1. A secretary came running with a frightened expression. 2. Mary descended the slope very easily. 3. The people in the bus remained silent till the end of the ride. 4. In spite of their lively talk each of them had something in reserve. 5. Alfred returned presently with quite a creditable assortment of tools. 6. They were just passing in through a side door. 7. The lady lived in a large gloomy house in one of London's higher class squares. 8. The fire that was merrily burning in the grate attracted the newcomers as a magnet. 9. Bill was much too exhausted from his night vigil to be of any further help. 10. The room was empty save for a small boy playing with his toys in a corner. 11. But for sheer coincidence, you would hardly be likely to run across him in this busy place. 12. Caroline, not knowing what to say, looked questioninglyat her companion. 13. The village is large enough to organize a drama society for the young folk. 14. Despite his easy smile, the man was woefully difficult to deal with. 15. The woman cried out in spite of herself. 16. Whatever the circumstances, you must be confident of your just cause, my friends.17. The motorcycle rushed past like a lightning leaving a cloud of smoke and a few stunned passers-by behind. 18. In case of any emergency, press the knob on your right.
The order of adverbial modifiers in end position
Most often, adverbs of manner, place and time go in that order:
Put the butter in the fridge at once, (not … at once in the fridge.)
Let's go to bed early, (not … early to bed.)
I worked hard yesterday.
She sang beautifully in the town hall last night.
UNIT 2. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
Adverbial clauses function as different types of adverbial modifiers and may be introduced by conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs. Asyndetical connection is not typical of them as the meaning of the clause often depends on the conjunction: